Arambha, Ārambha: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Arambha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ, “banning”) refers to one of the nine preliminaries performed behind the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. Accordingly, “The commencement of vocal exercise for singing (parigīta) is called the ārambha (lit. banning).”

Performing the ārambha preliminary pleases the Gandharvas. According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to a classification of bahirgīta (“instrumental music”), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Accordingly, “these are called bahir-gītas because they were outside (bahis) the performance of the play and were included in its preliminaries”.

Accordingly, “the constituting syllables in the ārambha are as follows: the first eight heavy, the next twelve and the final one light in the first section, and the four heavy, eight light, one heavy, four light, four heavy in the second section, eight light and the final (light) will form the next section”.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—One of the five stages of action (avasthā);—That part of the play (lit. composition) which merely creates a curiosity about the Attainment of the great Object with reference to the Seed (bīja), is called the Beginning (ārambha).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Ārambha (आरम्भ), “the beginning”, is explained as the determination to perform a certain sacrifice (“darśapūrṇamāsābhyāyṃ yakṣya iti niścayapuraḥsaraḥ saṅkalpaḥ”). The object of the undertaking in the case of the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa sacrifice, as the Prakṛti, is simply svarga, in the Vikṛtis it may be any kind of desire.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “commencement of activities” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the living beings (jīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Ārambha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “excessive infliction of misery” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of infernal life (narakāyu) karmas.

Ārambha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ).—What is meant by commencement (ārambha) of activities? To start performing the activity intended is called commencement of activity.

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ).—One of the two types of narakāyu (infernal life karmas);—What is meant by ārambha? Activity which causes excessive misery and suffering to other living beings is called ārambha.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Arambha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ārambha : (m.) 1. the beginning; 2. attempt.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ārambha, (Sk. ārambha in meaning “beginning”, fr ā + rabh (rambh) cp. ārabhati) — 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs. trsl. 15 & K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, karaṇīya, attha, i.e. 1. undertaking & duty, 2. object) S. I, 76 (mah°); V, 66, 104 sq. (°dhātu); III, 338 (id.), 166 (°ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. ārambhaja to be preferred) = Pug. 64; Miln. 244; Net 41; DhsA. 145. —viriyārambha (cp. āraddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin. II, 197; S. IV, 175; A. I, 12, 16.—2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq. , 107; an° unsupported, independent Sn. 743 (= nibbāna SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, upārambha, sārambha. (Page 107)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ārambha (आरंभ).—m (S) Beginning, commencement; the entering into act or being, or the initial state or portion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārambha (आरंभ).—m Beginning, commencement.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—[ā-rabh-ghañ mum]

1) Beginning, commencement; °उपायः (upāyaḥ) plan of commencement; नृत्तारम्भे हर पशुपते- रार्द्रनागाजिनेच्छाम् (nṛttārambhe hara paśupate- rārdranāgājinecchām) Me.38.

2) An introduction.

3) (a) An act, undertaking, deed, work; आगमैः सदृशारम्भः (āgamaiḥ sadṛśārambhaḥ) R.1.15; Ku.7.71; V.3; Bh.2.69; R.7.31; Bg.12.16. cf. also आरम्भस्य शब्दपूर्वत्वात् (ārambhasya śabdapūrvatvāt) | MS.11.1.1 (śabara writes ārambho vyāpāraḥ kriyetyanarthāntaram |). (b) Preparation; U.4. (c) A thing begun; U.4.

4) Haste, speed, velocity; चण्डारम्भः समीरः (caṇḍārambhaḥ samīraḥ) Ve.2.19.

5) Effort, exertion; Bg.14.12.

6) Scene, action; चित्रार्पितारम्भ इवावतस्थे (citrārpitārambha ivāvatasthe) R.2.31.

7) Pride.

8) Killing, slaughter.

9) The first act that is done.

1) The first movement or activity on the part of man; आरम्भो हि प्रथमः पदार्थः स्यात् । प्रथमं वा पुरुषस्य प्रवर्तनम् (ārambho hi prathamaḥ padārthaḥ syāt | prathamaṃ vā puruṣasya pravartanam) | (= prathamapravartana- mārambhaḥ audāsīnyād vyāvṛttiḥ puruṣasya vyāpṛtatā) ŚB. on MS. 1.14.

Derivable forms: ārambhaḥ (आरम्भः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—(Sanskrit Lex., see [Boehtlingk] 5 App., which follows Zachariae in calling this an error for ālambha, but Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] support it; = Pali id., in mahārambha, = our word, SN i.76.21; not recorded in [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], except in nir-ā°, or Childers), (sacrificial) slaughter (of animals), substan- tially = yajña: Bodhisattvabhūmi 118.2 (kṣudrayajñeṣu ca) manāram- bheṣu ca yeṣu bahavaḥ prāṇinaḥ…jīvitād vyaparo- pyante. Cf. also anārabdha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—m.

(-mbhaḥ) 1. A beginning, a thing begun. 2. Haste, speed. 3. Effort, exertion. 4. Pride. 5. Killing, slaughter. 6. An introduction, a prologue, &c. E. āṅ before rabhi to commence, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—i. e. ā-rabh + a, m. 1. A beginning, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 37. 2. Exertion, effort, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 198, 22. 3. An enterprise, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 30, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—[masculine] undertaking, beginning, [abstract] † [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ):—[=ā-rambha] [from ā-rabh] m. undertaking, beginning, [Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra; Meghadūta] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a thing begun

3) [v.s. ...] beginning, origin, commencement, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Meghadūta] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) the commencement of the action which awakens an interest in the progress of the principal plot, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa 324 and 325]

5) [v.s. ...] haste, speed

6) [v.s. ...] effort, exertion

7) [v.s. ...] pride

8) [v.s. ...] killing, slaughter (erroneous for ālambha See Zachariae, Beiträge, p.20, l. 9), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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