Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

First recitation section

Allowance for dwellings

Kd.16.1.1 BD.5.204 At one time the Awakened One, the Lord was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Now at that time lodgings had not been permitted to monks by the Lord. So these monks stayed here and there: in a forest, at the root of a tree, on a hillside, in a glen, in a mountain cave, in a cemetery, in a forest glade, in the open air, on a heap of straw.[1] Early in the mornings these went out from this and that place: from the forest … from the heap of straw, pleasing when approaching and when receding, when looking before, when looking back, when bending back (their arms), when stretching them out, their eyes cast down and possessed of pleasant behaviour.[2]


Kd.16.1.2 Now at that time a (great) merchant of Rājagaha went early one morning to a pleasure grove.[3] The (great) merchant of Rājagaha saw these monks going out from this and that place: from a forest … from a heap of straw, and seeing them he made up his mind.[4] Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha approached those monks; having approached, he spoke thus to those monks: “If I, revered sirs, were to have dwelling-places built, would you stay in my dwelling-places?”

“Householder, dwelling-places have not been allowed by the Lord.”

“Well then, revered sirs, having inquired of the Lord, tell me (what he says).”

“Very well, householder,” and these monks, having answered the (great) merchant of Rājagaha in assent, approached the Lord; having approached the Lord, having greeted him, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, the (great) merchant of Rājagaha is anxious to have BD.5.205 dwelling-places built. What line of conduct should be followed by us, Lord?” Then the Lord on this occasion having given reasoned talk addressed the monks, saying:

“I allow, monks, five (kinds of) abodes:[5] a dwelling-place, a curved house, a long house,[6] a mansion,[7] a cave.”[8]

Kd.16.1.3 Then Vin.2.147 these monks approached the (great) merchant of Rājagaha; having approached, they spoke thus to the (great) merchant of Rājagaha: “Householder, dwelling-places have been allowed by the Lord. Do now what seems right.” Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha had sixty dwelling-places established on one day alone. When the (great) merchant of Rājagaha had had these sixty dwelling-places finished he approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the (great) merchant of Rājagaha spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may the Lord consent to a meal with me on the morrow together with the Order of monks.” The Lord consented by becoming silent. Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having understood the Lord’s consent, rising from his seat departed keeping his right side towards him.

Kd.16.1.4 Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having had sumptuous foods, solid and soft, prepared towards the end of that night, had the time announced to the Lord, saying: “It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.” Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached the dwelling of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha; having approached, he sat down on the appointed seat together with the Order of monks. Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having with his own hand served and satisfied the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head with sumptuous foods, solid and soft, sat down at a respectful distance when the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from his bowl. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the (great) BD.5.206 merchant of Rājagaha spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, I had these sixty dwelling-places built because I need merit, because I need heaven. What line of conduct am I, Lord, to follow in regard to these dwelling-places?”

“Well now, do you, householder, establish these sixty dwelling-places for (the use of) the Order of the four quarters,[9] present and to come.”

“Very well, Lord,” and the (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having answered the Lord in assent, had those sixty dwelling-places established for (the use of) the Order of the four quarters, present and to come.

Kd.16.1.5 Then the Lord thanked the (great) merchant of Rājagaha in these verses:[10]

“They ward off cold and heat and beasts of prey from there
And creeping things and gnats and rains in the wet season.
When the dreaded hot wind arises, that is warded off.
To meditate and obtain insight in a refuge and at ease:—

“A dwelling-place is praised by the Awakened One as chief gift to an Order.
Therefore a wise man, looking to his own weal,
Should have charming dwelling-places built
so that those who have heard much can stay therein.[11] Vin.2.148

“To these[12] food and drink, raiment and lodgings
He should give, to the upright, with mind purified.
(Then) these[13] teach him dhamma dispelling every ill;
He, knowing that dhamma, here attains nibbāna, canker- less.”[14]

Then the Lord, having given thanks to the (great) merchant of Rājagaha in these verses, rising from his seat, departed.


Kd.16.2.1 People heard: “It is said that dwelling-places are allowed by the Lord,” and they zealously had dwelling-places built. These dwelling-places did not have doors, and snakes, scorpions and centipedes got in. They told this matter to the Lord. BD.5.207 He said: “I allow, monks, a door.” Having made a hole in the wall, they tied on the door with jungle creeper and with cord, but these were eaten by rats and white ants and when the tyings were eaten the doors fell down. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a doorpost and lintel, a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in) a small upper projection.[15] The doors did not meet. “I allow, monks, a hole for pulling through (the cord), cord for pulling through.[16] The doors could not be closed. “I allow, monks, a post for the bolt, a ‘monkey’s head,’ a pin (to secure the bolt), a stick (used as a bolt).[17]


Now at that time monks were not able to open a door. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a keyhole and three (kinds of) keys: a copper key, a wooden key, a horn key.” But the dwelling-places were unguarded[18] when those who, having unfastened[19] (the doors), entered. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a bolt and a pin (to secure the bolt).[20]


Kd.16.2.2 Now at that time dwelling-places were roofed with grass; they were cold in the cold weather, hot in the hot weather. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having lashed on (a roofing), to give it a smearing inside and out.[21] Now at that time dwelling-places had no windows.[22] They were bad for the eyes and nasty smelling. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) windows: a railing window,[23] a lattice window,[24] a stick window.[25] Squirrels and bats got through the spaces BD.5.208 in the windows. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, drapery[26] across the windows.” Squirrels and bats got in even through the drapery. “I allow, monks, shutters[27] across the windows, little bolsters[28] across the windows.


Kd.16.2.3 Now at that time monks lay down to sleep on the ground and their limbs and robes were soiled with dust. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a grass matting.” The grass matting Vin.2.149 was eaten by rats and white ants. “I allow, monks, a solid bench.[29] Because of the solid bench their limbs became painful. “I allow, monks, a little couch of split bamboo.[30]

Allowance for couches and chairs

Now at that time a bierlike long couch[31] accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a long couch.” A long chair accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a long chair.” Now at that time a bierlike couch with slats[32] accrued to an Order … a chair with slats … a bierlike couch with curved legs[33] … a chair with curved legs … a bierlike couch with removeable legs[34] … a chair with removeable legs accrued. “I allow, monks, a chair with removeable legs.


Kd.16.2.4 Now at that time a rectangular chair[35] accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a rectangular chair.” A tall rectangular chair[36] accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, BD.5.209 even[37] a tall rectangular chair.[38] A three-sided (couch)[39] accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a three-sided (couch).” A tall three-sided (couch) accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, even a tall three-sided (couch).” A plaited chair[40] accrued … a cloth chair[41] … a sheep-footed[42] chair … a “stalks of the emblic myrobalan” chair[43] … a wooden (chair)[44] … a stool[45] … a straw chair accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a straw chair.


Kd.16.2.5 Now at that time the group of six monks lay down to sleep on high couches. People touring the lodgings, having seen them … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not lie down to sleep on high couches. Whoever should (so) lie down to sleep, Vin.2.150 there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time a certain monk, lying down to sleep on a low couch, was bitten by a snake. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, supports for the couches.[46]


Now at that time the group of six monks used tall supports BD.5.210 for the couches; they rocked to and fro together with the tall supports for the couches. “Monks, tall supports for couches should not be used. Whoever should use them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, a support for a couch to be eight finger-breadths at the most.[47]


Kd.16.2.6 Now at that time thread accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to weave a couch.” The ends used up much thread. “I allow you, monks, having pierced the ends,[48] to weave small squares.[49] A piece of cotton cloth accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make a carpet.[50] A cotton quilt[51] accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having unravelled it, to make a squatting mat[52] of three (kinds of) cotton:[53] cotton from trees, cotton from creepers, cotton from grass.


Now at that time the group of six monks used squatting mats half (the size of a man’s) body. People, touring the dwelling-places, having seen them … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, squatting mats half (the size of a man’s) body should not be used. Who-ever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to make a squatting mat the size of a head.[54]


Kd.16.2.7 Now at that time there came to be a festival on a mountain top near Rājagaha.[55] People arranged mattresses[56] for the BD.5.211 great ministers: mattresses of wool, mattresses of cotton cloth, mattresses of bark, mattresses of tiṇa-grass, mattresses of leaves.[57] When the festival was over they conveyed them away having taken off the covers. Monks saw much wool and cotton cloth and bark and tiṇa-grass and leaves thrown away at the festival place; and seeing it they told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, five (kinds of) mattresses: a mattress of wool … of cotton cloth … of bark … of tiṇa-grass, a mattress of leaves.


Now at that time woven cloth[58] as a requisite for lodgings accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to cover a mattress (with it).” Now at that time monks packed away a couch-mattress on a chair, they packed away a chair-mattress on a couch; the mattresses fell to bits.[59] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a covered couch, a covered chair.[60] Vin.2.151 They packed them away without having put a cobweb cloth (beneath[61] and the stuffing) came out from below. “I allow you, monks, having put a cobweb cloth (beneath the mattress), having spread it, to cover a mattress.” Having removed the covers, they carried them away. “I allow you, monks, to sprinkle[62] them.” They still carried them away. “I allow, monks, line decoration.[63] They still carried them away. “I allow you, monks, the outline of the hand.[64]

Allowance for whitewash, etc.

Kd.16.3.1 BD.5.212 Now at that time the sleeping places[65] of members of other sects were whitewashed, the ground was coloured black, the walls were treated with red chalk.[66] Many people went to see the sleeping places. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, whitewash, black colouring, red chalk (to be used) in a dwelling-place.” Now at that time the whitewash did not adhere to the rough walls. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having applied lumps of grain-husks, having kept some back with a spoon,[67] to put on the whitewash.” The whitewash would not stick on. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having applied soft clay, having kept some back with a spoon, to put on the whitewash.” The whitewash would not stick on. “I allow, monks, what exudes from trees[68] and flour-paste.


Now at that time the red chalk did not adhere to the rough walls … as above … The red chalk would not stick on. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having applied the red powder of rice husks (mixed with) clay, having kept some back with a spoon, to put on the red chalk.” The red chalk would not stick on. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, mustard-powder,[69] oil of beeswax.” It was too thick.[70] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to sponge it over[71] with a piece of cloth.


Now at that time the black colouring did not adhere to the rough walls … as above … The black colouring would not stick on. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having applied clay (mixed with the excrement of) earthworms,[72] having kept some back with a spoon, to put on the black colouring.” The black colouring would not BD.5.213 stick on. They told this matter to the Lord He said: “I allow, monks, what exudes from trees, an astringent decoction.[73]

Rejection of a bold design

Kd.16.3.2 Now at that time the group of six monks had a bold design[74] made with figures of women, figures of men, in a dwelling-place. People touring the dwelling-places, having seen this, … spread it about, saying: “Like Vin.2.152 householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not have a bold design made with figures of women, figures of men. Whoever should have one made, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, wreath-work, creeper-work, swordfish teeth, the five strips (of cloth design).[75]

Allowance for a balustrade

Kd.16.3.3 Now at that time dwelling-places were low to the ground …[76] “… I allow monks, a balustrade.


Now at that time dwelling-places were thronged with people.[77] Monks were (too) modest to lie down. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a curtain.[78] They looked in, having lifted up the curtain. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a small half-wall.” They looked in over the top of the small half-wall. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) inner rooms: a palanquin-like inner room,[79] a tube-like inner room,[80] an inner room on the roof.[81] Now at that time monks made an inner room in the middle of a small dwelling-place; there was no access.[82] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make an inner room at one side of a small dwelling-place, in the middle of a large one.

Kd.16.3.4 BD.5.214 Now at that time the base of a wall of a dwelling-place disintegrated. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a timber buttress.[83] A wall of a dwelling-place let in the rain.[84]I allow, monks, a protecting screen[85] (and) paste and water.[86]


Now at that time a snake fell from a grass roofing on to a certain monk’s shoulder. Terrified, he uttered a cry of distress. Monks, having run up, spoke thus to this monk: “Why did you, your reverence, utter a cry of distress?” Then this monk told this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a canopy.[87]


Kd.16.3.5 Now at that time monks hung their bags at the feet of couches, and at the feet of chairs: they were eaten by rats and white ants. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a peg in the wall, an ‘elephant-tusk’ (peg).[88] Now at that time monks laid aside their robes on a couch and on a chair. The robes fell to pieces. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a bamboo for robes, Vin.2.153 a cord for robes.[89]


Now at that time dwelling-places had no verandahs[90] and were without shelter.[91] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a verandah, a covered terrace,[92] an inner court,[93] a verandah roofing.[94] The verandahs were BD.5.215 public. Monks were (too) modest to lie down. “I allow, monks, a moveable screen,[95] a screen that can be drawn.

Allowance for an assembly hall

Kd.16.3.6 Now at that time monks participating in a meal in the open air were bothered by cold and heat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, an assembly hall.” The assembly hall was low to the ground …[96]… a cord for robes.” Now at that time monks spread out their robes in the open air on the ground. The robes were soiled by dust. “I allow, monks, a bamboo for robes and a cord for robes in the open air.

Kd.16.3.7 The drinking water became tepid.[97]I allow, monks, a hall for the drinking water, a shed for the drinking water.” The hall for the drinking water was low to the ground …[98]… a cord for robes.” There was no vessel for the drinking water. “I allow, monks, a conchshell for drinking water, a saucer for drinking water.

Allowance for a porch

Kd.16.3.8 Now at that time dwelling-places were not fenced in. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences to fence them in: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.” There was no porch. “I allow, monks, a porch.” The porch was low to the ground. It was flooded with water. “I allow you, monks, to build it high to the ground.” There was no door to the porch. “I allow, monks, a door, a door-post and lintel … a cord to pull through.[99] Powdered grass fell from the porch.[100]I allow, monks, … the five (pieces of) cloth design.[101]


Now at that time a cell came to be swampy.[102] They told this matter to the Lord He said: “I allow you, monks, to sprinkle gravel.” They did not succeed in doing so. “I allow you, Vin.2.154 monks, to lay down flagstones.” Water remained. “I allow, monks, a drain for the water.


Kd.16.3.9 Now at that time monks made a fireplace here and there in a cell; the cell became soiled.[103] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make at one side a hall for the fire.” The hall for the fire was low to the ground BD.5.216[104]I allow, monks, a balustrade.” The nail for the fire had no door. “I allow, monks, a door, a doorpost and lintel …[105] a cord for pulling through.” Powdered grass fell into the hall for the fire. “I allow you, monks, … a cord for robes.

Allowance for a fenced monastery

Kd.16.3.10 A monastery was not fenced in: goats and cattle[106] injured the little plants.[107] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) hedges to fence it in: a hedge of bamboo, a hedge of thorns, a ditch.” There was no porch. As before, goats and cattle injured the little plants. “I allow, monks, a porch, an interlacing of stakes and thorns,[108] a hedge of swallow-wort,[109] a gateway, a door-bar.[110] Powdered grass fell from the porch. “I allow you, monks, …[111] the five (pieces of) cloth design.” The monastery became swampy[112]… a drain for the water.


Kd.16.3.11 Now at that time King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha wanted to have a long house with a smearing of plaster and clay built for an Order. Then it occurred to monks: “Now what kind of roofing is allowed by the Lord, what is not allowed?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, five (kinds of) roofings: a roofing of tiles, a roofing of stones, a roofing of plaster, a roofing of tiṇa-grass, a roofing of leaves.[113]

Told is the First Portion for Repeating.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Cf. same list at DN.i.71, MN.iii.3, AN.ii.210, and a shorter one at AN.i.241 The terms are defined at DN-a.209–DN-a.210, Vb-a.366–Vb-a.367.

2.

More or less stock; cf. Vin.3.181, DN.i.70, MN.iii.35, MN.iii.90, AN.ii.104, AN.ii.106, AN.ii.210.

3.

Defined at Vin.4.298.

4.

assa cittaṃ padīdi, his mind became clear or bright.

5.

Cf. Kd.1.30.4, and also BD.2.16, n.6 (on BD.5.17).

6.

See BD.2.16, n.5. Pāsāda is again called dīghapāsāda at Vin-a.1215, on above passage.

7.

hammiya. See BD.2.16, n.6. Vin-a.1215 says “a hammiya is like a pāsāda with a chamber placed on the topmost open-air floor.”

8.

Vin-a.1215 says a cave, guhā, in bricks, in stones, in wood, in laterite, paṃsu. On paṃsu as meaning “laterite ” in this connection see A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48, No. 3, p.266.

9.

See SN.Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.83ff., p.131, p.143.

10.

As at Kd.16.9.2 below, and Ja.i.93, DN-a.i.304.

11.

Cf. Mil.211.

12.

For this line and next, cf. SN.i.100.

13.

This line and next at AN.iii.41, AN.iii.43.

14.

Cf. this line with Snp.765.

15.

On these items see Kd.15.14.3.

16.

On these items see Kd.15.14.3.

17.

On these items see Kd.15.14.3.

18.

agutta, as were the lodgings at Kd.18.3.1.

19.

ugghāṭetvā, as at Kd.18.1.1 of the ghaṭikā, stick used as a bolt.

20.

yantakaṃ sūcikaṃ. Vin-a.1216 says “Whatever one sees that is a yantaka, and one can make a pin to open it ”. Cf. yantakaṃ deti, to secure the bolt, to lock up, at Dhp-a.i.220.

21.

As at Kd.15.11.6: Kd.15.14.3, etc.

22.

Probably window holes, because the above word, vātapāna, is used at Vin.4.47 to explain ālokasandhi, the holes for light and air. Vātapāna mentioned at Kd.1.25.18.

23.

vedikāvātapāna. Vin-a.1216 says like the railing of a shrine. So, a grille in a railing pattern. See A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society Vol. 48, No. 3, p.273 for short discussion of these three types of windows.

24.

jālavātapāna. Vin-a.1216 says something tied net wise, so a lattice.

25.

salākavātapāna. Vin-a.1216 says a little post or pillar window. These words will be more readily understood if it is remembered that vātapāna is an aperture and not what closes it.

26.

cakkalikā. Vin-a.1216 says “I allow you to tie on cloth used for wiping the feet”

27.

kavāṭaka.

28.

bhisikā. Cf. BD.2.47, n.1 on bhisi.

29.

miḍhi. See Kd.15.9.4. Vin-a.1216 here explains by pīṭhaphalaka.

30.

bidalamañcaka. Cf. Ja.i.9, Dhp-a.i.135 where mentioned as a feature in the life of one who has gone forth. Vin-a.1216 says a twig couch or one woven with bamboo chips.

31.

masāraka defined in Bu-Pc.14. For notes on these four kinds of couches and chairs see BD.2.240.

32.

bundikābaddha, defined in Bu-Pc.14, as are also the next two terms.

33.

kulīrapādaka.

34.

āhaccapādaka.

35.

āsandika. Vin-a.1216, reading āsandhika, says it is called a four-cornered (or square, caturassa) chair. Cf. Kh-a.44.

36.

uccako āsandiko.

37.

pi, also meaning “too, also,” but in view of the efforts made to prevent monks from using chairs, couches and beds that were too high, “even” seems a permissible translation.

38.

Vin-a.1216 says a long chair is on a support eight finger-breadths (high), but if it exceeds that measure it should be called a rectangular chair.

39.

sattaṅga, literally seven limbs, parts, members or constituents. Vin-a.1216 says that “it is a couch that is finished, a support having been made towards three (of the) quarters.” It therefore occupied three sides of a square, and had four ends (two outer and two inner), making a total of seven parts.

40.

baddhapīṭha. Vin-a.1216 says a chair made entirely of twigs.

41.

pīṭhikā. Vin-a.1216 says just a chair plaited in cloth.

42.

eḷakapādaka. Vin-a.1216 says “having placed the upper parts of the legs in white woollen cloth round the wood, it is a finished chair like a slab for food, bhojanaphalaka”. Cf. kulīrapādaka, literally “crab-footer,” for which see BD.2.240, n.4.

43.

āmālakavaṇṭika pīṭha. Vin-a.1217 says this is a chair of many legs plaited in the manner (or on the pattern) of emblic myrobalan.

44.

phalaka. See phalakapīṭha at Vin.4.40 and BD.2.242, n.5. Cf. apassenaphalaka at Kd.1.25.15, Kd.16.20.2.

45.

koccha. See BD.2.239, n.1, and Old Commentary’s definition at BD.2.240. On above passage Vin-a.1217, omitting “made of bark,” says made of khus-khus, made of muñja-grass (which at Vin-a.1217 reads puñjamaya), made of reeds.

46.

mañcapaṭipādaka, as at Kd.1.25.16, Kd.18.1.3. See BD.4.64, n.4.

47.

Cf. Bu-Pc.87.

48.

aṅge vijjhitvā. On this expression see BD.2.240, n.5. “Legs” is I think a better translation than “sides” (Vinaya Texts iii.166).

49.

aṭṭhapadaka as at Kd.8.21.1. Perhaps meaning “in the chequered board fashion,” aṭṭhapada, on which see BD.1.316, n.2.

50.

cilimikā. See BD.2.241, n.8. Vin-a.1217 on above says “when the earth is treated with plaster, a cilimikā is called a covering, attharaṇa, for protecting the surface, chavi.”

51.

tūlikā, as at Kd.5.10.4.

52.

bimbohana. Similar allowance made at Kd.6.14.

53.

tūla. See similar definition at Vin.4.170 (BD.3.93, q.v. n.2). Vin-a.1217 says cotton from any vegetable growth can be used for squatting mats, but apart from trees, creepers and grasses there is no other vegetable growth.

54.

Cf. Vb-a.365 which elaborates saying that in width it can be four standard finger breadths, in length the measure of the width of the couch.

55.

See BD.2.335, n.1. Phrase also occurs at Kd.15.2.6.

56.

bhisi. See BD.2.47, n.1.

57.

Same five kinds given at Vin.4.40. See BD.2.240, n.7.

58.

dussa.

59.

As at Kd.15.11.2.

60.

onaddhamañca onaddhapīṭha. This must mean covered with mattresses to fit them. Cf. Vin.1.194, Vin.2.270.

61.

ullokaṃ akaritvā, which Vin-a.1218 explains by hetthā cimilikaṃ adatvā. On cimilikā see above, BD.5.210, n.4. Ullokā occurs at Vin.1.48 = Vin.2.209.

62.

posituṃ, which should read phosituṃ as does Vin.1.205 and Vin-a.1218. This latter says “to give sprinklings (or touches, phusitāni) on top with dyes or with turmeric.”

63.

bhattikamma. Vin-a.1219 reads bhittikamma, wall-work, and says it is a bhittikamma on top of the mattress cover. Whatever the exact meaning of the term, it is no doubt a different process from the “sprinkling” which, as perhaps a forerunner to the tie-and-dye industry, would probably result in spots. Cf. bhatikamma at Kd.15.9.2.

64.

hatthabhitti. Bhitti is of course a wall. Vin-a.1219 says pañcaṅgulabhitti, the wall of the five fingers. All these marks were probably applied so as to disfigure the mattresses and thus dissuade monks from carrying them off; cf. Bu-Pc.58. Or they may have been identification marks. But all the readings, and therefore the meanings, are uncertain. Reading in the “key,” Vin.2.178, is hatthabhatti, line of the hand. On pañcangulikaṃ dātuṃ cf. above, BD.5.170.

65.

seyyā, defined at Vin.4.17 = Vin.4.20, Vin.4.41.

66.

See Kd.15.11.6 for these words.

67.

pāṇikā, Buddhaghosa says nothing. Cf. pāṇiyā at Kd.15.1.5.

68.

ikkāsa. Vin-a.1219 says rukkhaniy(y)āsaṃ vā silesaṃ vā. Gum, resin, and juice all exude from trees. Cf. niyyāsakhādanīya at Vin-a.832, Vin-a.837 and niyyāsarukkha at Vism.74.

69.

-kuḍḍa of text should read -kuṭṭa.

70.

Vin-a.1219 says it stayed there in drop upon drop.

71.

paccuddharituṃ (as at Kd.15.17.1) explained at Vin-a.1219 as puñchituṃ, to wipe.

72.

gaṇḍamattikā. Vin-a.1219, reading taṇḍa- with variant reading gaṇḍu-, explains as above.

73.

kasāva. Cf. Kd.4.4, where certain specified ones are allowed as medicines.

74.

paṭibhānacitta, as at Vin.4.61 (see BD.2.285, n.5) and BD.4.298. Vin-a.1219 says “not only the figures of women and men, but also figures of animals, even of an earthworm.”

75.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

76.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

77.

ālakamandā. At DN.ii.147, DN.ii.170 said to be the capital of the devas, with many people and crowded with yakkhas. Spelt in both passages as Āḷaka-. Vin-a.1219 says each open space was crowded with people.

78.

tirokaraṇī as at Vin.1.276.

79.

sivikāgabbha. Vin-a.1219 calls it a quadrangular (or four-sided) inner room.

80.

nāḷikāgabbha. Vin-a.1219 says it is a long room whose length is two or three times its width.

81.

hammiyagabbha. See BD.2.16, n.6 on hammiya. Vin-a.1219 calls it a room in the gable on the open air floor or a room on the bare roof.

82.

As at Kd.15.14.3

83.

kulaṅkapādaka. See Morris, Journal of the Pali Text Society 1884, p.78.

84.

ovassati also at Kd.15.16.1.

85.

parittānakiṭika. Cf. saṃsaraṇakiṭika ugghātanakiṭika in Kd.16.3.5 below.

86.

uddhasudha. Vin-a.1219 reading uddhā- with variant reading uda-, says clay pounded together with ashes and cowdung. Sinhalese edition reads udda-.

87.

vitāna, an item in some of the “no offence” clauses in the Suttavibhaṅga, e.g. at Vin.3.225, Vin.3.227, Vin.3.229, Vin.3.233, Vin.4.171, Vin.4.279.

88.

Cf. Kd.15.9.5 where monks hung their bags on these pegs.

89.

Also allowed at Kd.15.11.6; Kd.15.14.3.

90.

ālinda. Vin-a.1219 explains as pamukha. See Kd.6.36.4, and BD.4.342, n.3.

91.

apaṭissaraṇa. Sinhalese edition appatissāraṇā.

92.

paghana. Vin-a.1220, reading palighana but saying it is also called paghana, speaks of it as a katapadesa, a shaped (artificial) place or locality. It was at the door of the dwelling-places.

93.

pakuṭa. Sinhalese edition pakuḍḍa-. Vin-a.1220 reading pakudda and saying pakuṭṭa is also a reading, explains as “the whole of the inner room in the middle is called pariyāgāro: pakuddan ti majjhe gabbhassa samantā pariyāgāro vuccati. With this phrase cf. Vin.3.119. Pariyāgāra means “surrounded by a house.”

94.

osarika. Vin-a.1220 reads, osārika, with variant reading osaraka and says “having put a bamboo in a dwelling-place without a verandah, having had small sticks taken from that, tato osāretvā, a verandah-covering, chadanapamukha, is made.

95.

saṃsaraṇakiṭika. Vin-a.1220 says cakkalayutta. Cf. cakkalikā at Kd.16.2.2 and cakkkalī at Kd.16.19

96.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

97.

otappati, perhaps “evaporated, dried up.” Cf. otāpeti, to dry in the sun.

98.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

99.

As at Kd.15.14.4.

100.

koṭṭhakā above; koṭṭhake at Kd.15.14.4.

101.

As at Kd.15.14.4.

103.

uklāpa, as at Vin.1.46.

104.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

105.

As at Kd.15.14.3.

106.

pasuka.

107.

uparopa. Cf. uparopaha at Ja.ii.345, Ja.iv.359.

108.

apesiyaṃ. Sinhalese edition apesiṃ. Vin-a.1220 reading apesi, says “having inserted stakes with long pieces of wood, having covered with thorny branches, it is made for closing up the doorway.”

109.

akkavāṭa. Sinhalese edition reads yamakakavāṭa, a pair of doors.

110.

paligha. Vin-a.1220 says “as in village gateways, it is for closing a door that is joined to a wheel.”

111.

As at Kd.15.14.4.

113.

These five kinds of roofings mentioned at Vin.4.48.

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