Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Duties on one on probation

Kd.12.1.1 BD.5.44 At one time, the Awakened One, the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time monks under probation[1] consented to regular monks greeting them, standing up before them, saluting with joined palms, doing the proper duties, bringing forward a seat, bringing forward a sleeping-place, water for (washing) the feet, a footstool, a foot-stand, receiving the bowl and robe, treating their backs by massaging. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these monks who are under probation consent to regular monks greeting … treating their backs by massaging?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that monks who are under probation consent to regular monks greeting … treating their backs by massaging?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these monks who are under probation consent to regular monks … treating their backs by massaging? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“A monk who is under probation, monks, should not consent to regular monks greeting him … treating his back by massaging. Whoever should consent to (any of these actions), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, the mutual[2] greeting, standing up before … treating of backs by massaging between monks who are under probation according to their seniority. I allow, monks, five things for monks under BD.5.45 probation according to their seniority: Observance, Invitation, cloths for the rains, gifts (to the Order[3]) rice.

Kd.12.1.2 “Well now, monks, I will lay down the conduct[4] for monks under probation, so that monks under probation Vin.2.32 may conduct themselves[5] according to it. A monk under probation, monks, should conduct himself properly.[6] This is the proper conduct[7] in this case[8]: he should not ordain, he should not give guidance, a novice should not attend him, he should not consent to an agreement to exhort nuns, even if agreed upon he should not exhort nuns, he should not fall into that same offence for which he was granted probation, nor into another that is similar, nor into one that is worse, he should not find fault with the (formal) act, he should not find fault with those who carry out the (formal) act, he should not suspend a regular monk’s Observance, he should not suspend his Invitation, he should not issue commands, should not set up authority, he should not ask for leave, he should not reprove, he should not make remember, he should not quarrel with monks. Nor, monks, should a monk under probation walk in front of a regular monk, nor sit down in front of him.[9] Whatever is the Order’s last seat, last sleeping-place, last dwelling-place[10]—that should be given to him and he should consent to it. Monks, a monk under probation should not approach the families of a regular monk[11] either as the novice who walks in front of him or as the novice who walks behind him. He should not undertake the forest-practice, he should not undertake the almsman’s BD.5.46 practice,[12] he should not have almsfood taken back[13] for this reason:[14] that he thinks, ‘Do not let them find out about me’.[15] Monks, a monk under probation should announce it[16] when he is in-coming, he should announce it to (another who is) in-coming, he should announce it at the Observance, he should announce it at the Invitation, if he is ill he should also announce it by means of a messenger.[17]

Kd.12.1.3 “Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger.[18] Monks, a monk under probation should not go from, a residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks … to what is not a residence where there are no monks … to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence, or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are no monks … to what is not a residence where there are no monks … to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are no monks, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger.

BD.5.47 “Monks, a monk under probation should not go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to a different communion, except with a regular (monk), Vin.2.33 unless there is a danger. Monks, a monk under probation should not go from residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are monks … should not go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to a different communion, except with a regular (monk), unless there is a danger.

“Monks, a monk under probation may go from a residence where there are monks to a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’ Monks, a monk under probation may go from a residence where there are monks to what is not a residence where there are monks … may go from a residence or from what is not a residence where there are monks to a residence or to what is not a residence where there are monks if the monks there should belong to the same communion and if he knows, ‘I am able to arrive this very day.’

Kd.12.1.4 “Monks, a monk under probation should not stay in a residence[19] under one roofing with a regular monk, he should not stay in what is not a residence[20] under one roofing (with him), he should not stay in a residence or in what is not a residence under one roofing (with him).[21] Having seen a regular monk, he should get up from his seat. He should offer his seat to the regular monk. A monk under probation should not sit down on the same seat with a regular monk, he should not sit down on a high seat if he[22] is sitting down on a low seat,[23] he should not sit down on a seat if he is sitting on the ground, he BD.5.48 should not pace up and down in the same place for pacing up and down in,[24] he should not pace up and down in a high place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down in a low place for pacing up and down in, he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.[25]

“Monks, a monk under probation should not stay in a residence under one roofing with a senior monk who is under probation … with a monk who deserves to be sent back to the beginning … with a monk who deserves mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who is undergoing mānatta (discipline) … with a monk who deserves rehabilitation, he should not stay in what is not a residence under one roofing (with him) … he should not pace up and down in a place for pacing up and down in if he is pacing up and down on the ground.

If, monks, one under probation as the fourth (member)[26] should grant probation, should send back to the beginning, should inflict mānatta (discipline), if, as twentieth (member) he should rehabilitate, it is not a (formal) act and ought not to be carried out.”

Kd.12.1.5 Told are the Ninety-four Observances for one under Probation.

Kd.12.2.1 Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Now, Lord, how many (kinds of) interruptions[27] are there for a monk under probation?”

“There are three (kinds of) interruptions, Upāli, for a monk under probation: Vin.2.34 dwelling with[28]; dwelling away, BD.5.49 separated from[29]; not announcing.[30] These, Upāli, are the three (kinds of) interruptions for a monk under probation.”


Kd.12.3.1 Now at that time a large Order of monks had gathered together at Sāvatthī; monks under probation were not able to carry through[31] their probation. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to postpone[32] probation. And thus, monks, should it be postponed: That monk who is under probation, having approached one monk, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to him: ‘I am postponing probation’—probation comes to be postponed; ‘I am postponing the observance’,[33]—probation comes to be postponed.”[34]


Kd.12.3.2 Now at that time monks went away from Sāvatthī to this place and that[35]; monks under probation were not able to carry through their probation. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to take up[36] probation. And thus, monks, should it be taken up: If that monk who is under probation, having approached one monk … having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to him: ‘I am taking up probation’—probation comes to be taken up; ‘I am taking up the observance’—probation comes to be taken up.”

Told is the Observance for one under Probation.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Cf. Vin.1.143, also Vin.1.136, Vin.4.335–Vin.4.336. Vin-a.1159 notices four kinds of probation, parivāsa, all mentioned below: the unconcealed (as of former members of other sects, arid see Kd.3.1.1), the concealed (see Kd.3.3.1), the purifying (Kd.13.26.1ff.), and the concurrent (Kd.13.14.1ff.).

2.

mithu.

3.

oṇojana. Vin-a.1161 explains by vissajjana, bestowing. Cf. oṇojesi at Vin.1.39 and oṇojetha at Vin.4.156, both meaning “to give, to dedicate.”

4.

vatta, custom, service, something to be done. Cf. Kd.1.27.1.

5.

vattitabbam.

6.

sammāvattitabbaṃ.

7.

sammāvattanā.

8.

Cf. Vin.5.15.

9.

These two actions are part of “intentional causing of discomfort” at Vin.4.290.

10.

pariyanta. “Last” is used in the same sense at Bu-NP.22 See BD.2.120, n.5. In reference also to these three things “the last” would mean the last available as they were being assigned or distributed to members of the Order. But see āpattipariyanta, rattipariyanta, at Kd.13.26.1, and below, BD.5.76, n.1.

11.

I.e. the families who support him and whom he visits for almsfood.

12.

He should not stay alone in the forest and he should not go to a village for alms. These two aṅga or practices, part of the dhutaṅga, ascetic practices, are explained in detail at Vism.59ff. See Vin.1.253, and BD.4.351, n.2.

13.

nīharāpetabbo, i.e. from a village to a monastery. Cf. tato nīharitvā at Vin.4.80 (BD.2.324).

14.

tappaccayā. According to Vin-a.1165 monks returning to the monastery would see him sitting down are eating, and if he did not tell them he was under probation his period of probation might be curtailed.

15.

I.e. that he is under probation. Vin-a.1165 says, “‘Do not let one monk find out about me’, and with this in mind he should not eat, having had it (i.e. the almsfood brought back) cooked in the dwelling-place by a novice. He must enter a village for almsfood.”

16.

I.e. the fact that he is under probation.

17.

Vin-a.1166 says that the messenger must not be anyone who is not ordained, he must be a monk.

18.

Cf. Kd.2.35.

19.

Vin-a.1167 here defines “residence”, āvāsa, as “a lodging made for staying in”.

20.

Vin-a.1167 here defines “not a residence” as a “shrine house (cetiyaghara), wisdom-house (bodhighara), a place (aṭṭaka) for sweepings, a place for wood, a building (māḷa, see BD.2.16, n.4) for drinking-water, a privy, a granary.”

22.

I.e. the regular monk.

23.

Cf. Bu-Sk.69.

24.

caṅkama, monks’ walk, cloister. At first, this seems not to have been prepared or leveled; then it was allowed to be made level or even, then to be roofed over. Cf. Kd.15.14.2, Kd.15.14.3.

25.

Showing that “pacing up and down”, caṅkamanta, need not always have taken place in a caṅkama.

26.

Cf. Kd.9.4.6. One under probation does not complete a group or an Order, gaṇa and saṅgha.

27.

ratticcheda, literally “breaking of nights”, time having been reckoned by nights instead of by days.

28.

sahavāsa, which Vin-a.1168–Vin-a.1169 explains to mean any of the things given in Kd.12.1.4.

29.

vippavāsa, as in Kd.12.1.3. Cf. vippavāsa in e.g. Bu-NP.2 See BD.2.13, n.1 and BD.2.14, n.1 for further references, and also Bu-NP.29

30.

anārocanā, as in the ways specified at end of Kd.12.1.2.

31.

sodhetuṃ, to purify, cleanse, clear, so: to clear oneself of, to finish, to carry through. It was perhaps impossible for a monk to announce that he was under probation if the Order was very large or if it was dispersed.

32.

nikkhipituṃ, the Usual word for “to lay aside, to lay down, to deposit”, but here meaning to lay aside temporarily only, until a favourable time comes for undertaking the probationary period again.

33.

vatta. See the 94 vattā to be observed by those under probation at Kd.12.1.2Kd.12.1.4.

34.

This and the corresponding phrase at end of Kd.12.3.2 below, although apparently meant to have been uttered by Gotama, do not end, as would be expected, with ti.

35.

tahaṃ-tahaṃ, here and there.

36.

samāditum, to take up or undertake again the probation imposed on the offending monk.