Jarana, aka: Jāraṇa, Jaraṇa; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Jarana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

[Jarana in Rasashastra glossaries]

Jāraṇa (जारण):—Thirteenth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Jāraṇa-saṃskāra is mainly used for transmutational alchemical purposes. In other words: the last ten saṃskāras are sequentially used for the ends of transmutational and elixir alchemy. Jāraṇa refers to the ‘digestion’ or ‘assimilation’ of metals in mercury. Because it issues from a series of operations, jāraṇa comprises the culmination of the four previous alchemical saṃskāras as much as an operation in itself.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Jāraṇa is a phase of an alchemical process, involving the total digestion or assimilation of a metal into the mercury (rasa). Because it issues from a series of operations, jāraṇa may be viewed as the culmination of these alchemical saṃskāras as much as an operation in itself. From this point onwards, it becomes quite artificial to distinguish mercury from the metals to be transmuted. Once mercury has digested a given metal, that metal no longer exists per se; rather, it is alchemically activated mercury itself that will become transmuted into silver or gold.

(Source): Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Jāraṇa (जारण, “calcination”) represents to the thirteenth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (eg., jāraṇa) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

(Source): archive.org: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)
Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[Jarana in Ayurveda glossaries]

1) Jāraṇa (जारण) is another name (synonym) for Kāsamarda, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Cassia occidentalis (septicweed). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 4.171-172), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

2) Jaraṇa (जरण) is another name (synonym) for Hiṅgu, which is a Sanskrit name for the plant Ferula assa-foetida (asafoetida). This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 6.72-75), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus. The synonym can also be divided as two separate synonyms, Śūlaghna and Gulmaghna.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Jarana in Marathi glossaries]

jāraṇa (जारण).—n (S) Incantations to produce impotency, diseases, or infirmities.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jāraṇa (जारण).—n Incantations to produce diseases, infirmities &c.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Jarana in Sanskrit glossaries]

Jaraṇa (जरण).—a. [jṝ-lyu]

1) Old, decayed, infirm.

2) Promoting digestion.

-ṇaḥ, -ṇam Cummin seed.

-ṇā1 Old age.

2) Praise.

-ṇam 1 Old age.

2) One of the ten ways in which an eclipse is supposed to end.

--- OR ---

Jāraṇa (जारण).—

1) Causing decay.

2) Oxydizing of metals.

Derivable forms: jāraṇam (जारणम्).

--- OR ---

Jāraṇa (जारण).—[jṝ-ṇic lyuṭ]

1) Causing to decay.

2) Stimulating digestion.

3) Calcining or oxidizing metals.

4) A condiment.

Derivable forms: jāraṇam (जारणम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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