Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 10.10.13

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब॒तो ब॑तासि यम॒ नैव ते॒ मनो॒ हृद॑यं चाविदाम । अ॒न्या किल॒ त्वां क॒क्ष्ये॑व यु॒क्तं परि॑ ष्वजाते॒ लिबु॑जेव वृ॒क्षम् ॥
बतो बतासि यम नैव ते मनो हृदयं चाविदाम । अन्या किल त्वां कक्ष्येव युक्तं परि ष्वजाते लिबुजेव वृक्षम् ॥
bato batāsi yama naiva te mano hṛdayaṃ cāvidāma | anyā kila tvāṃ kakṣyeva yuktam pari ṣvajāte libujeva vṛkṣam ||

English translation:

“(Yami speaks). Alas, Yama, you are feeble; we understand not your mind or your heart. Some otherfemale embraces you as a girth a horse, or as a creeper a tree.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Alas! bato batāsi = you are feeble, feeble; thepada text is: bata asi;

Bata = pitiable, anukampyaścāsi, or, alas!


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): yamī vaivasvatī;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): yamo vaivasvataḥ ;
Chandas (meter): svarāḍārcītriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

ब॒तः । ब॒त॒ । अ॒सि॒ । य॒म॒ । न । ए॒व । ते॒ । मनः॑ । हृद॑यम् । च॒ । अ॒वि॒दा॒म॒ । अ॒न्या । किल॑ । त्वाम् । क॒क्ष्या॑ऽइव । यु॒क्तम् । परि॑ । स्व॒जा॒ते॒ । लिबु॑जाऽइव । वृ॒क्षम् ॥
बतः । बत । असि । यम । न । एव । ते । मनः । हृदयम् । च । अविदाम । अन्या । किल । त्वाम् । कक्ष्याइव । युक्तम् । परि । स्वजाते । लिबुजाइव । वृक्षम् ॥
bataḥ | bata | asi | yama | na | eva | te | manaḥ | hṛdayam | ca | avidāma | anyā | k ila | tvām | kakṣyāiva | yuktam | pari | svajāte | libujāiva | vṛkṣam

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 10.10.13 English analysis of grammar]

bato < bataḥ < bata

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine


batāsi < bata



batāsi < asi < as

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“be; exist; become; originate; happen; result; be; dwell; be born; stay; be; equal; exist; transform.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Yama; yama; twin; yam; Yama; two; bridle; yama [word]; Asvins.”

naiva < na


“not; like; no; na [word].”

naiva < eva


“indeed; merely; thus; even; surely; same; eva [word]; successively; immediately; in truth.”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


mano < manaḥ < manas

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“mind; Manas; purpose; idea; attention; heart; decision; manas [word]; manas [indecl.]; spirit; temper; intelligence.”

hṛdayaṃ < hṛdayam < hṛdaya

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“heart; heart; mind; hṛdaya [word]; science; thorax; Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā; soul.”

cāvidāma < ca


“and; besides; then; now; even.”

cāvidāma < avidāma < vid

[verb], plural, Thematic aorist (Ind.)

“find; detect; marry; get; think.”

anyā < anya

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“other; another(a); remaining; different; anya [word]; other than; more(a); fresh; any(a).”



“assuredly; indeed; kila [indecl.].”

tvāṃ < tvām < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular


kakṣyeva < kakṣyā

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine

“girdle; rampart; wall; enclosure; cinch.”

kakṣyeva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

yuktam < yuj

[verb noun], accusative, singular

“mix; use; endow; yoke; accompany; to practice Yoga; connect; hire; administer; compound; affect; add; concentrate; unite; join; prosecute; combine; supply; compound; attach to; appoint; fill; process; mobilize; mount; complement; eat; join; treat; coincide; affect; challenge.”



“from; about; around.”

ṣvajāte < svajāte < svaj

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)


libujeva < libujā

[noun], nominative, singular, feminine


libujeva < iva


“like; as it were; somehow; just so.”

vṛkṣam < vṛkṣa

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“tree; fruit tree.”

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