Arambha, Ārambha, Ārambhā: 32 definitions


Arambha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Arambh.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ, “banning”) refers to one of the nine preliminaries performed behind the stage curtain, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 5. Accordingly, “The commencement of vocal exercise for singing (parigīta) is called the ārambha (lit. banning).”

Performing the ārambha preliminary pleases the Gandharvas. According to Nāṭyaśāstra 5.57-58, “The performance of the Preliminaries which means worshipping (pūjā) the gods (devas), is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is conducive to duty, fame and long life. And this performance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the Daityas and the Dānavas as well as the gods.”

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to a classification of bahirgīta (“instrumental music”), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Accordingly, “these are called bahir-gītas because they were outside (bahis) the performance of the play and were included in its preliminaries”.

Accordingly, “the constituting syllables in the ārambha are as follows: the first eight heavy, the next twelve and the final one light in the first section, and the four heavy, eight light, one heavy, four light, four heavy in the second section, eight light and the final (light) will form the next section”.

Source: Natya Shastra

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—One of the five stages of action (avasthā);—That part of the play (lit. composition) which merely creates a curiosity about the Attainment of the great Object with reference to the Seed (bīja), is called the Beginning (ārambha).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Sacred Texts: The Grihya Sutras, Part 2 (SBE30)

Ārambha (आरम्भ), “the beginning”, is explained as the determination to perform a certain sacrifice (“darśapūrṇamāsābhyāyṃ yakṣya iti niścayapuraḥsaraḥ saṅkalpaḥ”). The object of the undertaking in the case of the Darśa-pūrṇamāsa sacrifice, as the Prakṛti, is simply svarga, in the Vikṛtis it may be any kind of desire.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to one of the five stages of the development of the plot of an epic poem (i.e., Kāryāvasthā).

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to the “(yoga of the) beginning”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is a Siddha: “[...] The most excellent characteristic of a Siddha is that he does not fear living beings (sattva). He observes the five-fold Yoga of the beginning [i.e., ārambha], continuity and fulfilment, the innate and the one born from universal being; he sees the omnipresent universe”.

2) Ārambhā (आरम्भा) refers to one of the thirty-two Bhairavīs (also Dūtis) embodying the syllables of the goddess’s Vidyā, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—The thirty-two Bhairavīs [i.e., Ārambhā] are the consorts of the Bhairavas presiding over the sonic energies of the thirty-two syllables of her Vidyā.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Arambha in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to one of the four “states” or “stages” of yoga practice, according to the Amṛtasiddhi, a 12th-century text belonging to the Haṭhayoga textual tradition.—The four avasthās, “states” or “stages” of yoga practice (ārambha, ghaṭa, paricaya, niṣpanna/niṣpatti) introduced in the Amṛtasiddhi (vivekas 19–33), are taught in many Sanskrit Haṭhayoga texts; they are also mentioned in the old Hindi Gorakhbāṇī (śabds 136–139).

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “obligations” (relating to the practice of caste and religious observances), according to the Gorakṣasiddhāntasaṅgraha, a text dealing with Yoga quoting from approximately seventy-two sources including the Amanaska Yoga treatise.—Accordingly, [while describing the true Guru]: “[...] In the Amanaska, [it is said]: ‘Indeed, the guru who has transcended Kaula practices is unique and rare’. Thus, caste and religious observances which are taught, do not exist. The [guru is one who] abandons all obligations (sarva-ārambha-parityāga) in the practice of caste and religious observances [varṇāśramācāre sarvārambhaparityāga iti]. Moreover, the Avadhūta alone is [one who] acts according to his view of the true path. He alone is the guru [who] ought to be adopted by those desirous of liberation”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Kama-shastra (the science of Love-making)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kāmasūtra)

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to the “start” (of the sexual act), according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyana and Jaśodhara’s commentary called the Jayamaṅgalā .—Accordingly, “[Commentary on verse 7.2.2]:—‘about to practice sex’: at the beginning of the sexual act. This is at the start (ārambha) [of the sexual act]. Even if the passion is weak with regards to sex because the penis is inert, first ‘her genitalia’, i.e. her vulva, should be rubbed with his hand, should be stimulated with the ‘elephant trunk’ [method]...”.

Kamashastra book cover
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Kamashastra (कामशास्त्र, kāmaśāstra) deals with ancient Indian science of love-making, passion, emotions and other related topics dealing with the pleasures of the senses.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Gṛhaprāsāda (गृहप्रासाद) refers to the “commencement” (of the division of the sites for buildings), according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] When the division of [the sites for] a house and a shrine with cords has been commenced (ārambha), the wise man [i.e. the officiant] should notice an omen and observe it correctly. [The omens are] seeing [someone or something], announcing [a creature’s name], cries [of animals], and the actions of a donor. [The officiant] should carefully notice an extraneous substance as situated beneath the site. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Catalogue of Pancaratra Agama Texts

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to the “commencement (of festival celebrations)”, as discussed in the tenth chapter [first book] of the Jñānāmṛtasārasaṃhita: a Pāñcarātra text representing a sectarian glorification of Kṛṣṇa and Rādha (i.e., the cult of Radha-Krishna) dated among the latest of the Saṃhitā-type works.—Description of the chapter [mahotsava-ārambha]: [...] In course of the chapter (74 ff.) there is a digression within a digression concerning different types of pāpa-sins ; as well, a celebration is recalled during Nārada’s former birth that honours his father for having praised Kṛṣṇa (1-91).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “undertakings”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Through these ten immeasurables (apramāṇa), son of good family, the Bodhisattva completes the accumulations of merit (puṇya-saṃbhāra). [...] Through those ten immeasurables, son of good family, the Bodhisattva accumulates the collection of merit. Furthermore, son of good family, when the thought of the Bodhisattva becomes like open space, all his undertakings (sarva-ārambha) are infinitely established everywhere since open space is infinite, and thus it is called merit like open space”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “commencement of activities” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the living beings (jīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Ārambha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “excessive infliction of misery” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of infernal life (narakāyu) karmas.

Ārambha is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ).—What is meant by commencement (ārambha) of activities? To start performing the activity intended is called commencement of activity.

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ).—One of the two types of narakāyu (infernal life karmas);—What is meant by ārambha? Activity which causes excessive misery and suffering to other living beings is called ārambha.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to the “origins (of a house)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Fool, you must understand, in reality, substance is not acknowledged in a mass of foam, the trunk of a plantain tree or in the body of human beings. [com.—or (athavā) in an example (dṛṣṭānte) like this. The origins of a house (gṛhārambhāḥ) are not (na santi), by implication (upalakṣaṇāt), begun (ārambhāḥ) on a support (stambhe) which is a mass of foam (phenapuñje)]”.

2) Ārambha (आरम्भ) refers to “(constant) exertion”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “The body of embodied souls attaches to bad Karmas through actions which possess constant exertion (satata-ārambha-yoga) and which kill living beings”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Arambha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ārambha : (m.) 1. the beginning; 2. attempt.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ārambha, (Sk. ārambha in meaning “beginning”, fr ā + rabh (rambh) cp. ārabhati) — 1. attempt, effort, inception of energy (cp. Dhs. trsl. 15 & K. S. p. 318 giving C. def. as kicca, karaṇīya, attha, i.e. 1. undertaking & duty, 2. object) S. I, 76 (mah°); V, 66, 104 sq. (°dhātu); III, 338 (id.), 166 (°ja; T. arabbhaja, v. l. ārambhaja to be preferred) = Pug. 64; Miln. 244; Net 41; DhsA. 145. —viriyārambha (cp. āraddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy Vin. II, 197; S. IV, 175; A. I, 12, 16.—2. support, ground, object, thing Nett 70 sq. , 107; an° unsupported, independent Sn. 743 (= nibbāna SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, upārambha, sārambha. (Page 107)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ārambha (आरंभ).—m (S) Beginning, commencement; the entering into act or being, or the initial state or portion.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ārambha (आरंभ).—m Beginning, commencement.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—[ā-rabh-ghañ mum]

1) Beginning, commencement; °उपायः (upāyaḥ) plan of commencement; नृत्तारम्भे हर पशुपते- रार्द्रनागाजिनेच्छाम् (nṛttārambhe hara paśupate- rārdranāgājinecchām) Meghadūta 38.

2) An introduction.

3) (a) An act, undertaking, deed, work; आगमैः सदृशारम्भः (āgamaiḥ sadṛśārambhaḥ) R.1.15; Kumārasambhava 7.71; V.3; Bhartṛhari 2.69; R.7.31; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 12.16. cf. also आरम्भस्य शब्दपूर्वत्वात् (ārambhasya śabdapūrvatvāt) | MS.11.1.1 (śabara writes ārambho vyāpāraḥ kriyetyanarthāntaram |). (b) Preparation; Uttararāmacarita 4. (c) A thing begun; Uttararāmacarita 4.

4) Haste, speed, velocity; चण्डारम्भः समीरः (caṇḍārambhaḥ samīraḥ) Ve.2.19.

5) Effort, exertion; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 14.12.

6) Scene, action; चित्रार्पितारम्भ इवावतस्थे (citrārpitārambha ivāvatasthe) R.2.31.

7) Pride.

8) Killing, slaughter.

9) The first act that is done.

1) The first movement or activity on the part of man; आरम्भो हि प्रथमः पदार्थः स्यात् । प्रथमं वा पुरुषस्य प्रवर्तनम् (ārambho hi prathamaḥ padārthaḥ syāt | prathamaṃ vā puruṣasya pravartanam) | (= prathamapravartana- mārambhaḥ audāsīnyād vyāvṛttiḥ puruṣasya vyāpṛtatā) ŚB. on MS. 1.14.

Derivable forms: ārambhaḥ (आरम्भः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—(Sanskrit Lex., see [Boehtlingk] 5 App., which follows Zachariae in calling this an error for ālambha, but Pali and [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] support it; = Pali id., in mahārambha, = our word, SN i.76.21; not recorded in [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], except in nir-ā°, or Childers), (sacrificial) slaughter (of animals), substan- tially = yajña: Bodhisattvabhūmi 118.2 (kṣudrayajñeṣu ca) manāram- bheṣu ca yeṣu bahavaḥ prāṇinaḥ…jīvitād vyaparo- pyante. Cf. also anārabdha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—m.

(-mbhaḥ) 1. A beginning, a thing begun. 2. Haste, speed. 3. Effort, exertion. 4. Pride. 5. Killing, slaughter. 6. An introduction, a prologue, &c. E. āṅ before rabhi to commence, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—i. e. ā-rabh + a, m. 1. A beginning, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 37. 2. Exertion, effort, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 198, 22. 3. An enterprise, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 30, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ).—[masculine] undertaking, beginning, [abstract] † [feminine]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ārambha (आरम्भ):—[=ā-rambha] [from ā-rabh] m. undertaking, beginning, [Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra; Meghadūta] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a thing begun

3) [v.s. ...] beginning, origin, commencement, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Meghadūta] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) the commencement of the action which awakens an interest in the progress of the principal plot, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa 324 and 325]

5) [v.s. ...] haste, speed

6) [v.s. ...] effort, exertion

7) [v.s. ...] pride

8) [v.s. ...] killing, slaughter (erroneous for ālambha See Zachariae, Beiträge, p.20, l. 9), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ārambha (आरम्भ):—[ā-rambha] (mbhaḥ) 1. m. A beginning; effort; haste; pride; killing.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ārambha (आरम्भ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āraṃbha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arambha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Arambha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Āraṃbha (आरंभ) [Also spelled arambh]:—(nm) start, beginning; outset; commencement; inception.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Āraṃbha (आरंभ) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Ārabh.

2) Āraṃbha (आरंभ) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Ārambha.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āraṃbha (ಆರಂಭ):—

1) [noun] a starting or beginning; a getting into action or motion; commencement; a start.

2) [noun] occupation, profession, business, trade, craft, etc.; a work.

3) [noun] the profession of a cultivator; agriculture.

4) [noun] (Jain.) an act, work or business that results in committing harm to the living beings.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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