Japa: 35 definitions


Japa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Jaap.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Purāṇas

Japa (जप) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “the muttering of a mantra”. It is used throughout vedic and purāṇic literature.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Japa (जप).—A group of Gods (devas) of the third Manvantara (age of Manu). In that Manvantara the Manu was Uttama, Indra was Suśānti, and the Devagaṇas (groups of gods) were Sudharmas, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas, and Vaśavartins, the five groups, each consisting of twelve members. (See under Manvantara).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Japā (जपा) refers to the “China rose”, which is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] the worship with Japā flowers (China rose) brings about the death of enemies (śatrumṛtyu). Karavīra flowers drive away all ailments (rogoccāṭa)”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Japa (जप).—A group of gods of Uttama epoch.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 4.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Japa (जप) refers to a “muttering” of mantras; it is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Japa (जप, “recitation”).—There are three kinds of japa: reciting in oneʼs mind,in a low voice, and aloud. The first is applied for śāntika (expelling evil), pauṣṭika (increasing welfare), and mokṣa (liberation); the second for vaśya (controlling others) and ākṛṣṭi (attracting others); the third for minutiae of daily life.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Japa (जप) refers to “recitation”, according to the Kiraṇatantra chapter 49 (dealing with vratacaryā).—Accordingly, “Garuḍa spoke: ‘You have taught me, O great Lord, the activities of the Neophyte, the Putraka and the Ācārya. Tell me those of the Sādhaka’. The Lord spoke: ‘The excellent Sādhaka [should be] full of sattva, firm, capable of endurance, his mind fixed on [his] mantra, unassailable, of great wisdom, looking impartially on mud, stones and gold engaged, regular in [the performance of] oblations, always devoted to recitation (japa) and meditation (dhyāna), dexterous in the dispelling of obstacles, firm in [the practice of his] religious observance, calm, pure. [...]’”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

1) Japā (जपा) refers to the “sacred tree” [?], according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.7cd-17ab, while describing the worship of Bhairavī and Bhairava]—“[...] One should always worship [in times of] peace and prosperity, to suppress sickness and vice, [which are] the root cause of wasting away, [and] for the protection of cows, Brahmins, and men. One meditates on [Bhairava] as having equal radiance to snow, jasmine, the moon, or pearls. [He is] as clear as the curved moon and similar to immovable quartz. [He is] clear like the burning of the end of time, resembles a flower on the sacred tree (japā-kiṃśuka-saṃnibha), appears red like innumerable suns or, rather, red like a lotus. [...]”.

2) Japa (जप) refers to “reciting mantras”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.13-16, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[...] [A dreamer] sells costly meat and partitions the sacrificial victim for the gods out of respect. [The fortunate dreamer] worships the god with his own self and also recites mantras (japa), meditates, and praises. Then he observes before his own eyes a beautiful honored blazing fire [i.e., he is prepared to take part in ritual]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics

Japā (जपा) or Jāsuda refers to Hibiscus rosa sinensis and is the name of a medicinal plant dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs (viz., Japā-puṣpa) during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Japa (जप) refers to “the chanting of the holy name on a garland of 108 prayer beads”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Japa (जप) refers to:—Loud chanting or soft utterance of the holy name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa to oneself. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Japa (जप) refers to:—Meditation in the form of uttering a mantra to oneself; often referring to the practice of chanting the holy name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa on tulasi beads. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Japa (जप) refers to “repeating a mantra”, according to the Kulārṇavatantra 9.36.—Accordingly: “A hymn is equal to ten million acts of worship; repeating a mantra (japa) is equal to ten million hymns; meditation is equal to ten million repetitions of a mantra, and absorption is equal to ten million meditations”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (shaktism)

Japa (जप) refers to the “proper repetition (of Mantras)”, according to the 17th century Kaulagajamardana (“crushing the Kaula elephant”) authored by Kāśīnātha or Kṛṣṇānandācala.—Accordingly, [as Īśvara said to Pārvatī]: “[...] [Now,] my dear, hear about the Kāpālika. He eats from a skull bowl and is addicted to wine and flesh; he neglects the disciplines of purification and he is adorned with a bald head and Mālās; he eats from the fires of the cremation ground; he alone is a Kāpālika, he never does [the proper] repetition (japa) of Mantras, nor ascetic practices nor [follows] the rules of personal restraint. He is without such [rituals] as bathing and ceremonies for donation. [Thus,] he is proclaimed a Pāṣānḍa. [...]”

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Japa (जप) is a Sanskrit term referring to “mantra repetition”.

Source: Google Books: Tantra, Its Mystic and Scientific Basis

When repetition or meditation (japa) of a mantra is coupled with ideation it gives the desired result. The meditational form of a mantra is rhythmic and ideational. It starts with a single note and develops into chord and symphony. When the musical vibration created by the mantra-jap becomes one with the inner cosmic vibration, man hears the hitherto unheard sound of Praṇava and secs the unseen effulgence of Vajra-Sattva. He is lost into the utter state of motionlessness, the tranquil void which is the origin of all waves and vibrations. The process of repetition of a mantra is not mechanical. 

When a mantra is rehearsed over and over again with the ideation of God it produces the spiritual condition essential for the ascent of consciousness. After a long practice and devotion, the meditation of a mantra can be perfected and mastered. The mantra  is not to be read and re-read or to be recited without any esoteric and ethical discipline but it is to be worked out and every devatā must be made a living devatā. The potential power of a mantra is made kinetic when it is vivified and drenched with consciousness and incantation. With the incantation of a mantra, mind becomes pure and sublime, and the Sādhaka penetrates into the mystic and richer realm of consciousness and is united with the Bodhi-citta.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Japa (जप): A spiritual discipline in which a devotee repeats a mantra or the name of God. The repetition can be aloud, just the movement of lips or in the mind.

Source: Sanjay Rath: Maha Mrtyunjaya Mantra

Japa is the repetition of a mantra for a fixed number of times. Normally this is in multiples of 108. Based on the teachings of Harihara in Praśna Mārga, we advise that this mantra should be recited for 8000 times in a period of forty days.

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Japa [जपा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. from the Malvaceae (Mallow) family. For the possible medicinal usage of japa, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Japa in India is the name of a plant defined with Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Hibiscus festalis Salisb. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Vistas in Cytogenetics (1989)
· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1992)
· Taxon (1982)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Blumea (1966)
· Diego Bergano,

If you are looking for specific details regarding Japa, for example diet and recipes, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

japa : (m.) muttering. || japā (f.) China-rose.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Japa, (& jappa vv. ll.) (fr. japati) 1. muttering, mumbling. recitation A. III, 56=J. III, 205 (+manta); Sn. 328 (jappa) (=niratthaka-kathā SnA 334).—2. studying J. III, 114 (=ajjhena). (Page 278)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

japa (जप).—m (S) Repeating, in a muttering manner, passages from the Vedas, charms, names of a god &c.: also counting silently the beads of a rosary. 2 fig. Reiterated mention or expression (of a purpose or desire). v dhara & ghē.

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japā (जपा).—f S Shoe-flower or China rose,--the flower or the plant.

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jāpa (जाप).—m (Corr. from P) An answer. 2 A word uttered, an utterance or expression. 3 An engagement (i. e. a petition or requisition backed with a promise or menace) contracted before an idol.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

japa (जप).—m Repeating in a mattering manner names of a god, also counting silent- ly the beads of a rosary. Fig. Reiterat- ed mention or expression (of a pur- pose or desire).

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jāpa (जाप).—m An answer. An utterance. An engagement contracted before an idol.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Japa (जप).—a. [jap-kartari ac] Muttering, whispering.

-paḥ 1 Muttering prayers, repeating prayers &c. in an under-tone.

2) Repeating passages of the Veda or names of deities &c.; Manusmṛti 3.74; Y.1.22.

3) A muttered prayer.

4) Counting silently the beads of a rosary &c.

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Japā (जपा).—[jap-ac ṭāp] The China rose (the plant or its flower); सान्ध्यं तेजः प्रतिनवजपापुष्परक्तं दधानः (sāndhyaṃ tejaḥ pratinavajapāpuṣparaktaṃ dadhānaḥ) Meghadūta 36; निजदृशा स निपीय जपावलिम् (nijadṛśā sa nipīya japāvalim) Rām. Ch.4.73; जपापुष्पमिव रक्तलोचनः (japāpuṣpamiva raktalocanaḥ) Pratijnā.

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Jāpa (जाप).—[jap-ghañ]

1) Muttering prayers, whispering, murmuring.

2) A muttered prayer.

Derivable forms: jāpaḥ (जापः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Japa (जप).—m.

(-paḥ) Muttering prayers, repeating inaudibly passages from the scriptures, charms, names of a deity, counting silently the beads of a rosary, &c. f.

(-pā) The China rose, the flower or plant; also javā. E. jap to repeat inaudibly, affix karttari ac; the flower is a sacred object.

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Jāpa (जाप).—m.

(-paḥ) Muttering prayers by beads, or reciting passages of the Vedas, &c. inaudibly. E. jap to mutter, &c. affix ghañ, deriv. irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Japa (जप).—[jap + a], m. 1. Muttering prayers, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 74. 2. A prayer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 25, 3.

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Japā (जपा).—f. The China rose, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 8; [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 8.

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Jāpa (जाप).—i. e. jap + a, m. A prayer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 31, 31.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Japa (जप).—[adjective] whispering, muttering; [masculine] muttering prayers, a muttered prayer or spell.

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Japā (जपा).—[feminine] the China rose.

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Jāpa (जाप).—[masculine] muttering ([especially] prayers).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Japa (जप):—[from jap] mfn. ‘muttering, whispering’ See karṇe-, ku-

2) [v.s. ...] m. ([Pāṇini 3-3, 61]; oxyt. [gana] uñchādi) muttering prayers, repeating in a murmuring tone passages from scripture or charms or names of a deity, etc., muttered prayer or spell, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa ii, 38; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Nirukta, by Yāska etc.]

3) Japā (जपा):—f. (= javā) the China rose, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xxviii, 14; Brahma-purāṇa ii, 1, 7.]

4) Jāpa (जाप):—m. (√jap) ‘whispering’ See karṇa-

5) muttering prayers, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] a muttered prayer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([Rāmāyaṇa i, 51, 27] for japa; See also jāpya).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Japa (जप):—(paḥ) 1. m. Muttering prayers, &c. f. The China rose.

2) Jāpa (जाप):—(paḥ) 1. m. Muttering prayers.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Japa (जप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Java, Javā, Jāva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Japa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Japa (जप) [Also spelled jap]:—(nm) adoration by way of repeating passages from scriptures, sacred formulae or a deity’s name, etc.; -[tapa] worship, adoration; devotion; ~[mālā] a rosary.

2) Jāpa (जाप) [Also spelled jaap]:—(nm) see [japa].

3) Jāpā (जापा):—(nm) delivery, child birth; ~[ghara] maternity home.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Japa (ಜಪ):—

1) [noun] the act of chanting repeatedly, usu. within, of a hymn, mystic syllables, names of a god, etc. and meditating on it; solemn reflection on sacred matters as a devotional act.

2) [noun] (fig.) a continuous thinking over a desired thing..

3) [noun] ಜಪ ಮಾಡು [japa madu] japa māḍu = ಜಪಿಸು [japisu].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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