Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On the miracles at Uruvelā

Then the Lord, walking on tour, in due course arrived at Uruvelā. Now at that time three matted hair ascetics, Kassapa of Uruvelā,[1] Kassapa of the River,[2] Kassapa of Gayā,[3] were living at Uruvelā. Of these, the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā was leader, guide, highest, chief, head of BD.4.33 five hundred matted hair ascetics; the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of the River was leader … head of three hundred matted hair ascetics; the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Gayā was leader … head of two hundred matted hair ascetics.

Kd.1.15.2 Then the Lord approached the hermitage[4] of the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā; having approached, he spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā: “If it is not inconvenient to you, Kassapa, let me stay for one night in the fire-room.”

“It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse, (but) there is a fierce serpent king of psychic power there; he is a terribly venomous snake. Do not let him harm you.” And a second time the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā: “If it is not inconvenient to you …” And a third time the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā: “If it is not inconvenient to you, Kassapa, let me stay for one night in the fire-room.”

“It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse, (but) there is a fierce serpent king of psychic power there; he is a terribly venomous snake. Do not let him harm you.”

“It is not likely that he can harm me. Please do you, Kassapa, allow (me the use of) the fire-room,”

“Stay, great recluse, as you wish it.”

Kd.1.15.3 Then the Lord, having entered the fire-room, having laid down a grass mat, sat down cross-legged, keeping his back erect, having caused mindfulness to be present in front of him. Then that serpent saw that the Lord had entered, and seeing this, pained, afflicted, he blew forth smoke. Then it occurred to the Lord: “What now if I, without destroying this serpent’s Vin.1.25 skin and hide and flesh and ligaments and bones and the marrow of the bones, were to master (his) heat by heat?”

Kd.1.15.4 Then the Lord, having worked a work of psychic power, blew forth smoke. Then that serpent, not conquering anger, blazed up. The Lord, having attained the condition of heat, also blazed up. When both were in flames, the fire-room became as though burning, ablaze, in flames. Then the matted hair ascetics, having surrounded the fire-room, spoke thus: BD.4.34 “Beautiful indeed is the great recluse, (but) he will be harmed by the serpent.”[5]

Kd.1.15.5 Then the Lord at the end of that night, without having destroyed that serpent’s skin and hide and flesh and ligaments and bones and the marrow of the bones, having mastered (his) heat by heat, having placed him in his bowl, showed him to the matted hair ascetic, Uruvelākassapa, saying: “This, Kassapa, is your serpent, his heat was mastered by heat.” Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelākassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great majesty, in that he can master by heat the heat of the fierce serpent king who has psychic power and is a terribly venomous snake; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”

Kd.1.15.6 Near the Nerañjarā,[6] the Lord
spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelākassapa:
“If it is not inconvenient to you, Kassapa,
let me stay this day (only)[7] in the fire-hall.[8]

“It is not inconvenient to me, great recluse,
(but) as I am anxious for your comfort I warn you
that there is a fierce serpent king there,
of psychic power, a terribly venomous snake.
Do not let him harm you.”

“It is not likely that he can harm me.
Please do you, Kassapa, allow (me the use of) the fire-room.[9]
“It is given”; having understood this,
the fearless one entered, fear overpassed.

Having seen that the holy man[10] had entered,
the chief of snakes[11], afflicted, blew forth smoke.
The chief of men, joyful, unperturbed,
blew forth smoke there BD.4.35 too.

But the chief of snakes, not conquering anger,
blazed up like a fire.
The chief of men, highly proficient in the condition of heat,
blazed up there too.

When both were in flames,
the matted hair ascetics, as they were looking at the fire-room, said:
“Beautiful indeed is the great recluse,
(but) he will be harmed by the serpent.”[12]

Kd.1.15.7 Then at the end of that night
the serpent’s flames became extinguished,
but the multicoloured flames of him of psychic power remained,
and multicoloured flames, dark green,
then red, crimson, yellow and crystal-coloured
were on Angirasa’s[13] body.

Having put the chief of snakes into his bowl,
he showed him to the brahmin,[14] saying:
“This, Kassapa, is your serpent,
his heat was mastered by heat.”

Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, thoroughly believing in this wonder of psychic power of the Lord, spoke thus to the Lord: “Stay just here, great recluse, I (can offer you) a constant supply of food.”[15]

Kd.1.15.8 The First Wonder. Vin.1.26

Kd.1.16.1 Then the Lord stayed in a certain woodland grove near the hermitage of the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa. Then the four Great Kings, having illumined the entire woodland grove on a glorious night with glorious colour, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they stood at the four quarters like huge fires.

Kd.1.16.2 Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord at the end of that night, and having approached he spoke thus to the Lord: “It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready. But now, who were these, great recluse, who, having illumined the entire woodland grove during the glorious night with glorious colour, approached you and having approached, having greeted you, stood at the four quarters like huge fires?”

BD.4.36 “Kassapa, these were the four Great Kings who approached me in order to hear dhamma.”

Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelākassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that the four Great Kings also approach him in order to hear dhamma; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”

Then the Lord, having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvelākassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.16.3 The Second Wonder.

Kd.1.17.1 Then Sakka, lord of the devas, having illumined the entire woodland grove on a glorious night with glorious colour, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he stood at a respectful distance, like a huge fire, more glorious and more superb than the former splendours of colour.[16]

Kd.1.17.2 Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord at the end of that night … as in[17] Kd.1.16.2 Vin.1.27 … stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.17.3 The Third Wonder.

Kd.1.18.1 Kd.1.18.2 Then Brahmā Sahampatias in Kd.1.17 … stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.18.3 The Fourth Wonder.

Kd.1.19.1 Now at that time a great sacrifice (made by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa was going forward,[18] and the entire (population of) Aṅga and Magadha, taking abundant solid food and soft food, wanted to go (to it)).[19] Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “At present my great sacrifice is going forward, and the entire (population of) Aṅga and Magadha, taking abundant solid food and soft food, will come. If the great recluse does a wonder of psychic BD.4.37 power before the populace, the great recluse’s gains and honour will much increase, my gains and honour will decline. Now the great recluse shall certainly not come to-morrow.”

Kd.1.19.2 Then the Lord, Vin.1.28 knowing by mind the reasoning in the mind of the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, having gone to Uttarakuru,[20] having fetched almsfood from there, having eaten it by the Anotatta lake,[21] took his midday rest there. Then at the end of that night the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord; having approached, he spoke thus to the Lord: “It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready. But why did you not come yesterday, great recluse? We thought of you however, saying‘How is it that the great recluse does not come?’ A portion of solid food and soft food was put aside for you.”

Kd.1.19.3 “Now did it not occur to you, Kassapa, ‘At present my great sacrifice is going forward … Now the great recluse shall certainly not come to-morrow’?

Kd.1.19.4 “So I, Kassapa, knowing by mind the reasoning in your mind, having gone to Uttarakuru, having fetched almsfood from there, having eaten it by the Anotatta lake, took my mid-day rest there.” Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that he also knows mind by mind; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.” Then the Lord, having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.19.5 The Fifth Wonder.

Kd.1.20.1 Now at that time a rag-robe accrued to the Lord. Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now where can I wash the rag-robe?” Then Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord’s mind, having dug a tank with his hand, spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, the Lord may wash the rag-robe here.” Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now on what can I knead the rag-robe?” Then Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord’s mind, having BD.4.38 put down a large stone near him, said: “Lord, the Lord may knead the rag-robe here.”

Kd.1.20.2 Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now holding on to what can I come up from (the water)?” Then a devatā inhabiting a kakudha (tree)[22], knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord’s mind, bent down a bough, saying: “Lord, the Lord Vin.1.29 may come up from (the water) holding on here.” Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now on what can I stretch out[23] the rag-robe?” Then Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning in the Lord’s mind, having put down a large stone near him said: “Lord, the Lord may stretch out the rag-robe here”

Kd.1.20.3 Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord at the end of that night; having approached, he spoke thus to the Lord: “It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready. But how is it, great recluse, that this tank was not here before, and now this tank is here? Nor was this stone put down before. By whom was this stone put down? Nor was a bough of this kakudha (tree) bent down before, and now this bough is bent down.”

Kd.1.20.4 “Kassapa, a rag-robe accrued to me here, and this occurred to me, Kassapa, ‘Now where can I wash the rag-robe? ‘Then, Kassapa, Sakka, lord of the devas, knowing by mind the reasoning in my mind, having dug a tank with his hand, spoke thus to me: ‘Lord, the Lord may wash the rag-robe here.’ So this tank was dug by the hand of a non-human being.[24] Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ‘Now on what can I knead the rag-robe? “… So this stone was put[25] by a non-human being.

Kd.1.20.5 Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ‘Now holding on to what can I come up out of (the water)?’ Then, Kassapa, a devatā … said: ‘Lord, the Lord may come up from (the water) holding on here.’ So this kakudha (tree) was a hold for my hand.[26] Then this occurred to me, Kassapa, ‘Now on what can I stretch out the rag-robe?’ Then[27] Sakka, lord of the devas … So this stone was put by a non-human being.”

Kd.1.20.6 Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that Sakka, lord of the devas, does him a service; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.” Then the Lord, having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvelākassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.20.7 Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord at the end of that night; having approached, Vin.1.30 he announced the time to the Lord, saying: “It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready.”

“You go on, Kassapa, I am coming along,” and having dismissed the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, having plucked a fruit from a rose-apple tree, after which this Land of the Rose-apples[28] is named, he sat down in the fire-room, having arrived first.

Kd.1.20.8 The matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord sitting in the fire-room; seeing him he spoke thus to the Lord: “By what way have you come, great recluse? I set out before you, but you are sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first.”

Kd.1.20.9 “Now I, Kassapa, having dismissed you, having plucked a fruit from a rose-apple tree, after which this Land of the Rose-apples is named, am sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first. Truly, Kassapa, this rose-apple fruit is full of colour, full of scent, full of flavor; if you like, do eat it.”

“No, great recluse, you alone are worthy of it, you alone eat it.” Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that having dismissed me first … he sat down in the fire-room, having arrived first; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.” Then the Lord, having eaten the meal (offered by) the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, stayed in that same woodland grove.

Kd.1.20.10 Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa approached the Lord at the end of that night; having approached he BD.4.40 announced the time to the Lord, saying: “It is time, great recluse, the meal is ready.”

“You go on, Kassapa, I am coming along,” and having dismissed the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, and having plucked a mango fruit not far from the rose-apple tree, after which this Land of the Rose-apples is named … having plucked a fruit of emblic myrobalan[29] not far from the mango tree … having plucked a fruit of yellow myrobalan[30] not far from the emblic myrobalan, having gone to the Thirty,[31] having plucked a flower from the Coral Tree,[32] he sat down in the fire-room, having arrived first. The matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord sitting in the fire-room, and seeing him he spoke thus to the Lord: “By what way have you come, great recluse? I set out before you, but you are sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first.”

Kd.1.20.11 “Now I, Kassapa, having dismissed you, having gone to the Thirty, having plucked a flower from the Coral Tree, am sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first. Truly, Kassapa, this flower of the Coral Tree is full of colour, full of scent; if you like, do take it.”

“No, great recluse, you alone are worthy of it, you alone Vin.1.31 take it.” Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that having dismissed me first, having gone to the Thirty, having plucked a flower from the Coral Tree, he is sitting in the fire-room, having arrived first; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”


Kd.1.20.12 Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, wanting to tend the (sacred) fires, were unable to chop sticks. Then it occurred to these matted hair ascetics: “Doubtless it is BD.4.41 (owing to) the psychic might of the great recluse that we are unable to chop sticks.” Then the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Kassapa, let sticks be chopped.”

“Let them be chopped, great recluse.” Five hundred sticks were chopped simultaneously.[33] Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that also sticks are chopped; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”


Kd.1.20.13 Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, wanting to tend the (sacred) fires, were unable to kindle the fires. Then it occurred to these matted hair ascetics: “Doubtless … unable to kindle the fires.” Then the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Kassapa, let the fires be kindled.”

“Let them be kindled, great recluse.” Five hundred fires were kindled simultaneously … “… in that also the fires are kindled; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”


Kd.1.20.14 Now at that time these matted hair ascetics, having tended the fires, were unable to extinguish the fires.[34] … The five hundred fires were extinguished simultaneously … “… in that also the fires are extinguished; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”


Kd.1.20.15 Now at that time on the cold winter nights between the eights[35] in a time of snowfall these matted hair ascetics were plunging into the river Nerañjarā, then emerging and repeatedly BD.4.42 plunging in and out.[36] Then the Lord created as many as five hundred fire-vessels[37] just where these matted hair ascetics, having come up from (the river), warmed themselves.[38] Vin.1.32 Then it occurred to these matted hair ascetics: “Doubtless it is (owing to) the psychic might of the great recluse that these fire-vessels are created.” Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that he can create these fire-vessels; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”


Kd.1.20.16 Now at that time a great rain fell out of the proper season, and a great flood resulted.[39] The Lord was staying in a place which became inundated by water. Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now suppose that I, having made the water recede all round, should pace up and down in the middle on dust-covered ground?” Then the Lord, having made the water recede all round, paced up and down in the middle on dust-covered ground. Then the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa, thinking: “I hope that the great recluse has not been carried away[40] by the water,” went together with a boat and many matted hair ascetics to that place where the Lord was staying. The matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa saw the Lord who, having made the water recede all round, was pacing up and down in the middle on dust-covered ground, and seeing him he spoke thus to the Lord: “Is it indeed you who are here, great recluse?”

“It is I,[41] Kassapa,” and the Lord having risen up above the ground, placed himself in the boat. Then it occurred to the matted hair ascetic Uruvelakassapa: “Truly the great recluse is of great psychic power, of great might, in that also the water does not carry him away; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.”

Kd.1.20.17 Then it occurred to the Lord: “Now, for a long time it will occur to this foolish man, ‘Truly the great recluse is of BD.4.43 great psychic power, of great might; but yet he is not a perfected one as I am.’ Now, suppose I should deeply stir[42] this matted hair ascetic?” Then the Lord spoke thus to the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā: “Neither are you, Kassapa, a perfected one nor have you entered on the way to perfection, and that course is not for you by which you either could be a perfected one or could have entered on the way to perfection.” Then the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā, having inclined his head to the Lord’s feet, spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may I receive the going forth in the Lord’s presence, may I receive ordination?”

Kd.1.20.18 “It is you, Kassapa, who are leader, guide, highest, chief, head of five hundred matted hair ascetics; do consult these so that they can do what they think (right).” Then the matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Uruvelā approached these matted hair ascetics; having approached, he spoke thus to these matted hair ascetics: “I want, Vin.1.33 good sirs,[43] to fare the Brahma-faring under the great recluse; let the revered sirs[44] do what they think (right).”

“For a long time we, good sir,[45] have been much pleased[46] by the great recluse; if, revered sir,[47] you will fare the Brahma-faring under the great recluse, all of us will fare the Brahma-faring under the great recluse.”

Kd.1.20.19 Then these matted hair ascetics, having let their hair, their braids, their bundles on the carrying-poles,[48] their implements for fire-worship be carried away[49] all mixed up in the water, approached the Lord; having approached, having inclined their heads to the Lord’s feet, they spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may we receive the going forth in the Lord’s presence, may we receive ordination?”

BD.4.44 “Come, monks,” the Lord said, “well taught is dhamma fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill.” So this came to be these venerable ones’ ordination.

Kd.1.20.20 The matted hair ascetic Kassapa of the River saw the hair the braids, the bundles on the carrying-poles, the implements for fire-worship being carried away all mixed up in the water; seeing this, it occurred to him: “I hope my brother is not in danger,” and he dispatched matted hair ascetics saying: “Go and find out about my brother,” and he himself with his three hundred matted hair ascetics approached the venerable Kassapa of Uruvela; having approached he spoke thus to the venerable Kassapa of Uruvela: “Is this better, Kassapa?”

“Yes, friend, this is better.”

Kd.1.20.21 Then these matted hair ascetics …[50] So this came to be these venerable ones’ ordination.

Kd.1.20.22 The matted hair ascetic Kassapa of Gayā saw the hair, the braids, the bundles on the carrying-poles, the implements for fire-worship being carried away all mixed up in the water; seeing this, it occurred to him: “I hope my brothers are not in danger,” and he dispatched matted hair ascetics, saying: “Go and find out about my brothers,” and he himself with his two hundred matted hair ascetics approached the venerable Kassapa of Uruvela; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Kassapa of Uruvelā: “Is this better, Kassapa?”

“Yes, friend, this is better.”

Kd.1.20.23 Then these matted hair ascetics, having let their hair, their braids, their bundles on the carrying-poles, their implements for fire-worship be carried away all mixed up in the water, approached the Lord; having approached, Vin.1.34 having inclined their heads to the Lord’s feet, they spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may we receive the going forth in the Lord’s presence, may we receive ordination?”

“Come, monks,” the Lord said, “well taught is dhamma, fare the Brahma-faring for making an utter end of ill.” So this came to be these venerable ones’ ordination.

Kd.1.20.24 Through the Lord’s psychic resolution, five hundred fire-sticks could not be chopped, (and) were chopped; fires could not be kindled (and) were kindled; could not be extinguished BD.4.45 (and) were extinguished; five hundred fire-vessels were created. In this way there came to be three thousand five hundred marvels.

Kd.1.21.1 Then the Lord, having stayed at Uruvelā for as long as he found suiting, set out on tour for Gayā Head together with a large Order of monks, with all those same thousand monks who had formerly been matted hair ascetics. Then the Lord stayed near Gayā at Gayā Head together with the thousand monks.

Kd.1.21.2 And there the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, everything is burning.[51] And what, monks, is everything that is burning? The eye, monks, is burning, material shapes are burning, consciousness through the eye[52] is burning, impingement on the eye[53] is burning, in other words the feeling which arises from impingement on the eye, be it pleasant or painful or neither painful nor pleasant, that too is burning. With what is it burning? I say it is burning with the fire of passion,[54] with the fire of hatred, with the fire of stupidity; it is burning because of birth, ageing, dying, because of grief, sorrow, suffering, lamentation and despair.

Kd.1.21.3 “The ear is burning, sounds are burning … the nose is burning, odours are burning … the tongue is burning, tastes are burning … the body is burning, tangible objects are burning …the mind is burning, mental states are burning, consciousness through the mind[55] is burning, impingement on the mind is burning, in other words the feeling which raises through impingement on the mind, be it pleasant or painful or neither painful nor pleasant, that too is burning. With what is it burning? I say it is burning with the fire of passion, with the fire of hatred, with the fire of stupidity; it is burning because of birth, ageing, dying, because of grief, sorrow, suffering, lamentation and despair.

Kd.1.21.4 “Seeing this, monks, the instructed disciple of the ariyans disregards the eye and he disregards material shapes and he BD.4.46 disregards consciousness through the eye and he disregards impingement on the eye, in other words the feeling which arises from impingement on the eye, be it pleasant or painful or neither painful nor pleasant, that too he disregards. And he disregards the ear and he disregards sounds, and he disregards the nose Vin.1.35 and he disregards odours, and he disregards the tongue and he disregards tastes, and he disregards the body and he disregards tangible objects, and he disregards the mind and he disregards mental states and he disregards consciousness through the mind and he disregards impingement on the mind, in other words the feeling that arises from impingement on the mind, be it pleasant or painful or neither painful nor pleasant, that too he disregards; disregarding, he is dispassionate; through dispassion he is freed; in freedom the knowledge comes to be, ‘I am freed’, and he comprehends: Destroyed is birth, lived is the Brahma-faring, done is what was to be done, there is no more of being such or such.[56]

And while this discourse was being uttered, the minds of these thousand monks were freed from the cankers without grasping.

Kd.1.21.5 Told is the Disquisition[57] on Burning.

Told is the Third Portion for Repeating: the Wonder(s) at Uruvelā.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Verses at Thag.375–380. At AN.i.25 he is called chief of those disciples who have large followings. Thag-a.i.71 recounts that one of this Kassapa’s followers, Belaṭṭhasīsa, was tamed with him (see below, Kd.20.18, Kd.20.19) and afterwards became Ānanda’s preceptor. These three Kassapas were brothers. They had a sister whose son, Senaka, was converted by the Lord, see Psalms of the Bretheren, p.180. On the three brothers, see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Manual of Buddhism, p.206ff.

2.

I.e. of the river Nerañjarā. His verses at Thag.341. Thag-a on Uruvelākassapa says that Kassapa of the River was so called because he “went forth” at a bend in a great river; and that Kassapa of Gayā was so called because he went forth at Gayāsīsa.

3.

Verses at Thag.345–349.

4.

Cf. Vin.4.107 (BD.2.382) for many similarities with this passage.

5.

Text reads nāge na viheṭhissati, but should be corrected, as Vinaya Texts i.120, n.3 indicates, by parallel passage at Vin.2.195: nāgena viheṭhiyissati, which I follow. Sinhalese edition reads nāgena viheṭhiyati, is harmed by the serpent, which also makes sense if the ascetics, seeing Gotama in flames, thought he was already brought to harm.

6.

For note on this repetition of the story (in this and the next paragraph) in a more popular style, see Vinaya Texts i.120, n.4. Note by Sujato: the “popular style” is in fact verse and has been formatted as such, without changing the text.

7.

ajjuṇho; see BD.2.64, n.1. Vin-a.971 also explains by ajja ekadivasaṃ.

8.

Text reads aggisālamhi; Sinhalese edition aggisaraṇamhi; variant reading at Vin.1.365 aggisālāyaṃ.

9.

agyāgara, as throughout, except for case just referred to.

10.

isi = ṛsi, seer, sage.

11.

Here, instead of being called nāgarājā, king of serpents, he is called ahināga; and here nāga is probably not to be taken as “serpent” but as balancing the nāga in manussanāga, “chief of men,” just below, and therefore as meaning chief, strongest, foremost (something awe-inspiring: cobra, elephant, saint). Cf. mahānāga, used of (chief) disciples, at MN.i.32, MN.i.151; and definition of nāga at MN.i.145 as “synonym for that monk in whom the cankers are destroyed,” and cf. also MN-a.i.153.

12.

See above, BD.4.34, n.1.

13.

Name applied to Gotama now and again in the Piṭakas; DN.iii.196 (“name of the son of the Sakyans”), SN.i.196 = Thag.1252, AN.iii.239, Thag.536, Ja.i.116. See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names and GS.iii.175, n.1. Vin-a.971 says aṅgato raṃsiyo saṃsaranti, flames streamed from his body (limb).

14.

Note that the jaṭila is here referred to as a brahmin.

15.

This invitation seems to cancel the Lord’s request to stay for “one day (only),” and to account for the fact that he stayed on in the woodland grove for several days.

16.

I.e. the four Great Kings, so Vin-a.972.

17.

Reading “Sakka, lord of devas” instead of “the four Great Kings.”

18.

paccupaṭṭhito hoti. It was a sacrifice performed by him.

19.

Cf. the people’s annual festivals mentioned at Psalms of the Bretheren 181, at one of which the Lord converted Kassapa of Uruvelā’s nephew.

20.

Mentioned at Vin.3.7 (BD.1.14). See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, especially for its being considered a mark of great psychic power to be able to go here—a somewhat mythical region.

21.

One of the seven great lakes of the Himalayas. See Dictionary of Pali Proper Names.

22.

Terminalia Arjuna according to Pali-English Dictionary. Cf. Ja.vi.518–519, Dhp-a.iv.153, Ajjuna at Buddhavaṃsa viii.23 and Dhp-a.i.105 is the tree of the Buddha Anomadassin. Vin-a.972 calls it ajjunarukkha, which Pali-English Dictionary calls Pentaptera Arjuna.

23.

vissajjeyyaṃ, explained at Vin-a.972 as sukkhāpanatthāya pasāretvā ṭhapeyyaṃ (where) can I put it, stretching it out to dry?

24.

amanussena. Cf. Vin.3.85 (and BD.1.147, n.2).

25.

nikkhittā, instead of, as previously, upanikkhi-.

26.

āhara-hattha.

27.

The name Kassapa is omitted here.

28.

Jambudīpa, usually meaning India.

29.

āmalakī (here and at MN.i.456; elsewhere āmalaka), phyllanthus emblica. The fruit allowed to monks as a medicine, Vin.1.201. Cf. Vin.1.278.

30.

harītakī. Fruit also allowed as a medicine at Vin.1.201. Cf. MN.iii.127.

31.

I.e. to the realm of the Thirty (or Thirty-three) Devas, tāvatiṃsa.

32.

pāricchattaka, “shading all round,” Erythrina Indica. (mythical) tree growing in the Tavatiṃsa realm. At AN.iv.117 the devas’ rejoicings at each stage in the development of shoot and bloom are set out. See GS.iv.78ff. for notes. Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, missing the above Vinaya reference, asserts that the flowers are never plucked. In that case this is a noteworthy exception.

33.

sakid eva, just once, once only. There was doubtless one stick “for each of the five hundred jaṭilas over whom Kassapa was chief ” (Vinaya Texts i.129).

34.

It is clear therefore that the fires were not kept burning perpetually.

35.

antaraṭṭhakāsu, the aṭṭhakā days which, according to Vin-a.1128, are “the eight (days) between Māgha and Phagguṇa” (names of lunar mansions). Cf. MN-a.ii.48 (on MN.i.79) “four at the end of the month of Māgha, four at the beginning of the month of Phagguṇa, thus between the two there are eight nights.” Cf. AN-a.ii.225 (on AN.i.136), “the time extends for eight days in the interval between Māgha and Phagguṇa. For there are four days at the end of Māgha and four at the beginning of Phagguṇa, this is called ‘occurring between the eights’” (antaraṭṭhako) See Vin.1.288, Ud.1.9, Ud-a.74. Translated at Sacred Books of the Buddhists viii, p.7 as “between the eighths”; at GS.i.119, Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.55 as “in the dark half of the month(s)”; at Vinaya Texts i.130, Vinaya Texts ii.211 as “between the Aṣṭakā festivals.” Critical Pali Dictionary gives “occurring between the eights.” The translation “eighths” is justified by the meaning of ashṭakā (feminine) as the “eighth day after full moon” (Monier Williams). But “eights” seem preferred by the Commentaries. See notes at Sacred Books of the Buddhists viii.p.7, GS.i.119, Vinaya Texts i.130.

36.

Cf. Ud.6 for parallel passage. It would appear that jaṭilas practised purification by fire and water; cf. ceremonial bathing at Gayā mentioned by Kassapa of Gayā, Thag.345.

37.

mandāmukhi. Vin-a.972 calls these aggibhājāni.

38.

Same word, visibbeti, as used in Bu-Pc.56; see BD.2.398, n.3.

39.

sañjāyi, literally was born, was produced.

40.

Cf. same expression at Vin.3.213 (BD.2.48).

41.

Emphatic: ayam ah’asmi.

42.

saṃvejeyyaṃ. Cf. this word, as used above, with other examples of it given by A.K. Coomaraswamy, Saṃvega, ‘Aesthetic Shock’, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, Feb., 1943.

43.

bho.

44.

bhavanto.

45.

bho.

46.

In the sense of believing in his teaching.

47.

bhavaṃ.

48.

khārikāja, which Vin-a.972 explains as khāri-bhāra. Khāri is a three bushel measure, kāja (= vividha, vivadha) is the shoulder-pole on which some ascetics and wanderers carried their property, their khāri. DN-a.269 calls khāri the requisites of an ascetic: kindling wood, water pot, needle and so on. Cf. khāri-vividha at Ud.65 = SN.i.78, and DN.i.101.

49.

pavāhetvā. Pavāheti is to cause to be carried away, and hence to cleanse, to wash away (evil). Perhaps a dual reference is intended here. Cf. Thag.346 (Kassapa of Gayā’s verses).

50.

Repeating Kd.1.20.19 for the followers of Kassapa of the River.

51.

Quoted at Kv.209.

52.

cakkhuviññaṇa, i.e. cognising by the eye, vision or seeing. See Buddhist Psychological Ethics, 2nd edition, p.161, n.5; Dialogues of the Buddha ii.340, Dialogues of the Buddha iii.230; and cf. MN.i.111f.

53.

cakkhusamphassa, or impression on, or contact with, the eye.

54.

Quoted at Snp-a.32.

55.

manoviññāṇa, i.e. cognising by the mind, ‘apprehending’.

56.

As above, BD.4.21.

57.

pariyāya.

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