Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

15. Minor matters (Khuddaka)

Kd.15.1.1 BD.5.141 At one time the Awakened One, the Lord was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. Now at that time the group of six monks, while they were bathing, rubbed their bodies against a tree and their thighs and their arms and their chests and their backs. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, while they are bathing, rub their bodies against a tree … and their backs, like boxers and wrestlers and young villagers?”[1] Monks heard these people who were … spreading it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the monks, saying: “Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks … and their backs?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“Monks, it is not suitable in these foolish men, it is not becoming, it is not fitting, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be done. How, monks, can these foolish men, while they are bathing, rub their bodies against a tree … and their backs? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” and having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, while a monk is bathing he should not rub his body against a tree. Whoever should (so) rub it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[2]

Kd.15.1.2 BD.5.142 Now at that time the group of six monks, while they were bathing, rubbed their bodies against a post … as in Kd.15.1.1. For tree read post … “… offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks, while they were bathing, rubbed their bodies against a wall[3]… “… offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.1.3 Now at that time the group of six monks used to bathe on a rubbing-board.[4] People spread it about, saying: “Like householders Vin.2.106 who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” Monks heard these people who … spread it about … Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, you should not bathe on a rubbing-board. Whoever should (so) bathe, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks used to bathe using a gandhabba-hand (instrument)[5] … “… Monks, you should not bathe using a gandhabba-hand (instrument). Whoever should (so) bathe, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks used to bathe using a string of vermilion covered beads.[6] … “… Monks, you should not bathe using a string of vermilion covered beads. Whoever should (so) bathe, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.1.4 Now at that time the group of six monks, having plunged into[7] (water), causing a rubbing to be made.[8] … “Monks, you should not, having plunged into (water), cause a rubbing BD.5.143 to be made. Whoever should (so) cause it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks used to bathe using a scrubber.[9] … “Monks, you should not bathe using a scrubber. Whoever should (so) bathe, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time a certain monk came to be afflicted by a scab disease, and there came to be no comfort for him without a scrubber. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, one who is ill (to use) an unshaped scrubber.[10]


Kd.15.1.5 Now at that time a certain monk, weak through age, was not able while bathing to rub his own body. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a strip of cloth.[11]


Now at that time the monks were doubtful how to give a rubbing to their backs.[12] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, the ordinary mode with the hand.[13]


Kd.15.2.1 Now at that time the group of six monks wore ear ornaments, they wore chains,[14] they wore ornamental strings of beads for the throat,[15] they wore ornaments at the waist,[16] they wore bangles,[17] they wore armlets,[18] they wore bracelets,[19] they wore BD.5.144 finger rings. People … spread it about, saying … he addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, ear ornaments should not be worn, chains … ornamental strings of beads for the throat … ornaments at the waist … bangles … armlets … bracelets … finger rings should not be worn. Whoever should wear (any of these things), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.2.2 Now at that time Vin.2.107 the group of six monks wore their hair long. People … spread it about … he addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, long hair should not be worn. Whoever should wear it (long), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow it to be of a two months’ growth or two finger-breadths (in length).


Kd.15.2.3 Now at that time the group of six monks smoothed their hair with a comb, they smoothed their hair with an instrument shaped like a snake’s hood,[20] they smoothed their hair with their hands used as an instrument shaped like a snake’s hood,[21] they smoothed their hair with oil of beeswax,[22] they smoothed their hair with oily water. People looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, the hair should not be smoothed with a comb … the hair should not be smoothed with oily water. Whoever should smooth it (in any of these ways), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.2.4 Now at that time the group of six monks examined a mark on the face in a mirror and in a water-bowl.[23] People spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a mark on the face should not be examined in a mirror or in a water-bowl. Whoever should (so) examine it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.” Now at that time a certain monk had a sore on his face. He asked monks, saying: “What kind of sore have I, your reverences?” The monks BD.5.145 spoke thus: “The sore is of such and such a kind, your reverence.” He did not believe them. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, on account of a disease, to examine a mark on the face in a mirror or in a water-bowl.


Kd.15.2.5 Now at that time the group of six monks anointed their faces,[24] they rubbed (paste) into their faces, they powdered their faces with chunam, they smeared their faces with red arsenic, they painted their limbs, they painted their faces, they painted their limbs and faces. People spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, the face should not be anointed, the face should not be rubbed (with paste), the face should not be powdered with chunam, the face should not be smeared with red arsenic, the limbs should not be painted, the face should not be painted, limbs and faces should not be painted. Whoever should do (any of these things), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time a certain monk was afflicted by a disease of the eyes. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, on account of disease, to anoint the face.


Kd.15.2.6 Now at that time there was a festival on a mountain-top in Rājagaha.[25] The group of six monks went to see the festival on the mountain-top. People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans come to see dancing and singing and music Vin.2.108 like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not go to see dancing[26] or singing or music. Whoever should go, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.3.1 Now at that time the group of six monks sang dhamma with a long-drawn plain-song sound.[27] People … spread it about, saying: “Even as we sing, so do these recluses, sons of the Sakyans sing dhamma with a long-drawn plain-song BD.5.146 sound.” Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks sing dhamma with a long-drawn plain-song sound?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said …?”

“It is true, Lord.” … Having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, there are these five disadvantages to one singing dhamma with a long-drawn plain-song sound: he is pleased with himself in regard to that sound, and others are pleased in regard to that sound, and housepeople look down upon, and while he is himself striving after accuracy in the sound[28] there is an interruption in his concentration, and people coming after fall into the way of (wrong) views.[29] These, monks, are the five disadvantages to one singing dhamma with a long-drawn plain-song sound. Monks, dhamma should not be sung with a long-drawn plain-song sound. Whoever should (so) sing it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.3.2 Now at that time monks were doubtful about intoning.[30] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, I allow intoning.


Kd.15.4.1 Now at that time the group of six monks wore woollen clothes with the fleece outside. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasure of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, woollen clothes with the fleece outside should not be worn. Whoever should wear them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[31]


Kd.15.5.1 Now at that time the mango trees in the park of King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha were bearing fruit and it was made known by King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha: “Let the masters make as much use of the mangoes as they please.” BD.5.147 The group of six monks, having made even young mangoes fall, made use of them. And Vin.2.109 King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha wanted a mango. Then King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha enjoined people, saying: “Go, good sirs, having gone to the park, bring back a mango.”

“Very well, your majesty,” and these people having answered King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha in assent, having gone to the park, spoke thus to the park keeper: “Good sir, his majesty wants a mango, give (us) a mango.”

“There is not a mango, masters; the monks having made even young mangoes fall, have made use of them.” Then these people told this matter to King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha. He said: “Good sirs, mangoes are much enjoyed by the masters, yet it is moderation that the Lord extols.” People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, not knowing moderation, make use of the king’s mangoes?” Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, mangoes should not be made use of. Whoever should make use of them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[32]


Kd.15.5.2 Now at that time a certain guild came to have food for an Order.[33] Mango peels were put into the curry. Monks, being scrupulous, did not accept. (The Lord said:) “Accept it, monks, make use of it. I allow you, monks, mango peels.” Now at that time a Certain guild came to have food for an Order. They did not know how to prepare the peels; they walked into the refectory with the mangoes whole. Monks, being scrupulous, did not accept. (The Lord said:) “Accept them, monks, make use of them. I allow you, monks, to make use of fruit that in five ways is allowable for recluses:[34] if it is damaged[35] by fire, damaged by a knife, damaged by (one’s) nail, if it is seedless, and the fifth is if the seeds are discharged.[36] I allow you, monks, to make use of fruit that in these five ways is allowable to recluses.


Kd.15.6.1 BD.5.148 Now at that time a certain monk, bitten by a snake, passed away.[37] They told this matter to the lord. He said: “Monks, this monk certainly did not suffuse with loving-kindness of mind the four royal snake families. For if, monks, this monk had suffused with loving-kindness of mind the four royal snake families, then this monk, although bitten by a snake, would not have passed away. What are the four royal snake families? The royal snake family of Virūpakkha,[38] the royal snake family of Erāpatha, the royal snake family of Chabyāputta, the royal snake family of Kaṇhāgotamaka. Vin.2.110 Monks, this monk certainly did not suffuse with loving-kindness of mind these four royal snake families. For if, monks, this monk had suffused with loving-kindness of mind these four royal snake families, then this monk, although bitten by a snake, would not have passed away. Monks, I allow you to suffuse with loving-kindness of mind these four royal snake families, (and) to make a charm[39] for the self for self-protection, for self-guarding. And thus, monks, should it be made:

“‘Love from me for the Virūpakkhas,[40]
Love from me for the Erāpathas,
Love from me for the Chabyāputtas,
Love from me for the Kaṇhāgotamakas.

“Love from me for the footless,
Love for the two-footed from me,
Love from me for the four-footed,
Love for the many-footed from me.

“Do not let the footless harm me,
Do not let the two-footed harm me,
Do not let the four-footed harm me,
Do not let the many-footed harm me.

BD.5.149

“May all beings, all breathers, all creatures every one,
See all lucky things;[41] may no evil whatever come.

“Immeasurable is the Awakened One,
immeasurable dhamma,
immeasurable the Order.
Limited are creeping things: snakes, scorpions,
centipedes, spinning spiders, lizards, mice.

“A protection has been made by me, a charm made by me;
Let the creatures withdraw.
I, even I, honour the Lord,
I honour the seven fully self-awakened Ones.’

“I allow you, monks, to let blood.[42]


Kd.15.7.1 Now at that time a certain monk, tormented by dissatisfaction, cut off his own male organ. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “This foolish man, monks, cut off one thing when another should have been cut off. Monks, one should not cut off one’s own male organ. Whoever should cut it off, there is a grave offence.


Kd.15.8.1 Now at that time a block of sandal-wood of costly choice sandal-wood had accrued to a (great) merchant of Rājagaha.[43] Then it occurred to this (great) merchant of Rājagaha: “Suppose that I were to have a bowl carved out of this block of sandal-wood? The chips will be for my enjoyment, and I can also give away the bowl as a gift.” Then that (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having had a bowl carved out of that block of sandal-wood, having put a string round it,[44] having hung it up on the top of a bamboo (-pole), having tied it to a series of bamboo (-poles); spoke thus: “Let whatever recluse or brahmin who is a perfected one as well as of psychic power get down this bowl and (to him) it is given.”[45] Vin.2.111 Then Pūraṇa BD.5.150 Kassapa[46] approached the (great) merchant of Rājagaha; having approached, he spoke thus to the (great) merchant of Rājagaha:

“Now I, householder, am a perfected one as well as of psychic power; give me the bowl.”

“If, revered sir, the venerable one is a perfected one as well as of psychic power, let him fetch down the bowl and it is given (to him.)”

Then Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalin, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta, Nātaputta the Jain approached the (great) merchant of Rājagaha; having approached … “… it is given (to him).”


Now at that time the venerable Moggallāna the Great and the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja,[47] having dressed in the morning, taking (each) his bowl and robe, entered Rājagaha for almsfood. Then the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja spoke thus to the venerable Moggallāna the Great:

“The venerable Moggallāna the Great is a perfected one as well as of psychic power. Go along, reverend Moggallāna, fetch down this bowl; this bowl is for you.”

“The venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja a perfected one as well as of psychic power. Go along, reverend Bhāradvāja, fetch down this bowl; this bowl is for you.”

Then the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja, having risen above the ground,[48] having taken hold of that bowl, circled three times round Rājagaha. Now at that time, the (great) merchant of Rājagaha was standing with his wife and children in his own dwelling holding up his joined palms in salutation, paying homage, and saying: “Honoured sir, let master Bhāradvāja come to rest just here at our dwelling.” Then the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja came to rest at the dwelling of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha. Then the (great) merchant of Rājagaha, having taken the bowl from BD.5.151 the hand of the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja, having filled it with costly solid foods, bestowed it on the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja. Then the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja, having taken hold of that bowl, went off to the monastery.

Kd.15.8.2 People heard: “It is said that the bowl of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha was fetched down by master Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja,” and these people (making) a loud noise, a great noise, followed close after the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja. Then the Lord heard the loud noise, the great noise, and having heard it, he addressed the venerable Ānanda, saying: “What on earth, Ānanda, is this loud noise, this great noise?”

“Lord, the bowl of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha has been fetched down by the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja. Lord, people heard: ‘It is said that the bowl of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha was fetched down by the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja, and, Lord, these people (making) a loud noise, a great noise, have followed close after the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja’; this, Lord, is the loud noise, the great noise which the Lord (hears).”

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, Vin.2.112 questioned the venerable Piṇḍola the Bhāradvāja, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, Bhāradvāja, that the bowl of the (great) merchant of Rājagaha was fetched down by you?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying:

“It is not suiting, Bhāradvāja, it is not becoming, it is not fitting, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be done. How can you, Bhāradvāja, on account of a wretched wooden bowl exhibit a condition of further-men,[49] a wonder of psychic power to householders? As, Bhāradvāja, a woman exhibits her loin-cloth on account of a wretched stamped māsaka,[50] even so by you, Bhāradvāja, was a condition of further-men, a wonder of psychic power exhibited to householders on account of a wretched wooden bowl. It is not, BD.5.152 Bhāradvāja, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, a condition of further-men, a wonder of psychic power is not to be exhibited to householders.[51] Whoever should exhibit them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Break, monks, this wooden bowl; having reduced it to fragments, give them to monks as perfume to mix with ointment.[52] And, monks, a wooden bowl should not be used.[53] Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.9.1 Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of bowls, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, a bowl made of gold should not be used,[54] a bowl made of silver should not be used, a bowl made of pearls … made of beryl … made of crystal … made of bronze … made of glass … made of tin … made of lead … a bowl made of copper should not be used. Whoever should use (any of these), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, two (kinds of) bowls: an iron bowl, a clay bowl.[55]


Kd.15.9.2 Now at that time the bases of the bowls were rubbed. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a circular bowl-rest.


Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of circular bowl-rests, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, various kinds of circular bowl-rests should not be used. Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, two (kinds of) circular bowl-rests; BD.5.153 made of tin, made of lead.” The thick circular rests could not be inserted.[56] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to plane them.” There were jags (on them).[57] Vin.2.113 They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to cut swordfish teeth.[58]


Now at that time the group of six monks used carved[59] circular bowl-rests, loaded with little figures, made with ornamentations, and they toured about showing these on carriage-roads. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, carved circular bowl-rests should not be used. Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, ordinary circular rests.[60]


Kd.15.9.3 Now at that time monks (each) put away his bowl with water in it and a bowl was spoiled. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be put away with water in it. Whoever should (so) put it away, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to put away a bowl having dried it in the sun.[61]


Now at that time monks (each) dried his bowl in the sun with water in it and a bowl came to smell nasty. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl with water in it should not be dried in the sun. Whoever should (so) dry it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to put away a bowl having emptied it of water,[62] having dried it in the sun.


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl in the heat and the colour of a bowl was spoiled. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside in the heat. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to BD.5.154 put away a bowl, having dried it for a short time in the sun’s heat.[63]


Kd.15.9.4 Now at that time many bowls came to be laid aside in the open air without a prop. Having been blown against one another by gusts of wind, the bowls were broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a little prop for bowls.


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl at the edge of a solid bench.[64] Having fallen down, a bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside at the edge of a solid bench. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl at the edge of a plaster flooring.[65] Having fallen down, a bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside at the edge of a plaster flooring. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks (each) turned his bowl upside down[66] on the ground. A rim was rubbed. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a grass mat.[67] The grass mat was eaten by white ants. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a piece of cloth.” The piece of cloth was eaten by white ants. Vin.2.114 They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a bowl-stand.[68] Having fallen down from a bowl-stand, a BD.5.155 bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a wicker stand for bowls.[69] A bowl was rubbed on the wicker stand for the bowls. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a bag for bowls.” There was no strap at the edge. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying.[70]


Kd.15.9.5 Now at that time monks (each) hung his bowl on a peg in the wall[71] and on an “elephant-tusk” (peg).[72] Having fallen down, a bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be hung up. Whoever should hang one up, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl on a couch. Sitting down heedlessly, they broke a bowl having sat down (hard) on it.[73] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside on a couch. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing.” … The same repeated for laying aside a bowl on a chair


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl on his lap. They got up heedlessly and a bowl, having fallen down, was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside on a lap. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks (each) laid aside his bowl in a sunshade.[74] A sunshade was lifted up by gusts of wind[75] and having fallen down a bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl should not be laid aside in a sunshade. Whoever should (so) lay it aside, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks (each) opened a door[76] when he had a bowl in his hand. As a door was blowing to and fro, a bowl was broken. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a door should not be opened when one has a bowl BD.5.156 in one’s hand. Whoever should (so) open it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.10.1 Now at that time monks went about for almsfood (to be put) into a gourd.[77] People … spread it about, saying: “Like members of other sects.”[78] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not go about for almsfood (to be put) into a gourd. Whoever should (so) go about, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks Vin.2.115 went about for almsfood (to be put) into a water-pot. People … (as above) … “offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.10.2 Now at that time a certain monk came to be a wearer of nothing but rag-robes;[79] he carried a bowl made from a skull. A certain woman, terrified at having seen him, uttered a scream of horror;[80] “How terrible for me, indeed it is a demon[81] after me.” People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans carry a bowl made from a skull, like demon-worshippers?”[82] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a bowl made from a skull should not be carried. Whoever should carry one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Nor, monks, should you be a wearer of nothing but rag-robes. Whoever should be, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.10.3 Now at that time monks took back in their bowls odd bits and bones and impure water.[83] People … spread it about, saying: “That very thing from which these recluses, sons of the Sakyans eat, that is simply their waste-tub.”[84] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, odd bits and bones and impure water should not be taken back in a bowl. Whoever should (so) take (these things) back, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, a waste-tub.

Kd.15.11.1 BD.5.157 Now at that time monks were sewing robe-material having ripped it up with their hands. The robe-material became unsightly.[85] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a small knife, a piece of felt[86] (to wrap round it).” Now at that time a small knife with a handle[87] accrued to the Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a small knife with a handle.” Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of small knives with handles, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of small knives with handles should not be used. Whoever should use (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow them, monks, to be made of bone, made of ivory, made of horn, made of reeds, made of bamboo, made of pieces of stick, made of lac, made of crystal, made of copper, made of the inside of a conch-shell.[88]


Kd.15.11.2 Now at that time monks sewed robe-material with a cock’s feather and with bamboo-rind[89] and the robe-material came to be badly sewn. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, I allow you a needle.” The needles became rusty.[90]I allow you, monks, Vin.2.116 a tube for (holding) the needles.[91] Even in the tubes they became rusty. “I allow you, monks, to fill them with yeast.[92] Even in the yeast they became rusty. “I allow you, monks, to fill them with barley-meal.[93] Even in the barley-meal they became rusty. “I allow you, monks, powdered stone.” Even in the powdered stone they became rusty. “I allow you, monks, to have it mixed with BD.5.158 beeswax.” The powdered stone broke up.“I allow you, monks, powdered stone (mixed) with gum.[94]


Kd.15.11.3 Now at that time monks, having driven in posts here and there, having tied them together, sewed robe-material. The robe-material became misshapen at the corners.[95] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a kaṭhina-frame[96] (and) strings for the kaṭhina-frame[97] (and) to sew robe-material having tied it down here and there.” They spread out a kaṭhina-frame in an uneven place; the kaṭhina-frame was split. “Monks, a kaṭhina-frame should not be spread out in an uneven place. Whoever should (so) spread one out, there is an offence of wrong-doing.” They spread out a kaṭhina-frame on the ground. The kaṭhina-frame was soiled by dust. “I allow you, monks, a grass mat.[98] An edge of the kaṭhina-frame was injured.[99]I allow you, monks, to put on a braiding, a binding.[100] The kaṭhina-frame was not large enough.[101]I allow you, monks, a stick in the kaṭhina-frame,[102] BD.5.159 a skewer,[103] a slip of wood,[104] a cord for tying,[105] a thread for tying,[106] and having tied the robe-material, to sew it.” The spaces between the threads became unequal.[107]I allow you, monks, a mark[108] (to keep the spaces between the threads equal).” The threads became crooked. “I allow you, monks, a false thread.[109]


Kd.15.11.4 Now at that time monks trod on a kaṭhina-frame with unwashed feet; the kaṭhina-frame was damaged. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a kaṭhina-frame should not be trodden upon if your feet are unwashed. Whoever should (so) tread upon (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks trod on a kaṭhina-frame with damp feet … He said: “Monks, a kaṭhina-frame should not be trodden upon if your feet are damp. Whoever should (so) tread upon (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time monks trod on a kaṭhina-frame with their sandals on.[110] … He said: “Monks, a kaṭhina-frame should not be trodden upon if you have your sandals on. Whoever should (so) tread upon (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.11.5 Now at that time monks, sewing robes, pricked[111] their fingers; their fingers became painful. They told this matter to the Lord. He said. “Monks, I allow a thimble.[112] Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of thimbles, made of gold, made of silver. Vin.2.117 People … spread it BD.5.160 about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of thimbles should not be used. Whoever should use them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow them, monks, to be made of bone … made of the inside of a conch-shell.


Now at that time needles and small knives and thimbles were lost. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a small bowl to hold (these things in).[113] (The contents of) the small bowls got in a muddle. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a bag for thimbles.” There was no strap at the edge. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying.[114]


Kd.15.11.6 Now at that time as monks were sewing robes in the open air they were bothered by cold and heat.[115] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a hall for the kaṭhina-frame, a hut for the kaṭhina-frame.” A hall for the kaṭhina-frame was low to the ground,[116] it was flooded by water. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make it high to the ground.” The piling collapsed. “I allow you, monks, to pile up three (kinds of) pilings: a piling of bricks, a piling of stones, a piling of wood.[117] They were inconvenienced as they were ascending. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) staircases: a staircase of bricks, a staircase of stones, a staircase of wood.” As they were ascending they fell off. “I allow, monks, a balustrade.”[118] Powdered grass[119] fell into the hall for the kaṭhina-frame. “I allow you, monks, having lashed[120] on (a roof[121]), to give a BD.5.161 smearing inside and outside,[122] whitewash,[123] black colouring, red chalk, wreath-work, creeper-work, swordfish teeth, the five (pieces of) cloth design, a bamboo for hanging up robe-material,[124] a cord for hanging up robe-material.[125]


Kd.15.11.7 Now at that time monks, having sewn robe-material, went away having left the kaṭhina-frame at that very place, and it was eaten by rats and white ants. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to fold up the kaṭhina-frame.” A kaṭhina-frame was split. “I allow you, monks, to fold up the kaṭhina-frame by using a wooden rod.[126] A kaṭhina-frame was twisted out of position.[127]I allow you, monks, a cord for tying it.” Now at that time monks, having lifted up the kaṭhina-frame on to walls and posts, went away and the kaṭhina-frame, having fallen down, was split. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to hang it on a peg in a wall or on an ‘elephant-tusk’ (peg).


Kd.15.12.1 Then the Lord having stayed in Rājagaha for as long as he found suiting set out on tour for Vesālī. Now at that time Vin.2.118 the monks went along (each) taking his needle and small knife and medicine in his bowl. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a bag for medicine.” There was no strap at the edge. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying.


Now at that time a certain monk, having tied his sandals to his girdle entered a village for almsfood. A certain lay-follower, greeting that monk, knocked up against the sandals with his head. That monk became ashamed. Then that monk, having arrived at a monastery, told this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: BD.5.162I allow you, monks, a bag for sandals.” There was no strap at the edge. “I allow you, monks, a strap at the edge, a thread for tying.


Kd.15.13.1 Now at that time on a certain road there was water that was not allowable[128] (for) there was no strainer. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a strainer.” A little piece of cloth was not enough. “I allow, monks, a strainer on a ladle.” The little piece of cloth was not enough. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow a regulation waterpot.[129]


Kd.15.13.2 Now at that time two monks were going along a high road in the Kosalan country. Ore monk indulged in bad habits.[130] The other monk spoke thus to that monk: “Do not do that, your reverence, it is not allowable.” He grumbled at him. Then that monk, tormented by thirst, spoke thus to the monk who had grumbled: “Give me the strainer,[131] your reverence, I will drink (some) water.” The monk who had grumbled did not give it. That monk passed away, tormented by thirst. Then that monk, having arrived at a monastery, told this matter to the monks. They said: “But did you, your reverence, (although) being asked, not give a strainer?”

“No, your reverences.” Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can this monk, when being asked for a strainer, not give it?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned this monk, saying:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monk, when being asked for a strainer, did not give it?”

“It is true, Lord.” The enlightened one, the Lord rebuked him, saying:

“It is not suitable in you, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not fitting, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, BD.5.163 it is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, when being asked for a strainer, not give it? It is not, Vin.2.119 foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, if a monk is going along a highroad and is being asked for a strainer, he should not not give it. Whoever should not give it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. Nor, monks, should you go along a highway without a strainer. Whoever should (so) go, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If there is not a strainer nor a regulation water-pot, then a corner of the outer cloak should be determined upon with the words, ‘I will drink (water) having strained it with this’.”


Kd.15.13.3 Then the Lord, walking on tour gradually arrived at Vesālī. The Lord stayed there in Vesālī in the Great Grove at the Hall of the Gabled Pillars. Now at that time monks were making repairs. The water-strainer did not cease (to be in use[132]). They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a double water-strainer.[133] The double water-strainer did not cease (to be in use). They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a filter.[134] Now at that time monks were pestered by mosquitoes. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a mosquito-net.[135]


Kd.15.14.1 Now at that time at Vesālī a succession of meals of sumptuous foods came to be arranged.[136] Monks, having eaten the BD.5.164 sumptuous foods, became very ill with their bodies full of (bad) humours.[137] Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca went to Vesālī on some business or other. Jīvaka Komārabhacca saw the monks who were very ill with their bodies full of (bad) humours; seeing them, he approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, Jīvaka Komārabhacca spoke thus to the Lord:

“At present, Lord, monks are very ill with their bodies full of (bad) humours. It were well, Lord, if the Lord allowed the monks a place for pacing up and down in and a bathroom.[138] Thus will the monks come to have few afflictions.”[139] Then the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Jīvaka Komārabhacca with talk on dhamma. Then Jīvaka Komārabhacca, gladdened … delighted by the Lord with talk on dhamma, rising from his seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping his right side towards him. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

I allow, monks, a place for pacing up and down in, and a bathroom.


Kd.15.14.2 Now at that time Vin.2.120 monks paced up and down in an uneven place for pacing up and down in; their feet became painful. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make it level.” A place for pacing up and down in was low to the ground; it was flooded by water. “I allow you, monks, to make it high to the groundas in Kd.15.11.6I allow you, monks, a balustrade.


Now at that time, monks, as they were pacing up and down in the place for pacing up and down in, fell off. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a railing round the place for pacing up and down in.[140] Now at that time monks, pacing up and down in the open air, were bothered BD.5.165 by cold and heat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a hall in the place for pacing up and down in.” Powdered grass fell into the hall in the place for pacing up and down in. “I allow you, monks, having lashed on (a roof) … as in Kd.15.11.6 … a cord for hanging up robe-material.

Kd.15.14.3 A bathroom was low to the ground; it was flooded by water. “I allow you, monks, to make it high to the ground … as in Kd.15.11.6 … a balustrade.” There was no door[141] to a bathroom. “I allow, monks, a door, a doorpost and lintel,[142] a hollow like a mortar (for the door to revolve in[143]), a small upper projection,[144] a post for the bolt,[145] a ‘monkey’s head,’[146] a pin (to secure the bolt),[147] a (stick used as a) bolt,[148] a keyhole,[149] a hole for pulling through (the cord),[150] cord for pulling through.”[151]

The lower part of the lath and plaster wall[152] of a bathroom decayed. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to make a facing (round it).[153] The BD.5.166 bathroom had no pipe for the steam.[154]I allow, monks, a pipe for the steam.


Now at that time monks made a fireplace in the middle of a small bathroom, and there was no access.[155]I allow you, monks, to make a fireplace at one side of a small bathroom, in the middle of a large one.” The fire in the bathroom scorched their faces. “I allow, monks, clay for the face.[156] They moistened the clay with their hands. “I allow, monks, a tub for the clay.” The clay came to smell nasty. “I allow you, monks, to cure[157] it.” The fire in the bathroom scorched their bodies. “I allow you, monks, to take in water.” They took in water in dishes and bowls. “I allow you, monks, a receptacle for water,[158] a saucer[159] for the water.” A bathroom with a grass roofing did not make them sweat. “I allow you, monks, having lashed on (a roof),[160] to give it a smearing inside and outside.” The bathroom became swampy. “I allow you, monks, to spread three (kinds of) spreadings: a spreading of bricks, a spreading of stones, a spreading of wood.[161] Even so it became swampy. “I allow you, monks, to wash it.” Water remained. “I allow, monks, a drain for the water.[162] Now at that time monks sat down Vin.2.121 on the ground in a bathroom and they got pins and needles in their limbs. “I allow, monks, a chair for the bathroom.” Now at that time a bathroom was not fenced in. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences to fence it in with: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.[163]

Kd.15.14.4 There was no porch.[164]I allow, monks, a porch.” The porch was low to the ground; it was flooded by water. “I allow you, monks, to make it high to the ground … as in BD.5.167 Kd.15.11.6 … a balustrade.” There was no door to the porch. “I allow, monks, a door, doorposts and lintel … as in Kd.15.14.3 … a hole for pulling through (the cord), cord for pulling through.” Powdered grass fell on to the porch.“I allow you, monks, having lashed on (a roof), to give it a smearing inside and outside, whitewash, black colouring, red chalk, garland design, creeper design, swordfish teeth, the five (pieces of) cloth design.[165]

Kd.15.14.5 A cell became swampy.[166]I allow you, monks, to sprinkle gravel.[167] They did not succeed in doing so. “I allow you, monks, to lay down flagstones.” Water remained. “I allow, monks, a drain for the water.[168]


Kd.15.15.1 Now at that time monks, while naked,[169] greeted others who were naked and caused others who were naked to greet them; did a service to others who were naked and made others do a service to those who were naked; while naked they gave to others who were naked, accepted naked, ate naked, partook of naked, tasted naked, drank naked. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, one who is naked should neither greet nor be greeted by one who is naked; one who is naked should not cause another to greet nor to be greeted by one who is naked; a service for one who is naked should not be done by one who is naked, a service for one who is naked should not be caused to be done by one who is naked; one who is naked should not give to a naked one, one who is naked should not accept, one who is naked should not eat, one who is naked should not partake of, … should not taste … should not drink. Whoever should (so) drink, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.16.1 Now at that time monks laid aside their robes on the ground in a bathroom; the robes became soiled with dust.[170] They BD.5.168 told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a bamboo for robes, a cord for robes.” When it rained the robes got wet. “I allow, Vin.2.122 monks, a hall in the bathroom.” The hall in the bathroom was low to the ground. “I allow, monks, … as in Kd.15.11.6 … a balustrade.” Powdered grass fell on to the hall in the bathroom. “I allow you, monks, having lashed on (a roof) … as in Kd.15.11.6 … a bamboo for robes, a cord for robes.


Kd.15.16.2 Now at that time monks were doubtful about doing a service both when in a bathroom and in the water. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) coverings: a covering to the bathroom, a covering to the water, a covering by clothes.[171]


Now at that time there was no water in a bathroom. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a well.” The facing of the well fell in.[172]I allow you, monks, to pile up three (kinds of) pilings: a piling of bricks, a piling of stones, a piling of wood.” The well was low to the ground … as in Kd.15.11.6… I allow, monks, a balustrade.


Now at that time monks drew water by means of jungle rope, and by means of a waistband. “I allow you, monks, a cord for drawing water.” Their hands became painful. “I allow, monks, a well-sweep,[173] a hand-wheel,[174] a wheel and buckets.[175] Many vessels were broken. “I allow monks, three (kinds of) jars: a copper jar, a wooden jar, strips of animals’ hide.[176]


Now at that time monks, drawing water in the open air, were bothered by cold and heat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a hall for a well.” Powdered grass fell on to the hall for a well. “I allow, monks, BD.5.169as in Kd.15.11.6 … a bamboo for robes, a cord for robes.” The well was not covered. It was littered with powdered grass and with dust. “I allow, monks, a lid.[177] There was no vessel for the water. “I allow, monks, a trough for water, a pot[178] for water.


Kd.15.17.1 Now at that time monks bathed here, there and everywhere in a monastery; the monastery became swampy. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a pool.” The pool was public. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences to fence it in: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.[179] The pool became swampy. “I allow you, monks, to spread three (kinds of) spreadings: a spreading of bricks, a spreading of stones, a spreading of wood.[180] The water remained. “I allow, monks, a drain.[181] Now at that time monks’ limbs cooled down. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a wiper (with which to wipe off) the water[182] and to sponge yourselves down with a cloth.[183]

Kd.15.17.2 Now at that Vin.2.123 time a certain lay follower was anxious to build a tank for an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a tank.” The facing of the tank fell in.[184]I allow you, monks, to pile up three (kinds of) pilings: a piling of bricks, a piling of stones, a piling of wood.[185] They were inconvenienced as they were ascending. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) staircases: a staircase of bricks, a staircase of stones, a staircase of wood.[186] As they were ascending they fell off. “I allow, monks, a balustrade.” The water in the tank became stale. “I allow, monks, a pipe for the water,[187] a drain for the water.


BD.5.170 Now at that time a certain monk was anxious to build a bathroom with a curving roof[188] for an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a bathroom with a curving roof.


Kd.15.18.1 Now at that time the group of six monks were away, separated from[189] their pieces of cloth to sit upon[190] for four months. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not be away, separated from your pieces of cloth to sit upon for four months. Whoever should be (so) away, separated from, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks lay down to sleep on beds which were scattered over with flowers. People, touring the dwelling-place, having seen them … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not lie down to sleep on beds scattered over with flowers. Whoever should (so) lie down to sleep, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time people, taking scents and garlands, came to a monastery. Monks being scrupulous, did not accept them. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, having taken the scents, to give the five-finger mark[191] on the door; having taken the flowers, to lay them down in a dwelling-place at one side.


Kd.15.19.1 Now at that time a piece of felt[192] accrued to an Order. They BD.5.171 told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a piece of felt.” Then it occurred to monks: “Now, should a piece of felt be allotted or should it be assigned?”[193]A piece of felt, monks, should be neither allotted nor assigned.


Now at that time the group of six monks ate (leaning against) chased cushions.[194] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not eat (leaning against) chased cushions. Whoever should (so) eat there is an offence Vin.2.124 of wrong-doing.


Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill. While he was eating he was not able to hold a bowl in his hand. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks a stand.[195]


Kd.15.19.2 Now at that time the group of six monks ate from one dish[196] and drank from one beaker[197] and shared one couch[198] and shared one cloth[199] and shared one covering[200] and shared one covering-cloth.[201] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not eat from one dish nor drink from one beaker nor share one couch nor share one cloth nor share one covering nor share one covering-cloth. Whoever should share (one), there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.20.1 Now at that time the Licchavi Vaḍḍha was a friend of the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka.[202] Then the Licchavi Vaḍḍha approached the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka; having approached, he spoke thus to the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka: “I salute you, masters.” When he had spoken thus, the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did not respond. And a second time … And a third BD.5.172 time did the Licchavi Vaḍḍha speak thus to the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka: “I salute you, masters.” And a third time the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did not respond. He said: “Do I offend against the masters? Why do the masters not respond to me?”

“It is because you, friend Vaḍḍha, were indifferent when we were being molested by Dabba the Mallian.”

“What can I, masters, do?”

“If you, friend Vaḍḍha, were willing you could get the Lord to expel the venerable[203] Dabba the Mallian this very day.”

“What can I, masters, do? How am I able to do that?”

“Come you, friend Vaḍḍha, go up to the Lord; having gone up, speak thus to the Lord: ‘This, Lord, is not suitable, it is not becoming that this quarter which should be without fear, secure, without danger, is the very quarter which is full of fear, insecure, full of danger. Where there was a calm, now there is a gale. It seems as if the very water is blazing. My wife has been seduced by master Dabba the Mallian.’”

Kd.15.20.2 “Very well, masters,” and the Licchavi Vaḍḍha, having answered the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance Vin.2.125 , the Licchavi Vaḍḍha spoke thus to the Lord: “This, Lord, is not suitable … My wife has been seduced by master Dabba the Mallian.”

Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, questioned the venerable Dabba the Mallian, saying: “Dabba, do you remember doing as this Vaḍḍha says?”

“Lord, the Lord knows in regard to me.” And a second time the Lord … And a third time the Lord spoke thus to the venerable Dabba the Mallian: “Dabba, do you remember doing as this Vaḍḍha says?”

“Lord, the Lord knows in regard to me,” he said.

“Dabba, the Dabbas do not give evasive answers thus. BD.5.173 If what was done was done by you, say so: if it was not done by you, say it was not.”

“Lord, since I was born I cannot call to mind indulging in sexual intercourse even in a dream; much less so when I was awake.”

Kd.15.20.3 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Because of this, monks, let the Order turn the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl upside down,[204] let it impose non-eating with the Order.[205] Monks, if a lay-follower is possessed of eight qualities his bowl may be turned upside down:[206] if he tries for non-receiving (of gains) by monks, if he tries for non-profiting by monks, if he tries for non-residence for monks, if he reviles and abuses monks, if he causes monk to break with monk,[207] if he speaks dispraise of the Awakened One, if he speaks dispraise of dhamma, if he speaks dispraise of the Order. I allow you, monks, to turn a lay-follower’s bowl upside down if he is possessed of these eight qualities.

Kd.15.20.4 And thus, monks, should it be turned upside down: The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha is defaming the venerable Dabba the Mallian with an unfounded charge of falling away from moral habit.[208] If it seems right to the Order, the Order may turn the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl upside down, it may impose non-eating with the BD.5.174 Order This is the motion Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha is defaming … of falling away from moral habit. The Order is turning the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl upside down, it is imposing non-eating with an Order. If the turning upside down of the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl and the imposing of non-eating with the Order is pleasing to the venerable ones they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing, should speak. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl is turned upside down by the Order (and there is to be) non-eating with the Order. It is pleasing to the Order; therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.’”

Kd.15.20.5 Then the venerable Ānanda, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, went up to the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s dwelling; having gone up, he spoke thus to the Licchavi Vaḍḍha: “Your bowl, friend Vaḍḍha, is turned upside down by an Order, you are non-eating with the Order.” Vin.2.126 Then the Licchavi Vaḍḍha, thinking: “It is said that my bowl is turned upside down by an Order, it is said that I am non-eating with the Order,” fainted and fell on that very spot. Then the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s friends and intimates, his kith and kin[209] spoke thus to the Licchavi Vaḍḍha:

“Enough, Vaḍḍha, do not grieve, do not lament, we will reconcile[210] the Lord and the Order of monks.” Then the Licchavi Vaḍḍha with his wife and children, with his friends and intimates, with his kith and kin, his clothes wet, his hair wet approached the Lord; having approached, he spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, a transgression has overcome me,[211] in that I, foolish, misguided, wrong that I was, defamed master Dabba the Mallian with an unfounded charge of falling away from moral habit. For this, Lord, let the Lord acknowledge my transgression as a transgression for the sake of restraint in the future.”

“Truly a transgression overcame you, friend Vaḍḍha, in that you, foolish, misguided, wrong that you were, defamed Dabba the Mallian with an unfounded charge of falling away BD.5.175 from moral habit. But if you, friend Vaḍḍha, having seen the transgression as a transgression, confess according to the rule, we[212] acknowledge it for you. For, friend Vaḍḍha, in the discipline of the noble, this is growth: whoever having seen a transgression as a transgression, confesses it according to the rule, he attains restraint in the future.”

Kd.15.20.6 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Well, now monks, let the Order set upright the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl, let it grant eating with the Order. Monks, if a lay-follower is possessed of eight qualities his bowl may be set upright: if he does not try for non-receiving (of gains) by monks, if he does not try for non-profiting by monks, if he does not try for non-residence for monks, if he does not revile and abuse monks, if he does not cause monk to break with monk, if he does not speak dispraise of the Awakened One, if he does not speak dispraise of dhamma, if he does not speak dispraise of the Order. I allow you, monks, to set upright a lay-follower’s bowl if he is possessed of these eight qualities.

Kd.15.20.7 “And thus, monks, should it be set upright: Monks, that Licchavi Vaḍḍha, having approached the Order, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured the monks’ feet, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted them with joined palms, should speak thus to them: ‘Honoured sirs, my bowl was turned upside down by the Order, I am not eating with the Order. But I, honoured sirs, am conducting myself properly, I am subdued, I am mending my ways, and I ask the Order for the setting upright of the bowl.’ And a second time it should be asked for. And a third time it should be asked for. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: Vin.2.127Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl was turned upside down by the Order, he is not eating with the Order; but he is conducting himself properly, he is subdued, he is mending his ways; he asks the Order for the setting upright of the bowl. If it seems right to the BD.5.176 Order, the Order may set upright the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl, it may grant eating with the Order. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl was turned upside down … he asks the Order for setting upright the bowl. The Order is setting upright the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl, it is granting eating with the Order. If the setting upright of the Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl and the granting of eating with the Order is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The Licchavi Vaḍḍha’s bowl is set upright by the Order (and there is) eating with the Order. It is pleasing to the Order; therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.’”


Kd.15.21.1 Then the Lord, having stayed in Vesālī for as long as he found suiting, set out on tour for the Bhaggas.[213] In due course, walking on tour, the Lord arrived at the Bhaggas. The Lord stayed there among the Bhaggas on Suṃsumāra Hill[214] in the Bhesakaḷā Grove in the deer park. Now at that time Kokanada[215] was the name of Prince Bodhi’s[216] palace; it had not long been built and was as yet uninhabited by recluse or brahmin or by any human creature. Then Prince Bodhi addressed the brahmin youth, the son of Sañjikā,[217] saying: “Come along, good son of Sañjikā, go up to the Lord; having gone up, in my name salute the Lord’s feet with your head, ask whether he is well, not indisposed, of bodily vigour, strong, abiding in comfort, and say: ‘Lord, Prince Bodhi salutes the Lord’s feet with his head and asks whether he is well … abiding in comfort,’ and says this: ‘Lord, may the Lord consent to a meal with Prince Bodhi tomorrow together with the Order of monks.’”

BD.5.177 “Very well, good sir,” and the brahmin youth, Sañjikā’s son, having answered Prince Bodhi in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, having exchanged greetings with the Lord, having conversed in a courteous and friendly way, sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance the brahmin youth, the son of Sanjika, spoke thus to the Lord: “Prince Bodhi salutes the revered Gotama’s feet with his head … and says may the revered Gotama consent to a meal with Prince Bodhi tomorrow together with the Order of monks.” The Lord consented by becoming silent.

Kd.15.21.2 Then the brahmin youth, Sañjikā’s son, having understood the Lord’s consent, rising from his seat approached Prince Bodhi; Vin.2.128 having approached, he spoke thus to Prince Bodhi: “I spoke, good sir, in your name to the Lord Gotama, saying: ‘Prince Bodhi salutes … together with the Order of monks.’ And the recluse Gotama consented.” Then Prince Bodhi towards the end of that night, having had sumptuous foods, solid and soft, prepared, and having had Kokanada palace strewn with white cloths as far as the last flight of stairs,[218] spoke thus to the brahmin youth, the son of Sañjikā: “Come you along, good fellow, approach the Lord; having approached, announce the time to the Lord, saying: ‘It is time, Lord, the meal is ready.’”

“Very well, good sir,” and the brahmin youth, Sañjikā’s son, having answered Prince Bodhi in assent, approached the Lord; having approached, he announced the time to the Lord, saying: “It is time, good Gotama, the meal is ready.” Then the Lord, having dressed in the morning, taking his bowl and robe, approached Prince Bodhi’s dwelling. Now at the time when the Lord was coming Prince Bodhi was standing at the porch of the outside gateway. Prince Bodhi saw the Lord coming in the distance, and seeing him, having gone from there to meet him, having greeted the Lord, having honoured him, he approached Kokanada palace. Then the Lord stood still at the last flight of stairs. Then Prince Bodhi spoke thus to the Lord:

“Lord, let the Lord tread on[219] the cloths, let the well-farer BD.5.178 tread on the cloths so that it may be for a long time for my blessing and happiness.” When he had spoken thus the Lord became silent. And a second time … And a third time Prince Bodhi spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, let the Lord tread on … for my blessing and happiness.” Then the Lord looked towards the venerable Ānanda. Then the venerable Ānanda spoke thus to Prince Bodhi:

“Let the cloths, prince, be packed away, the Lord will not tread upon the cloth carpeting,[220] the Truth-finder has compassion[221] for the folk who come after.”[222]

Kd.15.21.3 Then Prince Bodhi, having had the cloths packed away, had a seat made ready upstairs in Kokanada.[223] Then the Lord having ascended the Kokanada palace, sat down together with the Order of monks on the seat made ready. Then Prince Bodhi, having with his own hand served and satisfied with sumptuous foods, solid and soft, the Order of monks with the Awakened One at its head, when the Lord had eaten and had withdrawn his hand from the bowl, sat down at a respectful distance.[224] Then the Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Prince Bodhi as he was sitting at a respectful distance with talk on dhamma, Vin.2.129 rising from his seat, departed. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, you should not tread on a cloth carpeting.[225] Whoever should tread on one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.21.4 Now at that time a certain woman who had had a miscarriage, having invited monks, having had cloth prepared, spoke thus: “Revered sirs, tread on the cloth.” The monks, being scrupulous, did not tread on it. She said: “Revered BD.5.179 sirs, tread on the cloth for good luck’s sake.” The monks, being scrupulous, did not tread on it. Then that woman spread it about, saying: “How can these masters (although) being asked for good luck’s sake not tread on the cloth carpeting?” Monks heard this woman who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Householders, monks, look out for lucky signs.[226] I allow you, monks, when being asked by householders for good luck’s sake, to tread on a cloth carpeting.


Now at that time monks were doubtful whether to tread on a sheet for use after feet had been washed.[227] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you; monks, to tread on a sheet for use after feet have been washed.

The Second Portion for Repeating[228]

Kd.15.22.1 Then the Lord having stayed among the Bhaggas for as long as he found suiting set out on tour for Sāvatthī. Walking on tour in due course he arrived at Sāvatthī. The Lord stayed there at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Then Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, taking a small jar[229] and a (clay foot-) scrubber[230] and a broom, approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, she sat down at a respectful distance. As she was sitting down at a respectful distance, Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, may the Lord accept my little jar and (clay foot-) scrubber and broom so that it may be for a long time for my blessing and happiness.” The Lord accepted the little jar and the broom; the Lord did not accept the (clay foot-) scrubber. Then the Lord gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, with talk on dhamma. Then BD.5.180 Visākhā, Migāra’s mother gladdened … delighted by the Lord with talk on dhamma, rising from her seat, having greeted the Lord, departed keeping her right side towards him. Then Vin.2.130 the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying:

I allow, monks, a little jar and a broom. Monks, you should not make use of a (clay foot-) scrubber. Whoever should make use of one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, three (kinds of) foot-rubbers:[231] a stone,[232] a pebble,[233] sea-scum.[234]

Kd.15.22.2 Then Visākhā, Migāra’s mother, taking a fan[235] and a palmyra-whisk,[236] approached the Lord … as in Kd.15.22.1 … The Lord accepted the fan and the palmyra-whisk … Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow, monks, a fan and a palmyra-whisk.


Kd.15.23.1 Now at that time a mosquito-fan[237] accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a mosquito-fan.” A chowry-fan[238] accrued. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a chowry-fan should not be used. Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fans: made of bark, made of khus-khus,[239] made of peacocks’ tail feathers.


Kd.15.23.2 Now at that time a sunshade[240] accrued to an Order. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a BD.5.181 sunshade.

Now at that time the group of six monks toured about having put up their sunshades. Now at that time a certain lay-follower went to a pleasure grove[241] together with several disciples of Naked Ascetics. These disciples of Naked Ascetics saw the group of six monks coming in the distance with their sunshades up; seeing them, they spoke thus to that lay-follower: “These revered sirs of yours, master, are coming along with their sunshades up like a group of chief ministers.”

“These, masters, are not monks, they are wanderers.” They made a bet as to whether they were monks or not. Then that lay-follower, having recognised them as they came up, looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these revered sirs Vin.2.131 tour about with their sunshades up?” Monks heard that lay-follower who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, …?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, a sunshade should not be used.[242] Whoever should use one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.23.3 Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill[243]; there came to be no comfort for him without a sunshade. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a sunshade to one who is ill.” Now at that time monks, thinking: “A sunshade is allowed by the Lord to one who is ill, but not to one who is not ill,” were doubtful whether to use a sunshade in the monastery and monastery precincts. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a sunshade to be used in a monastery and monastery precincts both by one who is ill and by one who is not ill.


Kd.15.24.1 Now at that time a certain monk, having tied up his bowl with string,[244] having hung it on his walking staff,[245] passed at the BD.5.182 wrong time[246] through a certain village gateway. People, saying: “This, masters, is a thief who is coming, his sword is gleaming,”[247] having followed him and seized him, let him go on recognising him. Then this monk, having gone back to the monastery, told this matter to the monks.

“But did you, your reverence, carry a walking staff with string on it?”

“Yes, your reverences.” Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this monk carry a walking staff with string on it?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Is it true, as is said, monks, …?”

“It is true, Lord.” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, a walking staff with string on it should not be carried. Whoever should carry one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.24.2 Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill; he was not able to tour about without a walking staff. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“I allow you, monks, to give an agreement as to a walking staff to a monk who is ill. And thus, monks, should it be given: That ill monk, having approached the Order, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having honoured the feet of the senior monks, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, am ill; I am not able to tour about without a walking staff, so I, honoured sirs, ask the Order for the agreement as to a walking staff.’ And a second time it should be asked for. And a third time it should be asked for. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: Vin.2.132 ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so is ill; he is not able to tour about without a walking staff; he asks the Order for the agreement as to a walking staff. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may give the agreement as to a walking staff to the monk So-and-so. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. BD.5.183 This monk … as to a walking staff. The Order is giving the monk So-and-so the agreement as to a walking staff. If the giving to the monk So-and-so of the agreement as to a walking staff is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. The agreement as to a walking staff is given by the Order to the monk So-and-so. It is pleasing to the Order; therefore it is silent. Thus do I understand this.’”


Kd.15.24.3 Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill; he was not able to carry his bowl about without string. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to give an ill monk the agreement as to string. And thus, monks, should it be given. That ill monk … as in Kd.15.24.2. Instead of to tour about without a walking staff, etc., read to carry his bowl about without string, etc.… Thus do I understand this.’”


Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill; he was not able to tour about without a walking staff nor was he able to carry his bowl about without string. They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, to give an ill monk the agreement as to a walking staff and string. And thus, monks, should it be given: That ill monk … as in Kd.15.24.2. Read: I am not able to tour about without a walking staff nor am I able to carry my bowl about without string, etc.… Thus do I understand this.’”


Kd.15.25.1 Now at that time a certain monk was a ruminator;[248] he ate ruminating continually. Monks … spread it about, saying: “This monk is partaking of a meal at the wrong time.”[249] Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Monks, this monk has recently passed on from the womb of a cow. I allow, monks, rumination for a ruminator. But, monks, one should not eat (anything), having brought it back from the mouth[250] to outside of it. Whoever should (so) eat should be dealt with according to the rule[251].”

Kd.15.26.1 BD.5.184 Now at that time a certain guild had food for an Order; many heaps of boiled rice were allowed to fall in a refectory. People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans, on being given boiled rice, not accept it carefully?[252] Each one of these heaps of boiled rice is the result of a hundredfold labour.” Monks Vin.2.133 heard these people … who spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

I allow you, monks, if anything falls that is being given to you,[253] to make use of it having picked it up yourselves, for it is left behind (for you), monks, by benefactors.


Kd.15.27.1 Now at that time a certain monk walked for almsfood with long (finger-) nails.[254] A certain woman, having seen him, spoke thus to that monk: “Come, honoured sir, indulge in sexual intercourse.”

“No, sister, that is not allowable.”

“If you do not, honoured sir, I will now, having scratched my limbs with my own nails, make a row,[255] saying, ‘this monk has maltreated me.”

“You, sister, understand that.” Then that woman, having scratched her limbs with her own nails, made a row, saying, “This monk has maltreated me.” People, having run up, took hold of that monk. But these people saw skin and blood on that woman’s nails; seeing this, they said: “This is the work of this woman herself, the monk is innocent,” and they let go of that monk. Then that monk, having gone back to the monastery, told this matter to the monks. They said: “But do you, your reverence, wear long nails?”

“Yes, your reverences.” Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this monk wear long nails?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

Monks, long nails should not be worn.[256] Whoever should wear them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.27.2 BD.5.185 Now at that time monks cut[257] their nails with their nails and they cut their nails with their mouth and they rubbed them down on a wattle and daub wall; their fingers became painful. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, cutting of the nails.” They cut their nails down to the blood; their fingers became painful. “I allow you, monks, to cut your nails down to the height[258] of the flesh.


Now at that time the group of six monks had their twenty (nails) polished. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not have your twenty (nails) polished. Whoever should have this done, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to remove the dirt only.


Kd.15.27.3 Now at that time monks’ hair[259] came to be long. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “But, monks, are the monks able to cut one another’s hair?”

“They are able (to do so), Lord.” Vin.2.134 Then the Lord, on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow, monks, a razor, a whetstone, a razor-case,[260] a piece of felt,[261] and all a barber’s equipment.[262]


Kd.15.27.4 Now at that time the group of six monks had their beards trimmed,[263] they made their beards grow (long[264]), they had them shaped like a goat’s beard,[265] they had them shaped into four corners,[266] they had the hair on their chests shaped,[267] they had BD.5.186 the hair on their stomachs shaped,[268] they arranged whiskers, they had the hair on their bodies removed.[269] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not have your beards trimmed … you should not have the hair of your bodies removed. Whoever should have it removed there is an offence of wrong-doing.[270]


Now at that time a certain monk came to have a sore on a certain part of his body;[271] the medicament would not adhere. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to remove the hair on the body in the case of illness.


Kd.15.27.5 Now at that time the group of six monks had the hair of their heads cut off with scissors. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not have the hair of your heads cut off with scissors. Whoever should (so) have it cut off, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time a certain monk came to have a sore on his head; he was not able to shave the hair of his head with a razor. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to cut off the hair of the head with scissors in the case of illness.


Now at that time monks wore the hair in their nostrils long. People … spread it about, saying: “Like demon-worshippers.”[272] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not wear the hair in your nostrils long. Whoever should (so) wear it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


BD.5.187 Now at that time monks had the hair in their nostrils taken out with pieces of crystal[273] and by means of beeswax; their nostrils became painful. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, tweezers.[274]


Now at that time the group of six monks had grey hairs[275] taken out. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not have grey hairs taken out. Whoever should have them taken out, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.27.6 Now at that time a certain monk’s ears were stopped with wax. Vin.2.135 They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, an instrument for removing dirt from the ears.[276]


Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of instruments for removing dirt from the ears, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of instruments for removing dirt from the ears should not be used. Whoever should use (these), there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow them, monks, (to be) made of bone, made of ivory, made of horn, made of reeds, made of bamboo, made of a piece of stick, made of lac, made of crystal, made of copper, made of the centre of a conchshell.[277]


Kd.15.28.1 Now at that time monks made a large store of copper goods, of bronze goods. People touring the dwelling-place, having seen this, looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans make a large store of copper goods, of bronze goods like dealers in bronze?”[278] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a store of copper goods, of bronze goods should not be made. Whoever should make one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Kd.15.28.2 BD.5.188 Now at that time monks were (too) scrupulous to use an ointment box[279] and an ointment stick[280] and an instrument for removing dirt from the ears[281] and a handle.[282] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, an ointment box … a handle.


Now at that time the group of six monks sat down lolling[283] on their outer cloaks,[284] the cotton cloth[285] of the outer cloaks gave way.[286] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not sit down lolling on outer cloaks. Whoever should (so) sit down, there is an offence of wrong-doing.”


Now at that time a certain monk came to be ill; there was no comfort for him without a bandage.[287] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a bandage.” Then it occurred to monks: “Now how should a bandage be made?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a loom, shuttles, strings, tickets and all the equipment for a loom.


Kd.15.29.1 Now at that time a certain monk entered a village for alms-food without his waistband; on a carriage road his inner robe dropped down.[288] People shouted out[289] and that monk Vin.2.136 became ashamed. Then that monk, having gone back to the monastery, told this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not enter a village without your waistband. Whoever should (so) BD.5.189 enter one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, a waistband.[290]


Kd.15.29.2 Now at that time the group of six monks wore various kinds of waistbands: those of many strands,[291] those like the head of a water-snake,[292] those like tambourine drums,[293] those like chains.[294] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of waistbands should not be worn: those of many strands … those like chains. Whoever should wear one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[295] I allow, monks, two (kinds of) waistbands: a strip of cotton cloth,[296] one with a well made end.[297]

The borders of a waistband wore out. “I allow, monks, those like tambourine drums, those like chains.” The end of a waistband wore out. “I allow, monks, a sewing round,[298] a knotting.[299] The end of a waistband where it was looped[300] wore out. “I allow, monks, a buckle.[301]


Now at that time the group of six monks wore various kinds of buckles, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of buckles should not be worn. Who BD.5.190 ever should wear one, there is a offence of wrong-doing. I allow them, monks, (to be) made of bone … made of the inside of a conchshell, made of thread.[302]


Kd.15.29.3 Now at that time the venerable Ānanda having put on light-weight upper robes,[303] entered a village for almsfood; his upper robes were blown up by gusts of wind.[304] Then the venerable Ānanda, having gone back to the monastery, told this matter to the monks. The monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a block,[305] something to tie.[306]


Now at that time the group of six monks used various kinds of blocks, made of gold, made of silver. People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of blocks should not be used. Whoever should use them, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow them, monks, (to be) made of bone … made of thread.


Now at that time monks inserted blocks and things to tie into their robes; the robes wore out. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a shield[307] for the blocks, a shield for the things to tie.Vin.2.137 They inserted the shields for the blocks and the shields for the things to tie at the edge (of the robe); a corner was revealed. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to insert a shield for the blocks at the edge; to insert a shield for the things to tie having taken it back seven finger breadths or eight finger breadths.


Kd.15.29.4 Now at that time the group of six monks dressed in householders’ under garments: “the elephant’s trunk,”[308] “the BD.5.191 fish’s tail,”[309] “the four corner arrangement,”[310] “the palmyra whisk arrangement,”[311] “the hundred jungle ropes.”[312] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not dress in householders’ under garments: ‘the elephant’s trunk’ … ‘the hundred jungle ropes’. Whoever should (so) dress, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks put on[313] householders’ upper garments.[314] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not put on householders’ upper garments. Whoever should put one on, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.29.5 Now at that time the group of six monks dressed in loincloths.[315] People … spread it about, saying: “Like a king’s shaven bearers with coils.”[316] They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not dress in loincloths. Whoever should (so) dress, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.30.1 Now at that time the group of six monks carried a double carrying-pole.[317] People … spread it about, saying: “Like a BD.5.192 king’s shaven bearers with coils.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, you should not carry a double carrying-pole. Whoever should carry one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, a single carrying-pole, a carrying-pole for two bearers,[318] a weight (carried) on the head, a weight (carried) on the shoulders, a weight (carried) on the hips, one hung on.


Kd.15.31.1 Now at that time monks did not chew[319] tooth-wood[320]; their mouths came to smell nasty. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, there are these five disadvantages in not chewing tooth-wood[321]: it is bad for the eyes, the mouth becomes nasty smelling, the channels of taste are not purified, phelgm and mucus get on food, one’s food is not enjoyed. These, monks, are the five disadvantages of not chewing tooth-wood. Monks, there are there five advantages in chewing tooth-wood: it is good for the eyes, the mouth does not become nasty smelling, the channels of taste are purified, phelgm and mucus do not get on food, one’s food Vin.2.138 is enjoyed. These, monks, are the five advantages of chewing tooth-wood. I allow, monks, tooth-wood.


Kd.15.31.2 Now at that time the group of six monks chewed long pieces of tooth-wood; they even flicked novices with these. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a long piece of tooth-wood should not be chewed. Whoever should chew one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, a piece of tooth-wood to be eight finger breadths (in length) at the most. And a novice should not be flicked with it. Whoever should flick him, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time as a certain monk was chewing a piece of tooth-wood that was too short it became lodged in his throat. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, too short a piece of tooth-wood should not be chewed. Whoever should chew one, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, a piece of tooth-wood to be four finger breadths (in length) at the least.


Kd.15.32.1 BD.5.193 Now at that time the group of six monks set fire to a forest.[322] People … spread it about, saying: “Like forest firers.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a forest should not be set on fire. Whoever should set one on fire, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time dwelling-places were tangled over with grass.[323] As the forest fires were burning (forests and so on) they burned the dwelling-places. Monks were doubtful whether to make a counter-fire[324] to give protection. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, if a forest fire is burning, to make a counter-fire to give protection.


Kd.15.32.2 Now at that time the group of six monks climbed a tree and jumped from tree to tree. People … spread it about, saying: “Like monkeys.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, a tree should not be climbed. Whoever should climb one, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time an elephant infested the way of a certain monk who was going to Sāvatthī through the Kosalan districts. Then that monk rushed up to the foot of a certain tree (but) being scrupulous did not climb the tree; the elephant went off by another (track). Then that monk, having reached Sāvatthī, told this matter to the monks. (The monks told this matter to the Lord).[325] He said: “I allow you, monks, if there is a reason, to climb a tree to the height of a man, and as high as you like in cases of distress.[326] Vin.2.139


Kd.15.33.1 Now at that time Yameḷu and Tekula[327] were the names of two monks who were brothers, brahmins by birth, with lovely voices, with lovely enunciation. They approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down BD.5.194 at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, these monks spoke thus to the Lord: “At present, Lord, monks of various names, various clans, various social strata have gone forth from various families; these corrupt the speech of the Awakened One in (using) his own dialect.[328] Now we, Lord, give the speech of the Awakened One in metrical form.”[329] The Awakened One, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How can you, foolish men, speak thus: ‘Now we, Lord, give the speech of the Awakened One in metrical form’? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, the speech of the Awakened One should not be given in metrical form. Whoever should (so) give it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow you, monks, to learn the speech of the Awakened One according to his own dialect.


Kd.15.33.2 Now at that time the group of six monks learnt metaphysics.[330] People … spread it about, saying: “Like householders who enjoy pleasures of the senses.” Monks heard these people who … spread it about. Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Now, monks, can one who sees the essence (as being) in metaphysics attain to growth, increase, maturity in this dhamma and discipline?”

“This is not so, Lord.”

“Or could one who sees the essence (as being) in this dhamma and discipline learn metaphysics?”

“This is not so, Lord.”

Monks, metaphysics should not be learnt. Whoever should learn them, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


BD.5.195 Now at that time the group of six monks taught metaphysics. People … “… offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks learnt worldly knowledge.[331] People … “… offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time the group of six monks taught worldly knowledge. People … “… offence of wrong-doing.


Kd.15.33.3 Now at Vin.2.140 that time the Lord, surrounded by a large assembly, sneezed while he was teaching dhamma. Monks, saying: “Lord, may the Lord live (long), may the wellfarer live (long),” made a loud noise, a great noise; the talk on dhamma was interrupted by this noise. Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Now, monks, when (the phrase) ‘Long life’ is spoken to one who has sneezed, can he for this reason live or die?”

“That is not so, Lord.”

Monks, ‘Long life’ should not be said to one who has sneezed. Whoever should say it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.


Now at that time people said “May you live (long), honoured sirs” to monks who had sneezed. The monks, being scrupulous, did not respond. People … spread it about, saying: “How can these recluses, sons of the Sakyans not respond when (the phrase) ‘May you live (long), honoured sirs’ is being spoken to them?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, householders like lucky signs.[332] I allow you, monks, when (the phrase) ‘May you live (long), honoured sirs’ is being spoken to you by householders to say, ‘Long life’ (to them).


Kd.15.34.1 Now at that time the Lord, surrounded by a large assembly, was teaching dhamma sitting down. A certain monk had eaten garlic;[333] he sat down to one side, thinking: “In case the monks are incommoded.” The Lord saw that monk who was sitting down at one side; seeing him, he addressed the monks, saying: “Monks, why is this monk sitting to one side?”

BD.5.196 “Lord, this monk has eaten garlic, so he sat down at one side, thinking: ‘In case the monks are incommoded’.”

“But, monks, should that be eaten which, when eaten, can (make the eater) outside such a dhamma-talk as this?”

“That is not so, Lord.”

Monks, garlic should not be eaten. Whoever should eat it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[334]


Kd.15.34.2 Now at that time the venerable Sāriputta had wind in his stomach. Then the venerable Moggallāna the Great approached the venerable Sāriputta; having approached, he spoke thus to the venerable Sāriputta: “When you had wind in your stomach before, reverend Sāriputta, by what means did you get comfort?”

“I had garlic, your reverence.” They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, to eat garlic in the case of illness.[335]


Kd.15.35.1 Now at that time monks relieved themselves here, there and everywhere in a monastery; the monastery was soiled. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you monks, to relieve yourselves at one side.Vin.2.141 The monastery became nasty smelling. “I allow you, monks, a vessel.” Sitting down, it was painful. “I allow, monks, urinal shoes.[336] The urinal shoes were public;[337] monks were ashamed to relieve themselves. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences to fence them in: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.” The vessel being uncovered became nasty smelling. “I allow, monks, a lid.


Kd.15.35.2 Now at that time monks evacuated here, there and everywhere in a monastery … as in Kd.15.35.1 … The monastery became nasty smelling. “I allow, monks, a cesspool.” The facing of the cesspool fell in.[338]I allow you, monks, to pile up three (kinds of) pilings: a piling of bricks, a piling of stones, a piling of wood.” The cesspool was too low to the ground[339] … “… I allow, monks, a balustrade.” Sitting inside, BD.5.197 they fell off. “I allow you, monks, to evacuate having spread (something) and made a hole in the middle.” Sitting down, it was painful. “I allow you, monks, privy shoes.

Kd.15.35.3 They evacuated outside. “I allow, monks, a trough.” There was no wood for scraping. “I allow, monks, wood for scraping.” There was no receptacle[340] for scraping. “I allow, monks, a receptacle (for the wood) for scraping.” The cesspool being uncovered became nasty smelling. “I allow, monks, a lid.” Evacuating in the open air, they were bothered by the cold and heat. “I allow, monks, a hut for the privy.” There was no door to the hut. “I allow, monks, a door …[341] … swordfish teeth, the five (pieces of) cloth design, a bamboo for robes, a cord for robes.[342] Now at that time a certain monk, weak through age, Vin.2.142 having evacuated, fell down as he was getting up. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow, monks, a chair with supports.” The hut was not fenced in. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences with which to fence it in: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.

Kd.15.35.4 There was no porch. “I allow, monks, a porch.” There was no door to the porch. “I allow, monks, a door …[343] … a cord to pull through.” Powdered grass fell on to the porch …[344]… five (pieces of) cloth design.” A cell became swampy[345] … “I allow, monks, a drain for the water.” There was no vessel for the water for rinsing. “I allow, monks, a vessel for the water for rinsing.” There was no saucer for the water for rinsing. “I allow, monks, a saucer for the water for rinsing.” They rinsed sitting down; it was painful. “I allow, monks, shoes to be worn for rinsing.[346] The shoes for rinsing were public; monks were ashamed to rinse. “I allow, monks, three (kinds of) fences to fence them in: a fence of bricks, a fence of stones, a fence of wood.” The vessel for the water for rinsing was uncovered; it was littered over with powdered grass and dust. “I allow, monks, a lid.


Kd.15.36.1 BD.5.198 Now at that time the group of six monks indulged in bad habits like this[347]: they planted and caused to be planted small flowering trees … and indulged in various bad habits. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “Monks, various kinds of bad habits should not be indulged in. Whoever should indulge in them, should be dealt with according to the rule.[348]


Kd.15.37.1 Now at the time when Kassapa of Uruvelā went forth many copper goods, wooden goods, clay goods accrued to the Order. Then it occurred to the monks: “Now, what copper goods are allowed by the Lord, what are not allowed? What wooden goods are allowed, what are not allowed? What clay goods are allowed, what are not allowed?” They told this matter to the Lord. Then the Lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given reasoned talk, addressed the monks, saying: “I allow, monks, all copper goods except a weapon; all wooden goods except a sofa,[349] Vin.2.143 a divan,[350] a wooden bowl,[351] wooden shoes;[352] all clay goods except a (clay-foot-) scrubber[353] and a large earthen vessel.[354]

Told is the Fifth Section: that on Minor Matters

This is its key:

Against a tree, and against a post, and against a wall,
on a rubbing-board (using a) gandha(-bba hand instrument), a string,
having plunged into, a scrubber, scab,
and age, ordinary mode with the hand.
BD.5.199 And also ear-ornaments, chains,
ornamental strings of beads for the throat[355] should not be worn,
ornamental girdles, bangles, armlets, bracelets, finger rings,
Long, with a comb, with a snake’s hood instrument,
with the hands, with beeswax, with oily water,
sores in a mirror and bowl of water, ointment, with paste and chunan,
They smeared,[356] and painting the limbs, painting the faces, both these,
disease of the eyes, and the mountain top, long-drawn, intoning,[357] outside,[358]
Mango peels, with whole (mangoes), a snake, and he cut off, sandal wood,
various kinds, bases of bowls, gold, thick, jags,
Carved, was spoiled,[359] nasty smelling, in the heat, were broken, by a solid bench,
plaster flooring, grass (mat), piece of cloth, a stand, and on a wicker stand,
A bag, and a strap at the edge, thread made for tying,
a peg, and on a couch, and on a chair, on a lap, in a sunshade, opened,
A gourd, a water-pot, a skull, odd bits, waste-tub,
split open,[360] handle, gold, feathers and rind, a tube,
And yeast, barley-meal, powdered stone, beeswax, gum,
misshapen at the corners, tying, uneven place, on the ground, old[361] and was (not) enough,[362]
A mark, and a false thread, unwashed, damp, sandals,
fingers, and a thimble, a small bowl, a bag, tyings,
In the open air, low to the ground, and also a piling, they were inconvenienced,
they fell off, powdered grass, a smearing inside and out,
BD.5.200 Whitewash and treatment with black colouring and red chalk,
wreathwork, creeperwork, swordfish teeth, strips (of cloth)[363]
And a bamboo and cord for robes—the Leader allowed (these).
And they went away having left, a kaṭhina frame was split,
Was twisted out of position,[364] and on to a wall, they went along taking in a bowl,
a bag, and a thread for tying, having tied, sandals,[365]
On a road water that was not allowable, strainer, little piece of cloth,
regulation water-pot, two monks, the Sage reached Vesālī,
Double (water-strainer), filter, he allowed a strainer.
By mosquitoes, very ill through sumptuous (foods) and Jīvaka, Vin.2.144
Place for pacing up and down in, bathroom, in an uneven place, low to the ground,
three pilings, they were inconvenienced, stairs, balustrade, railing,
In the open air, powdered grass, a smearing inside and out
whitewash and treatment with black colouring and red chalk
Wreathwork creeperwork swordfish teeth strips (of cloth)[366]
bamboo and cord for robes, and it may be built high to the ground,
A piling, staircase and balustrade,[367] a door, doorpost and lintel,
a hollow like a mortar, a small upper projection, and a post, a “monkey’s head,”
A pin, a (stick used as a) bolt, a keyhole, and pulling through, a cord,
a facing, and a pipe for steam, and in the middle, clay for the face,
And nasty smelling,[368] it scorched, a receptacle for water,[369] a saucer,
BD.5.201 and it did not make them sweat, swampy, to wash, one may make a drain,
And a chair,[370] about a porch, work,[371] gravel, stones, a drain,
naked, on the ground, when it rained, three coverings there,
A well, and it fell in,[372] by means of a creeper,[373] by means of a waistband,
a well-sweep, hand-wheel, a wheel, many vessels were broken,
Copper, wooden, strips of animals’ hides, a hall, grass, a lid,
a trough, a pool, a fence, swampy, and about a drain,
Cooled down, a tank, and stale, with a curving roof,
for four months, and lay down to sleep, and a piece of felt, and it should not be allotted,
Chased (cushions), a stand,[374] eating they would share one,[375]
Vaḍḍha, and Bodhi, tread on it, little jar, (clay foot-) scrubber, broom,
Stone pebble and scum as a foot-rubber,
fan, palmyra-whisk, and also a mosquito fan, a chowry,
Sunshade, and[376] without, in a monastery—the three[377]—with string, agreement,
ruminator, lumps of boiled rice, long nails, they cut, painful fingers,
Down to the blood, and to the height, the twenty, long-haired,
razor, whetstone, razor-case, piece of felt, a barber’s equipment,
They trimmed beards, they let them grow, goat’s beard, four cornered arrangement,
on their chests and on their stomachs, whiskers, removed the hair on their bodies,
Illness, scissors, a sore, long, and with a piece of crystal,
grey hair, stopped, and various kinds of copper goods, a store,[378]
BD.5.202 And lolling, a bandage, strings,[379] tickets, (waist-)band,
those of many strands, like the head of a water-snake, like tambourine drums, those like chains,[380]
Palmyra whisk, hundred jungle-ropes,[381] having put on householders’ upper garments,
loin cloths, double carrying-pole, toothwood, on flicking,
Lodged in the throat, and a forest, counterfire, a tree, and by an elephant,
Yamelu (and Tekula),[382] they learnt metaphysics, they taught it, Vin.2.145
Worldly knowledge,[383] he sneezed, good luck, and he ate,
affliction of wind, and it was soiled, nasty smelling, painful, shoes,
They were ashamed, nasty smelling (un-) covered,[384] and they did it here and there,
nasty smelling, cesspool, it fell in,[385] high to the ground, and about a piling,
Staircase, balustrade, inside, painful and shoes,
outside, a tub and wood, and a stick,[386] uncovered,
A hut tor the privy, both a door as well as a doorpost and lintel,
a hollow like a mortar, an upper projection, a post, and a “monkey’s head,”
A pin, a bolt, a keyhole, and a hole for pulling (cord) through as well as
BD.5.203 a cord, a smearing inside and out, whitewash and black colouring
Wreathwork creeperwork swordfish five strips of cloth (design)
a bamboo and a cord for robes, weak through age, a fence,
And about a porch, as before, and gravel, flagstones,
(water) remained, a drain, and also a vessel, a saucer,
Painful, shame, a lid, and they indulged in bad habits.
He allowed copper goods a weapon being excepted.
A sofa and divan, a wooden bowl and shoes being excepted—
the Great Sage allowed all (other) goods made of wood.
And the Truth-finder, a (clay foot-) scrubber and an earthern vessel having been excepted,
compassionate, allowed also all (other) goods made of clay.
The character of whatever matter, if equal to the preceding,
even if it is brief, is known from the context in the key.
Thus the hundred and ten matters in the Minor Matters in the discipline
are based on what is dhamma indeed—also there is help for the well behaved.
The expert in discipline is well trained, friendly in mind, very well behaved,
bringing light, steadfast, worthy of honour, one who has heard much. Vin.2.146

Footnotes and references:

1.

gāmapoddavā. Word very uncertain, and seems to show confusion between gāma and kāma, variant reading being kāmapudavā. According to Vin.2.315, Buddhaghosa explains: kāmapudavā ti chavirāgamaṇḍanānuyuttā nāgarikamanussā; gāmaṃpodavā ti pi pādho es’ev’attho; the meaning of kāmapudarā is urban people addicted to ornamenting and dyeing the skin: gāmaṃ (village) -podavā is also a reading. Takakusu and Nagai’s edition, Vin-a.vi.1199, reads: gāmapūṭavā (variant reading gāmamuddavā) ti chavirāgamaṇḍanānuyuttā nāgarikamanussā, gāmapotakā (young village men) ti pi pāṭho.

2.

Note that it is not actually made an offence to rub the other parts of the person mentioned; but doubtless these are meant to be included.

3.

Three kinds of walls are mentioned at Vin.4.266. Vin-a.1199 says that it is one of these.

4.

aṭṭāna. Vin-a.1199 reads aṭṭhāna, and explains this as a tree made like a plank of wood, cut into rows of squares and sunk into the ground at a bathing ford. People rub their bodies there, having sprinkled on chunam.

5.

gandhabbahatthaka. Vin-a.1199 says “by means of a wooden hand set up at a bathing ford; having taken chunam with them, people rub their bodies.”

6.

kuruvindakasutta. Quoted at MN-a.iii.280. Vin-a.1200 says, “it is called a string of beads made by grinding vermilion chunams and stones with lac dyes. Holding this at both ends, they rub the body.” Cf. kuruvindakacuṇṇa at Ja.iii.282 (vermilion coloured chunam).

7.

vigayha. Pali-English Dictionary under vigāhati says, “At Vin.2.106 we should prefer to react viggayha for vigayha.” Vin-a.1200 has the reading viggayha. One of meanings of vigrah in the Sanskrit Dictionaries is “to lay hold of.”

8.

bhikkhū vigayha parikammaṃ kārāpenti, explained by Vin-a.1200 as “each one rubbed up his body against the bodies of the others”—no doubt some kind of enjoyable massage or friction.

9.

mallaka. Vin-a.1200 says “having cut swordfish teeth, it is called a shaped scrubber, katamallaka, owing to its mallaka form (or configuration, mallakamūla)”.

10.

akatamallaka. See previous note; and Vin-a.1200 which says “it is made not having cut the teeth. It must be a broken piece of wood or of tortoiseshell.”

11.

ukkāsikā, explained at Vin-a.1200 as vatthavaṭṭi. Vattha is cloth, clothing; vaṭṭi, a strip, ball, pad. Oldenberg’s version of the Commentary reads vaṭṭa (for vattha) which rendered the word “unintelligible” (see Vinaya Texts iii.68, n.3) and he seems not to have had access to the full exegesis: tasmā nahāyantassa yassa kassaci nahānasāṭakavaṭṭiyā piṭṭhiṃ ghaṃsituṃ vaṭṭati: therefore when anyone is bathing he may rub his back with a strip (or pad) of a cloth for bathing.

12.

piṭṭhiparikamma, as at SN-a.i.296.

13.

puthupāṇiya, explained at Vin-a.1200 by hatthaparikamma, hand treatment.

14.

pāmaṅga. See BD.1.77, n.9. Vin-a.1200 on word in above passage says whatever is a pāmaṅgasutta.

15.

kaṇṭhasuttaka. As at BD.1.78.

16.

kaṭisuttaka. See BD.1.78, n.2.

17.

ovaṭṭika, perhaps round the ankles. Ovaṭṭika has a different sense at Kd.7.1.5.

18.

kāyūra, or bracelets for above the elbow. Cf. keyūra at Dhp-a.ii.220. But as noted at Vinaya Texts iii.69, n.5. The Jātaka Commentary says that kāyūra is an ornamental decoration for the throat.

19.

No doubt round the wrist since they are called hatthābharaṇa.

20.

phaṇaka. Vin-a.1200 only says something made of ivory and so on. Vinaya Texts iii.70, n.2 says “it was a kind of very primitive brush, but without bristles.”

21.

hatthaphaṇaka. The hands would be held as a snake’s hood with the fingers curving forwards and the hair would be smoothed with the fingers. Cf. phaṇahatthaka at Vin.1.91, and see BD.4.116, n.2.

22.

Allowed at Vin.2.152 for use in a vihāra.

23.

Cf. DN.i.80, SN.iii.105.

25.

Cf. Vin.4.85 (BD.2.335, and n.) and Vin.4.267 (where the group of six nuns also go to the festival, made into an offence of expiation for them).

26.

Even to see a peacock dancing is an offence, Vin-a.1201.

27.

Cf. AN.iii.251.

28.

sarakutti.

29.

Vin-a.1202 says the people who come after will say “our teachers and preceptors sang it thus,” and they will sing it in the same way. Cf. AN.iii.108, AN.iii.256, SN.ii.203.

30.

sarabhañña. Cf. Vin.1.196, Ja.ii.109, Dhp-a.i.154. Explained by Buddhaghosa as sarena bhaṇanaṃ, speaking (or repeating) by means of intonation.

31.

Vin-a.1202 here refers to the Commentary on the bhūtagāmasikkhāpada. This is Bu-Pc.11. (Vin.4.34; see BD.2.227, n.1.) and the Commentary is at Vin-a.759ff.

33.

As at Kd.18.4.1.

34.

Quoted Vin-a.767.

35.

These five clauses are explained in detail at Vin-a.767, which rightly reads parijita (damaged) instead of the above paricita.

36.

Cf. Kd.6.21.1 for the last two items.

37.

Cf. AN.ii.72 (which lays the scene in Sāvatthī) and Ja.ii.144–Ja.ii.147.

38.

Cf. GS.ii.82, n.1. Virūpakkha is also the name of one of the Four Great Kings, the regent of the western quarter and lord of the Nāgas.

39.

On pariṭṭa, charm, spell, rune, and mettā-bhāvanā, cf. Mrs. Rhys Davids, Dialogues of the Buddha iii.185f., Sakya, 221ff. Above reading is attaparittaṃ katuṃ; at AN.ii.72 it is attaparittāya, “for self-warding.”

40.

Loving-kindness or love, mettā, and the three other modes of the brahmavihāras are transferred from the mind of the suffuser to that of the being who is suffused or infused.

41.

sabbe bhadrāni passantu. Cf. DN.ii.89, sadā bhadrāni passati.

42.

Allowed also at Vin.1.205.

43.

This story is referred to at DN-a.ii.388 as the Rājagaha-seṭṭhi-vatthu.

44.

At Kd.15.24.1 somewhat similar actions are ascribed to a monk.

45.

Cf. the words of the robber chief at Vin.3.208.

46.

He and the five others were the six great “heretical” teachers in Gotama’s times. Their views are given at DN.i.52ff.

47.

Verses at Thag.123, Thag.124. At AN.i.23 he is called chief of the disciples who are lion-roarers. AN-a.i.196, which gives his story including the above episode, holds that he was called Scrap-hunter, Piṇḍola, from his greed in searching for conjey and rice. Other Commentarys (SN-a.ii.393, Ud-a.252) ascribe his name to the large size of his bowl. For notes on the name Piṇḍola see Psalms of the Bretheren, p.110, n.4, and Psalms of the Bretheren, p.415; KS.iv.68, n.1.

48.

vehāsa. See BD.1.79, n.6.

49.

uttarimanussadhamma. See Bu-Pj.4, Bu-Pc.8, and BD.1, Introduction, p.xxiv.

50.

māsakarūpa. See BD.1.72, n.1, and BD.1.71, n.2. The word also occurs at Vin.2.294.

51.

Vin-a.1203 says a miracle is objected to, not psychic power that is volitional in nature.

52.

Cf. Vin.1.203, where sandal-wood was allowed among five perfumes (añjanupapisana).

53.

Cf. BD.2.115, BD.2.415 (and n.1), and Kd.15.37.

54.

Cf. Kd.5.8.3.

56.

acchupīyanti. Cf. Kd.8.14.1, where the word is used of “inserting a batch into a robe.” The meaning above may be “the circular rests were thick and they (i.e. the bowls) could not be inserted.”

57.

valiṃ honti. Pali-English Dictionary suggests reading valiyo. Perhaps vali is here jag or scratch, the planing or adzing not having been well done. The jags could then be made the best of by converting them into crocodile teeth to hold the bowls. But this rendering is as conjectural as that given at Vinaya Texts iii.83.

58.

See also Kd.15.11.6.

59.

Citra, variegated or painted, but not always, and above it appears to be more likely “carved”.

60.

Buddhaghosa says “just (or, only, eva) the circular rests cut with swordfish teeth.”

61.

Cf. Vin.1.46.

62.

Cf. Vin.1.46.

63.

Cf. Vin.1.46.

64.

miḍhante. At Vin.2.143 miḍḍhi. Vinaya Texts iii.163 say that it is built against the wall of a room or on the veranda against the outer wall of a house or hut. Often made of hardened mud with two wooden legs in front, it is a bench used to sit or sleep on. Vin-a.1203 says ālindaka- (veranda) miḍhakādīnam ante, and implies that some miḍhis are narrow. Allowed at Vin.2.149 when grass mats had been eaten by rats and so on, and where miḍhi appears as something hard and also as something to sleep on. The meaning is not certain.

65.

paribhaṇḍa. Meaning uncertain. Vin-a.1203–Vin-a.1204 says “on the outer side, on the edge of a treated (or, made, erected, kata) narrow miḍhi.” On the word at Vin.2.172 the Commentary says it is made of cow dung and of paste, kāsava, for colouring floors, walls, etc.; and on the word at Vin.2.220 it says bahi jaggati, he lies awake (or, watches) outside. In explaining “piece of cloth,” coḷaka, below, Vin-a.1204 speaks of mattika-paribhaṇḍakatā bhūmi, which seems to mean “earth treated with clay and plaster.”

67.

Allowed at Kd.5.11.3 below; also at Vin.2.148, to save limbs and robes from being covered with dust.

68.

pattamāḷaka. Vin-a.1204 says “made of brick or made of wood”.

69.

pattakaṇḍolika.

71.

As at Vin.3.48. Allowed at Vin.2.152.

72.

As at Vin.3.48. Allowed at Vin.2.152.

73.

Cf. Vin.3.79 (BD.1.137 and n.4).

74.

chatta. N.B. at Vin.1.152 this word appears to mean a large vessel or receptacle.

75.

Cf. above Kd.15.9.4 and Vin.4.345.

77.

Cf. Vin.1.90 (BD.4.114) = BD.3.245 (BD.2.119) where they went about for almsfood to be put into their hands.

79.

Buddhaghosa says that in this case his robes, couch and chair were from a rag-heap.

80.

Cf. MN.i.448.

81.

pisāca, as at MN.i.448. MN-a.iii.165 explains, “a demon (pisāca) has come to eat me.”

82.

pisācillikā. Word occurs at Vin.1.152, Vin.2.134, Snp-a.357.

83.

Same list found at Vin.4.266 in definition of vighāsa, “scraps of food.”

84.

paṭiggaha, a receptacle, a receiving thing. Word occurs below Kd.15.11.5. (meaning thimble), but cf. udakap- at Vin.2.213.

85.

viloma.

86.

namataka, allowed again at Vin.2.123, Vin.2.134. Word also found at Vin.2.267

87.

daṇḍasatthaka.

88.

Cf. Kd.6.12.1, and see BD.4.276 for notes.

89.

veḷupesikā. Word found at DN.ii.324.

90.

kaṇṇakita, spoiled in some way, probably rusty, blunt or stained. The word appears to be used in the sense of stained (of the ground and of a wall) at Kd.1.25.15 = Kd.18.1.3; and in the sense of stained, soiled or spoiled (of robes) at Nuns’ Bi-Pc.24. Vin-a.1205 explains as mallagahitā honti (variant reading malaggahitā). Mala may mean rust. Vinaya Texts iii.91 translates as “blunt.”

91.

sūcināḷika. Bu-Pc.86 makes it an offence to have a sūcighara made of bone, ivory or horn.

92.

kiṇṇa, explained at Vin-a.1205 as kiṇṇacuṇṇa.

93.

rattu. Oldenberg’s text reads satthu. Cf. BD.2.322, n.4.

94.

saritasipāṭika; cf. hiṅgusipāṭika at Vin.1.201 (Kd.6.7). But Vin-a.1206 explains as madhusitthakapilotikaṃ satthakosakaṃ, a little cloth for the beeswax, a little sheath for a knife. Cf. also below, BD.5.185, n.4.

95.

vikaṇṇa, as at Vin.1.297.

96.

kaṭhina here, as pointed out at Vinaya Texts iii.92, n.8 “is evidently a sort of framework.” Vin-a.1206 says it “is a nisseṇi (ladder, frame?) and another should be spread (attharati) there for the mats.” Or the translation of this may be: “the nisseṇi should be spread out there and another for the mats.” The verb used here in connection with kaṭhina is pattharati, to spread out, to extend; whereas attharati is the verb used in connection with the formal making up of the kaṭhina-cloth; see BD.2.26, n.3 and Kd.7.

97.

kaṭhinarajja (variant reading rajju). Vin-a.1206 says “those who are sewing robe-material double, tie the robe-material to the kaṭhina (-frame).”

98.

As at Kd.15.9.4 above.

99.

jīrati, or “wore out (with age).” This would begin a new idea, and perhaps this is intended. On the other hand, to say that it was hurt or damaged would imply that the grass mat was not big enough to protect the edges of the frame, and thus the same idea would be continued.

100.

anuvāta paribhaṇḍa. See BD.2.409, n.7, n.8 (where also further references are given). These two words occur at Vin.1.254 as representing things which must have a place in the making of the kaṭhina-cloth into robes; and again at Vin.1.297 as representing things to be used in strengthening robes.

101.

Vin-a.1206 says the frame was made according to the height of a tall monk, but when the robe-material was being (formally) made there, it did not suffice for (even) a short monk.

102.

daṇḍakaṭhina. Pali-English Dictionary says that this is kaṭhina-cloth stretched on a stick (for the purpose of measuring). Vin-a.1206 says, “it means: ‘I allow you to bind another frame (nisseṇi) of the height of such and such a monk in the middle of that one’” (i.e. of the original nisseṇi, by which the Commentary has already explained kaṭhina).

103.

pidalaka (Vin-a.1206 vidalaka). Vin-a.1206 says, “it is for making double, having drawn back the ends (pariyante) of the mat in accordance with the measure of the stick in the kaṭhina-frame.”

104.

salāka. Vin-a.1206 explains as a slip of wood going in between a double piece of robe-material.

105.

vinandhanarajju. Vin-a.1206 says “a cord tying the smaller frame (nisseṇi) together with the large frame there.”

106.

vinandhanasuttaka. Vin-a.1206, “thread for tying the robe-material to the smaller frame.”

107.

visamā. Vin-a.1206 says that some were large, some small.

108.

kaḷimbhaka. Vin-a.1206 says “talipot palm leaves and so on—whatever does for knowing the (right) measure.”

109.

moghasuttaka. Vin-a.1206 says “for recognition by a yellow thread, as carpenters go by a black thread on a piece of wood”. See BD.4.354 and cf. Vin-a.1110 in explanation of bandhanamattena. In both cases the false thread is a guide.

111.

paṭigaṇhanti.

112.

paṭiggaha. Cf. above, BD.5.156.

113.

āvesanavitthaka. Āvesana is dwelling, vittha a bowl, as in surāvittha at Ja.v.427, Dhp-a.iii.66. Vin-a.1206 explains by pātī- (bowl) caṅgoṭakādi (box and so on).

114.

As at Kd.6.12.4.

115.

Cf. this passage with Kd.15.14.2, Kd.15.14.3, Kd.16.3.6.

116.

Cf. this passage with Kd.15.14.2.

118.

ālambanabāha. Ālambana by itself is “the plinth of a railing or balustrade,” A.K. Coomaraswamy, Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48, No. 3, p.251.

119.

tiṇacuṇṇa, as at Vin.1.203.

120.

ogumphetvā. Cf. ogumphiyanti at Vin.1.194.

121.

So Vin-a.1207, chadanaṃ odhunitvā.

122.

ullitāvalitta, as in definition of “hut” and “dwelling-place” at Vin.3.149, Vin.3.156 respectively (see BD.1.267, n.3).

123.

This and the following terms, as far as “five (pieces of) cloth design,” mentioned again at Vin.2.121, Vin.4.47. Cf. Vin.2.172. For notes see BD.2.259.

124.

Allowed at Vin.1.286.

125.

Allowed at Vin.1.286.

126.

goghaṃsikā. I do not follow the meaning as given at Vinaya Texts iii.98, for monks were not allowed to use cowhides (Vin.1.193). Vin-a.1207 says, “having arranged (katvā) a bamboo or a stick (daṇḍaka) from a tree inside, to fold it up (i.e. the frame) together with that.”

127.

viveṭhiyati.

128.

Doubtless meaning that it had “living creatures” in it—an offence to make use of water like this, Bu-Pc.62, and cf. Bu-Pc.20.

129.

dhammakaraka, as at Vin.2.177, Vin.2.302. Cf. Dhp-a.iii.290.

131.

It looks as if the strainer, at the date of this episode, was communal, one serving a number of monks. At Vin.2.302 it is given among a “recluse’s requisites.”

132.

na sammati, did not rest, cease. The meaning must be that the thirsty monks made such constant demands upon it that it did not meet their needs and that therefore something larger was wanted to give more water and more quickly.

133.

daṇḍaparissāvana. Cf. daṇḍasatthaka and daṇḍakaṭhina at Kd.15.11.1, Kd.15.11.3. Vinaya Texts iii.102 gives “double strainer” with note that it is “apparently a long box, both ends of which strain the water which is poured into the middle by means of a pipe (daṇḍaka).” Daṇḍakaṭhina certainly has nearly the meaning of a “double kaṭhina-frame.” Vin-a.1207 says “like dyers’ strainers for alkaline dyes, having tied a piece of cloth to the four ends of a frame, water should be poured into a pipe (daṇḍaka) in the middle. Then you strain, having filled both the divisions.”

134.

ottharaka, a kind of strainer. It seems, from Buddhaghosa’s remarks, that this is a strainer which by means of four pipes filters water that monks can then take in a pitcher.

135.

makasakuṭikā, or mosquito-curtain. Vin-a.1207 explains by cīvarakuṭikā. Does this mean a little hut (made of robe-material)?

136.

As at Vin.4.75; Vin.1.57 (Rājagaha), Vin.1.248 (Kusinārā).

137.

As at Vin.1.206.

138.

jantāghara, as at Kd.1.25.12; see BD.4.62, and Vinaya Texts iii.103, n.2.

139.

appābādhā. Jīvaka was probably taking a wider view of maintaining the monks’ health than the “convalescent” of Vinaya Texts iii.103 allows for.

140.

caṅkamanavedikā. As noted by A.K. Coomaraswamy in Indian Architectural Terms, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 48, No. 3, p.273 (q.v. for further references), DN.ii.179 gives the component parts of a vedikā: the uprights, the cross-bars and the coping. Cf. vedikāvātapāna at Kd.16.2.2.

141.

kavāṭa, the door itself, that which closes the aperture.

142.

piṭṭhasaṅghāṭa. Allowed again with the two following items at Kd.16.2.1.

143.

udukkhalika. I follow translation at Vinaya Texts iii.105.

144.

uttarapāsaka. Vinaya Texts iii.105 “projections to revolve in these hollows.”

145.

aggaḷavaṭṭi. Vin-a.1207 says, “the same measure as the doorpost, dvārabāhā, it is simply called aggaḷathambha (post for a bolt or bar). Having made three or four holes there, they put in pins” (sūci, or cross-bars).

146.

kapisīsaka. Vin-a.1207 says, “this means, having perforated the doorpost, it is called a bolt-projection, aggaḷapāsaka, put in there”. Critical Pali Dictionary (under aggaḷapāsaka) notes that “according to Vin-a (Vin.2.120) = kapisīsaka, quadrangular end of the bolt of a door, Sacred Books of the East xx.106).” Cf. DN.ii.143, kapisīsaṃ ālambitvā ṭhito, which DN-a.584 explains as kapisīsakaṃ ti dvārabāhakoṭiyaṃ ṭhitaṃ aggaḷarukkhaṃ, “a piece of wood for the bolt fixed at the top of the doorpost.” It must be a hole or cavity to receive the bolt. The word also occurs at Ja.iii.23.

147.

sūcika. Vin-a.1207 says, “it is put in, having made a hole in the middle there” (i.e. in the “monkey’s head”). Cf. aggaḷasūci at MN.i.126, “the pin for the bolt.”

148.

ghaṭikā. Vin-a.1207 merely says “joined above,” upari yojitā. Cf. ghaṭikaṃ ugghāṭetvā, having undone the bolt, at Vin.2.207, and sūcighaṭikā at Vin.2.237, SN.iv.290, Ud.52. It is explained at Ud-a.298: sūcighaṭikā means having fixed (ādahitvā, variant reading ādiṃ katvā) the pin for the bolt, aggaḷasūci, and the upper bolt, uparighaṭikā, having closed it firmly. The ghaṭikā would appear to be a subsidiary bolt, the main one being the aggaḷa.

149.

Cf. below, Vin.5.207.

150.

āviñchanachidda. This and the next allowed again at Kd.16.2.1 because there doors could not be made to meet (the doorposts), na phassīyanti.

151.

āviñchanarajju.

152.

kuḍḍapāda; also below Kd.16.3.4 of a dwelling-place and where a different remedy was “allowed.”

153.

maṇḍalikaṃ kātuṃ. Vin-a.1207 says nīcavatthukaṃ cinitum, “to pile low to the ground,” for which expression cf. Kd.15.11.6.

154.

dhūmanetta. Cf. Kd.6.13.2. Vin-a.1207 says a hole for letting out the steam.

155.

upacāra as in Kd.16.3.3.

156.

mukhamattikā. Cf. Kd.1.25.12.

157.

vāsetuṃ, in the sense of to prepare, to treat, as at Kd.6.17. Buddhaghosa says “to cure with perfumes.”

158.

udakaṭṭhāna. Buddhaghosa reads udakanidhāna, a receptacle for water, and explains, “a place for putting water; having put the water in a pitcher (ghaṭa) there, one can use it by means of a saucer” (or cup).

159.

sarāvaka, as at Vin.1.203. Cf. ācamanasarāvaka at Kd.15.35.4.

160.

See above, Kd.15.11.6.

161.

As in Kd.15.17.1.

162.

As at end of Kd.15.14.5; Kd.15.17.2.

163.

As at Kd.15.17.1; cf. Vin.4.266.

164.

koṭṭhaka. Vin-a.1208 says this means dvārakoṭṭhaka, gateway in the porch. See Kd.15.35.4

165.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

167.

marumbā, as in Bu-Pc.10 in definition of “natural ground” (see BD.2.224 and n.1).

168.

As in Kd.15.14.3.

169.

That is, in the bathroom.

170.

As at Kd.15.11.3.

171.

Vin-a.1208 says that the two former are for doing a service, but not for greeting, etc., the last is for doing all kinds of services.

172.

As at Kd.15.17.2.

173.

tulā. Vin-a.1208 says “a pole for lifting up (or pulling up, ubbāhana) the water like that used for vegetables, paṇṇikānaṃ.” A.K. Coomaraswamy says it means here “well-sweep,” Indian Architectural Terms, p.271, which also see for the two following terms. The three terms indicate different methods of pulling up water. Editors Vinaya Texts iii.112 had a corrupt copy of the Commentary before them.

174.

karakaṭaka. Kaṭaka is anything circular, so a wheel. Vin-a.1208 says “either having harnessed it to bullocks or having taken it with the hands, it is an instrument with a long strap for pulling up” (a bucket of water).

175.

cakkavaṭṭaka. Vin-a.1208 says “it is a contrivance for jars to be taken off the spokes of a wheel,” arahaṭaghaṭiyantaṃ (variant reading arahattaghaṭi-).

176.

Vin-a.1208, “a hide vessel that can be joined to the well-sweep or the hand-wheel.”

177.

apidhāna, as at Kd.6.12.2.

178.

kaṭāha, or receptacle.

179.

As at Kd.15.14.3.

180.

As at Kd.15.14.3.

182.

udakapuñchanī. In view of the fact that Buddhaghosa says “made of ivory, made of horn, made of wood,” it cannot unhesitatingly be rendered “towel” (as at Vinaya Texts iii.114). Yet the three sorts allowed at Vin.2.174 are those of bearskin, drapery and cloth and Buddhaghosa mentions colakapādapuñchana in Commentary on Kd.16.2.2. Cf. pādapuñchanī at Vin.4.40. The word also occurs at Vin.4.168 (BD.3.89).

183.

colakena paccuddharituṃ as at Kd.16.3.1.

184.

As at Kd.15.16.2.

185.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

186.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

187.

udakāyatika. Vin-a.1208 (reading udakamātikā, a channel, course, as does Sinhalese edition of Vinaya) says this is a mātikā for bringing water in. The drain will have been to lead it away.

188.

This rendering is taken from Vin-a.1208 which says that nillekha is called “a projection curving at the side, āviddhapakkhapāsaka; having fixed the side projections in the upper round part, uparimaṇḍale, of the beams, this (i.e. nillekha) is the name of the finished covering roof.” One might compare the “curved house,” aḍḍhayoga, of Vin.1.58 and other passages. See BD.4.75.

189.

vippavasati; see Bu-NP.2.

190.

See Bu-NP.15, Vin.3.232 where nisīdana is defined, and BD.2.87, n.2, n.3.

191.

kavāṭe pañcaṅgulikaṃ dātuṃ. See article on pañcaṅgulika in Pali-English Dictionary. It is either a magical and protective or a decorative mark. At the present day impressions of the human hand are still made on walls in India, the hand having been first dipped in some colouring matter. See also Journal of the Pali Text Society 1884, p.84f. Pañcaṅgulikaṃ datvā occurs at Ja.i.166 in connection with slaying a goat; at Ja.i.192 (gandhena pañc- datvā) of an ox; at Ja.ii.104, Ja.iii.23 of a tree, and also as lohitapañc- of a tree at Ja.iii.160.

192.

namataka, as at Vin.2.115, Vin.2.134. Vin-a.1208 on its meaning above says that it is made of sheep’s wool (or goats’ hair, eḷakaloma).

193.

Not included among the articles about which the same question was asked at Vin.1.296–7.

194.

āsittakūpadhāna. Vin-a.1208 says that a synonym for this is “a peḷā (basket, chest?) made of copper or silver.”

195.

maḷorikā. Vin-a.1208 explains as a prop (made of) sticks, daṇḍādhā aka.

196.

As lax monks did at Vin.2.10, Vin.3.180.

197.

As lax monks did at Vin.2.10, Vin.3.180.

198.

As the lax monks and as two nuns did at Vin.4.288 (see BD.3.304).

199.

As the lax monks and as two nuns did at Vin.4.288 (see BD.3.304).

200.

As the lax monks and as two nuns did at Vin.4.288 (see BD.3.304).

201.

As the lax monks and as the two nuns at Vin.4.289 (see BD.3.30, n).

203.

He is not called āyasmā by the monks at the parallel passage at Vin.3.162, but he is at Vin.2.78.

204.

Not a literal turning upside down, but a symbolical one performed by a formal act of the Order for turning down, nikkujjanā and, a bowl, as described below in Kd.15.20.4. Vin-a.1209 says “here, if a person is possessed of any one of these eight qualities, having gone within the boundaries or outside them (the Order) may turn it down. When anyone’s bowl is turned upside down thus, no alms may be taken in his house … It is set upright (again) by a formal act consisting of a motion and a resolution, ñattidutiyakamma.” AN-a.iv.159 explains, “(the Order) may turn it upside down by a proclamation, kammavācā for turning a bowl upside down, on account of which there is no receiving of alms given—not by placing it face downwards.” The phrase pattaṃ nikkujjati although used in the ordinary signification above, Kd.15.9.4 (Vinaya Texts iii.119, n.2) is not here. A layman certainly would have had no begging bowl that could have been, literally, turned upside down.

205.

asaṃbhogaṃ saṅghena karotu. See above, Kd.11.25.1 where non-eating with an Order goes with and is a mark of an act of suspension.

206.

This passage recurs at AN.iv.345. The first five qualities are also found at Vin.1.84, Vin.2.18.

207.

At Vin.2.18 a formal act of reconciliation may be carried out for a monk if he has the first five of these qualities in respect of householders; and it may be too if he has spoken dispraise of the awakened one, etc., to householders.

208.

As at Vin.2.79, where a “verdict of innocence” is given for Dabba.

209.

Cf. AN.i.222.

210.

As noted at Vinaya Texts iii.122, n.1 this same verb is used in Kd.11.22.3 when a monk has offended against a layman.

211.

As at Vin.1.315, Vin.4.18–Vin.4.19. See BD.2.200 for notes.

212.

In parallel passages the first person plural is likewise used here, perhaps to emphasise that “confession according to the rule” is to be made to monks and they acknowledge it and are the means by which a transgression can be removed. At the same time, since Gotama seldom, as recorded, addressed laypeople as āvuso, friend, it is doubtful whether he is or is intended to be speaking here at all.

213.

yena Bhaggā. See MN.ii.91 where this story also appears, going as far as BD.5.178 below, “as he was sitting at a respectful distance,” where the Majjhima version proceeds differently. See also SN.iii.1 and B.C. Law, Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p.292f.

214.

SN-a.ii.249 says that it was called Crocodile Hill because as it was being built a crocodile made a noise, the Bhesakaḷā Grove was called after a yakkhinī who lived there.

215.

Lotus. See BD.3.139, n. and MN-a.iii.321.

216.

Dhp.157 is said to have been uttered on his account, see Dhp-a.iii.134.

217.

Sañjikāputta. See Dhp-a.iii.134, where he warned the architect that Bodhi contemplated killing or maiming him so that he could never build another palace like Kokanada.

218.

Cf. MN.ii.92, MN.iii.1.

219.

akkamatu. MN.ii.92 reads abhirūhatu.

220.

celapattikā. For a monk to do so was apparently an auspice that the householder would have a child.

221.

anukampati, MN.ii.93 apaloketi, Dhp-a.iii.136 oloketi. The legend is that Gotama knew that Bodhi would have no children because in a former birth, while he was living on an island, he ate and cooked birds (MN-a.iii.322, Dhp-a.iii.137). He therefore would not bring monks into contempt by walking on the cloths when he knew Bodhi would have no child (Vin-a.1209).

222.

pacchimā janatā. See BD.1.66, n.1 for further references.

223.

MN.ii.93 reads Kokanade pāsāde.

224.

Majjhima version goes on differently from here.

225.

Quoted at MN-a.iii.323. Vin-a.1209 says that he laid down this rule in case a monk should tread on one not knowing whether the householder would have a child or not; and that he did it to safeguard the monks from the householders’ contempt should there not be a child after they had trodden on the cloth carpeting.

226.

gihī maṅgalikā, as at Kd.15.33.3. See also Commentary on Kd.1.2.2. Quoted at MN-a.iii.323.

227.

dhotapādaka. Vin-a.1209 says “it is a sheet spread out for treading on after the feet have been washed at the place for washing feet.” Monks were allowed to tread on this, and evidently no symbolic meaning was attached.

228.

As pointed out at Vinaya Texts iii.130, n.1 “there is no mention in the text of where the first such Portion ends.”

229.

ghaṭaka.

230.

kataka. This is one of the two things made of clay not allowed at Kd.15.37. Vin-a.1209 says “it is made, having raised up protuberances, for rubbing the feet; it may be round or four-sided; it is forbidden as a thing connected with luxury, it must not be accepted nor made use of.”

231.

pādaghaṃsanī.

232.

sakkharā. Here Vin-a.1209 says it is called a stone, pāsāṇa. Word also at Vin.3.147 = Ja.ii.284; see BD.1.250, n.1.

233.

kaṭhala. Cf. sakkharakaṭhala at DN.i.84, AN.i.9.

234.

samuddapheṇaka. This may be the name of a bone; cf. pheṇaka among the “bones” at Vism.254, Vb-a.237. Vinaya Texts iii.131, n.2 says that the word designates “the bones of the cuttle-fish.”

235.

vidhūpana. See BD.3.253, n.3.

236.

tālavaṇṭa. Vin-a.1210 says this is made with palmyra palm leaves or it may be made with bamboo, ivory and bamboo chips, or with peacocks’ tail feathers or with hides. Cf. tālavaṇṭaka at Kd.15.29.4.

237.

makasavījanī. Vin-a.1210 says it is a little stick made of horn, made of ivory. It is difficult to know the difference intended by the two words, vidhūpana and vījanī, both here translated as “fan.” At Vin.4.263 the former is defined by the latter.

238.

camaravījanī. Camara is a yak. Its bushy tail is made into a fan or whisk to drive the flies away.

239.

usīra; see BD.2.228, n.1.

240.

Defined at Vin.4.200, Vin.4.338.

241.

Defined at Vin.4.298.

242.

Nuns are not allowed to use them, Vin.4.338. Cf. DN.i.7 where it is said that Gotama refrains from using them, but see Dialogues of the Buddha i.13, n.2 which maintains “This is not quite accurate.” Vin-a.1210 says in all cases a sunshade made of one leaf is meant.

243.

Cf. Vin.4.337–Vin.4.338 (of a nun).

244.

For similar phraseology cf. Kd.15.8.1.

245.

daṇḍa is defined at Vin.4.200.

247.

Cf. MN.i.86.

248.

Romanthaka.

249.

See Bu-Pc.37.

250.

mukhadvāra as at Bu-Pc.40 and Bu-Sk.41.

251.

I.e. according to Bu-Pc.37 or Bu-Pc.38.

252.

sakkaccaṃ, duly, properly, carefully, respectfully.

253.

Buddhaghosa says that this is explained in the Bhojanavagga (Vin.4.69–Vin.4.90).

254.

Nails are defined at Vism.250f.

255.

kuppa, explained by Buddhaghosa as sadda, noise.

256.

Vin-a.1210 points out that the cutting of the nails was allowed for reasons of self-protection.

257.

chindati, to cut off, to cut down, to remove, to destroy. But as Vin-a.1210 says there was no offence in cutting the nails by means of the nails and so on. I do not think we need translate chindati by “tore off” as at Vinaya Texts iii.137.

258.

pamāṇa, measure; often, as in “the pamāṇa of an average man,” meaning height.

259.

kesa, defined at Vism.249f.

260.

khurasipāṭika, explained at Vin-a.1210 as khurakosaka, a little sheath for a razor.

261.

namataka, as at Kd.15.11.1; Kd.15.19.1; Kd.20.10.4.

262.

khurabhaṇḍa, as at Vin.1.249. See BD.4.345, n.5. Cf. tantabhaṇḍa at Kd.15.28.2.

263.

massum kappāpenti. Vin-a.1211 says kattariyā massuṃ chedāpenti, caused their beards to be cut off with scissors (or with a knife).

264.

Added at Vin-a.1211.

265.

golomikaṃ kārāpenti. Vin-a.1211 says, “having made them long on the chin, they are called: arranged as a goat’s beard, eḷakamassuka.”

266.

caturassakan ti catukoṇaṃ, Vin-a.1211.

267.

parimukhaṃ kārāpenti, of which Vin-a.1211 says this was a growing, gathering, collecting (therefore a cutting), saṃharaṇa, into lines of the hair of the chest.

268.

aḍḍharuka. Vin-a.1211 says “an arrangement into lines of the hair on the stomach.”

269.

sambādhe lomaṃ saṃharāpenti. See note but one above on saṃharaṇa. Corresponding rule for nuns at Nuns’ Bi-Pc.2 and where sambādha is defined. I think saṃharāpenti is more correctly to remove (thus cutting into a shape) than “grow” (a meaning given above), in view of the other “shapings,” and also because of the objections levelled at the nuns and also, above, at the monks.

270.

As Vin-a.1211 notes there is a dukkaṭa for the shaping of the beard and everything else.

271.

sambādhe which, as defined in Nuns’ Bi-Pc.2 means the armpits and private parts.

272.

pisācillika, as at Kd.3.12.3, Kd.15.10.2.

273.

sakkharikā. Cf. Kd.6.14.5, loṇa-sak-.

274.

saṇḍāsa as at MN.ii.75, Ja.i.138.

275.

palita. Cf. palitakesi at MN.i.88. MN-a.ii.60, paṇḍarakesa.

276.

Allowed again below, Kd.15.28.2.

278.

kaṃsapattharikā. Vin-a.1211 explains as kaṃsabhaṇḍavānijā, merchants in bronze goods.

279.

añjanī, allowed at Kd.6.12.1, Kd.6.12.2, Kd.6.12.4.

280.

Allowed at Kd.6.12.3.

281.

Allowed at Kd.15.27.6.

282.

bandhanamatta. Meaning uncertain. Vin-a.1211 says a bandhanamatta for a vāsikattarayaṭṭhikādīnaṃ, a knife and mendicant’s staff. Or should kattara read kattarī, scissors? We should then get “a stick for knife and scissors.” Cf. bandhanamattaṃ at Kd.5.11.1, Kd.7.1.5, but in both passages it seems to have a different meaning from above.

283.

Cf. Bu-Sk.26 where “lolling” is defined as lolling on the hands, lolling on cloths.

284.

As at Kd.14.4.7 (end).

285.

Read paṭṭā instead of text’s pattā, as noted at Vinaya Texts iii.141, n.6.

286.

As at Kd.8.21.1 where a remedy is “allowed”. See BD.4.424. Lujjanti, “gave way,” occurs also at Kd.15.16.2, Kd.15.17.2 and is there translated “fell in.”

287.

āyoga, as at Vin.3.257, Vin.4.170. See BD.2.144, n.2.

288.

pabhassittha, as at Vin.4.159.

289.

As at Vin.4.345.

290.

Taken for granted at Kd.1.25.9, Kd.1.25.10.

291.

kalābuka. Vin-a.1211 explains by bahurajjuka.

292.

deḍḍubhakaṃ nāma udakasappisīsasadisaṃ, so Vin-a.1211.

293.

muraja. Vin-a.1211 says they are made, having twisted the shape into a tambourine drum (vaṭṭa, circle, round).

294.

maddaviṇa. Vin-a.1211 (reading -vāṇa) says pāmaṅgasanthānaṃ. Cf. Kd.15.2.1 where pāmaṅga occurs. See also BD.1.77, n.9.

295.

Buddhaghosa says there must not be even one of these, much less many.

296.

paṭṭikā. Vin-a.1211 explains that here it is a paṭṭikā that is woven ordinarily or that is woven in the fish and thorn design (? macchakaṇṭhakavāyimā), and it continues, “there are to be no divisions into kuñjaracchikādi,” Kuñja is a hollow.

297.

sūkarantaka. Vinaya Texts iii.143 “do not venture to translate the term,” and its meaning is extremely doubtful. Vin-a.1211 has variant reading sūkaraṇḍaka, and also (at Vin.2.319) sukarantaka, which I adopt as the most intelligible, although possibly not the most correct reading. Vin-a.1211 explains by saying it is fashioned into a well made (sūkara) round case for a key.

298.

sobhaṇa. Vin-a.1212 says “having twisted it, there is the sewing of a circular end,” mukhavaṭṭisibbana.

299.

guṇaka. Cf. saguṇaṃ katvā at Kd.1.25.9. Vin-a.1212 says “a sewing after the style of muddikā (i.e. a signet ring, a bunch of grapes; or muddika, an accountant may be meant—one who ties coins, etc., into knots in his waistband?).

300.

pavananta.

301.

vidha, as at Bu-Pc.86.2.2. See BD.3.89, n.1.

302.

This last, thread, is in addition to the usual list as given above, e.g. at Kd.15.27.6.

303.

saṅghāṭiyo as it is in the plural must refer to more than the outer cloak; and since the verb pārupati is used the reference is probably to this and to the upper robe.

305.

gaṇṭhikā. See BD.3.88, n.4.

306.

pāsaka, perhaps a bow for the dress. Cf. Thig.411 and Morris, Journal of the Pali Text Society 1893, p.45.

307.

phalaka, perhaps a slip of wood or bark as in phalakacira, used in making an ascetic’s dress, Vin.1.305, DN.i.167.

308.

hatthisoṇḍaka. Vin-a.1212 says dressed, having made an appendage (hanging down) in the form of an elephant’s trunk.

309.

macchavālaka. Vin-a.1212 says dressed, having hung the edge of the border on one side, the edge of the tie on the other.

310.

Vin-a.1212 explains there were two above and two below, hence showing four corners when clothed thus.

311.

tālavaṇṭaka. Cf. Kd.15.22.2. Vin-a.1212 says that when clothed one suspends the outer cloak in the manner of a palmrya whisk.

312.

satavallikā. Cf. vallikā at Kd.15.2.1 where although the word may mean ear ornaments, these may be formed like jungle ropes. See also Kd.15.16.2. Vin-a.1212 says dressed by making a bracelet (-like arrangement), ovaṭṭika, having folded over the long outer cloak a number of times; or, dressed showing continual jungle ropes at the left and right sides. If one or two jungle ropes appear from the knee it is all right. Cf. ovaṭṭika at Kd.15.2.1.

313.

On pārupati and nivāseti, put on and dress in, see BD.2.32, n.2, n.3.

314.

Buddhaghosa enumerates a number of upper garments which he classifies as householders’, including a Jain’s, a wanderer’s, a one-cloth ascetic’s, and a brahmin’s.

315.

saṃvelliyaṃ. Cf. saṃvelliyaṃ kaṭisuttakaṃ at Kd.20.16.2. Vin-a.1212 says that they dressed having tied on long grass, kaccha, like wrestlers and workmen, and that it is explained in the Sekhiyas that a monk must be dressed having covered up the three circles all round. (See Bu-Sk.1, Bu-Sk.2).

316.

muṇḍavaṭṭī. Vin-a.1213 (with variant reading -veṭhī) says “the meaning is people going anywhere for a king and carrying goods and equipment”. The coils vaṭṭī, would be the pads they wear on their heads to support the burden.

317.

I.e. with the weight at each end. Cf. kāja at Kd.1.20.19.

318.

antarākāja, which Vin-a.1213 explains as one having the weight in the middle and that may be transported by two (men).

319.

khādanti, eat.

320.

dantakaṭṭha, used in cleaning the teeth.

321.

As at AN.iii.250.

322.

As at Vin.3.85.

323.

As at AN.i.153, AN.iii.128.

324.

paṭaggiṃ dātuṃ. Cf. Ja.i.212. Vin-a.1214 says having made the ground square, it is possible to convey grass there and dig it in carefully, and having broken off damp branches to cool down the fire.

325.

Omitted in the text.

326.

Such as seeing wild animals, forest fires, or approaching floods, or such as wanting to see the right direction if one is on the wrong road (so Vin-a.1214).

327.

Yameḷutekulā. This compound should possibly be resolved into Yameḷa and Utekula, but is taken as reproduced above by Dictionary of Pali Proper Names (under Tekuḷa) and Vinaya Texts iii.149, q.v. note 3. These monks are mentioned nowhere but here, I think.

328.

sakāya niruttiyā. Vin-a.1214 says the current Magadhese manner of speech according to the awakened one. Cf. nirutti at MN.iii.234.

329.

chandaso āropema. Vin-a.1214 explains, “we give (āropema) a way of speech according to the honoured dialect (or vernacular, sakkaṭa bhāsā) like a Veda”. Sakkata, variant reading sakkata, may be Sanskrit. See four reasons for supposing so at Vinaya Texts iii.150, n. Cf. Sāvitthī chandaso mukhaṃ at Snp.568, Vin.1.246, and chando nidānaṃ gāthānaṃ at SN.i.38.

330.

lokāyata, name of a branch of brahmin learning, probably metaphysics. See Dialogues of the Buddha i.166–172; Vinaya Texts iii.151, n.2; BD.3.83, n.1. Word also occurs at AN.i.163, AN.i.166, AN.iii.223, Snp.p.105, MN.ii.147. Vin-a.1214 says “it means everything is rejected, everything is unrejected; it is the lore of other sects, connected with what is utterly groundless and which says by this or that method a crow is white, a crane is black.”

331.

tiracchānavijjā. Learnt and then taught by the group of six nuns at Vin.4.305–6; a pācittiya for them. The Old Commentary, on these Nuns’ Bi-Pc.49, Bi-Pc.50, defines both tiracchānavijjā and pariyāpuṇāti, “learn.” See BD.3.337–9 and notes there.

332.

As at Kd.15.21.4.

333.

lasuṇa, defined at Vin.4.259.

334.

A Pācittiya for nuns, Nuns’ Bi-Pc.1.

335.

As a medicine, Vin-a.1214.

336.

Allowed at Kd.5.8.3.

338.

As at Kd.15.17.2.

339.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

340.

pidhara.

341.

As at Kd.15.14.3.

342.

Last two items also at Kd.15.11.6.

343.

As at Kd.15.14.3.

344.

As at Kd.15.11.6.

345.

As at Kd.15.14.5.

346.

Allowed at Kd.5.8.3.

347.

As at Kd.11.13.2 and Bu-Ss.13. The passage has been translated at BD.1.314–BD.1.318.

348.

Vin-a.1214 says they should be dealt with by a pācittiya for a pācittiya matter and by a dukkaṭa for a dukkaṭa matter.

349.

āsandī. See BD.3.326, n.1, and BD.4.256, n.5.

350.

pallaṅka. See BD.3.271, n.3.

351.

See definition of bowl at BD.2.115, BD.2.415, BD.3.213. At Kd.15.8.2 it is made a dukkaṭa to use a wooden bowl.

352.

Cf. Kd.5.6.4 (kaṭṭhapāduka), above dārupāduka.

353.

kataka. See Kd.15.22.1.

354.

kumbhakārikā. Vin-a.1215 says “this is a hut made entirely of clay like Dhaniya’s”. Dhaniya’s story is told at the beginning of Bu-Pj.2.

355.

Reading above is kaṇṇasuttaṃ, an ornamental string hanging from the ear Oldenberg at Vin.2.320 queries whether it should not be kaṇṭhasuttaṃ (see Kd.15.2.1) which is the reading in the Sinhalese and Siamese editions.

356.

Text here lañcanti; at Kd.15.2.5, as also in Sinhalese edition lañchenti. Siamese edition lañcenti.

357.

These two words, run together as sara-bāhiraṃ, stand for sarabhañña and bāhiralomi (Kd.15.3.2 and Kd.15.4).

358.

These two words, run together as sara-bāhiraṃ, stand for sarabhañña and bāhiralomi (Kd.15.3.2 and Kd.15.4).

359.

Reading should be dussati as at Kd.15.9.3 and Sinhalese and Siamese editions, not as with Oldenberg dussanti.

360.

vippāri. Sinhalese edition vipphāli and Siamese edition viphāli. At Kd.15.11.1 it is vipāṭetvā.

361.

vippāri. Sinhalese edition vipphāli and Siamese edition viphāli. At Kd.15.11.1 it is vipāṭetvā.

362.

Text reads jira-patoti ca; Sinhalese edition jiṇṇaṃ pahoti ca; Siamese edition jirappahoti ca.

363.

Text reads paṭikā; Siamese edition pātikaṃ; Sinhalese edition paṭṭikā; Kd.15.11.6 and similar passages pañcapaṭṭhikaṃ. Pali-English Dictionary takes paṭṭikā = paṭṭaka “made of or forming a strip of cloth; a bandage, a strip (of cloth).” Thus pañcapaṭṭhika may be a design: the five strips (of cloth) design.

364.

viniveṭhiya; Siamese edition viniveṭhiyati.

365.

Sinhalese edition here inserts upāhanatthavikañ ca aṃsabandhanasuttakaṃ, bag for sandals and thread or tying at the edge; and Siamese edition upāhanatthavikañ ca aṃsavaddhañ ca suttakaṃ, bag for sandals and a strap at the edge and thread.

366.

Text here reads makarantakapaṭikaṃ, but Sinhalese edition makaradantakapaṭṭikaṃ and Siamese makaradantapātikaṃ.

367.

bāha here stands for ālambanabāha.

368.

In Siamese edition this word is preceded by doṇi, a tub or a trough, and in Sinhalese edition by mattikādoṇi, a tub for clay, as at Kd.15.14.3.

369.

Text reads udakātara, Siamese edition udakhānaṃ, and Sinhalese edition udakādhanaṃ, with which cf. Buddhaghosa’s udakanidhāna on Kd.15.14.3, BD.5.166 above (udakaṭṭhāna), and also cf. udakādhāna at MN.i.414.

370.

Reading pīthaṃ with Sinhalese edition instead of text’s pīṭhe.

371.

This must refer to the wreath work and creeperwork mentioned in Kd.15.14.4.

372.

Reading lujjati with Sinhalese and Siamese editions, instead of text’s lujja-tīṇi.

373.

valliyā; at Kd.15.16.2 vallikāya.

374.

Kd.15.19.1 and Siamese edition maḷorikaṃ; above maḷorakaṃ; Sinhalese edition malojikaṃ.

375.

Text reads bhuñjanto ka tuvaṭṭayyuṃ; Sinhalese edition bhuñjant’ eka tuvaṭṭikaṃ; Siamese edition bhuñjant’ ekaṃ tuvaṭṭayuṃ.

376.

Read ca with Sinhalese and Siamese editions, instead of text’s va.

377.

This refers to three (of the four) rulings laid down at Kd.15.23.2, Kd.15.23.3 for the use of sunshades: (1) allowed, (2) not allowed, (3) allowed (only) to an invalid, (4) allowed to be used by a monk whether ill or well in a monastery and monastery precincts.

378.

nicayā. Sinhalese edition nīcayā, text nisaha. Siamese edition lohabhaṇḍañkhanīsaha. Sinhalese edition inserts between this word and “lolling” bandhanamattaṃ kukkuccā, (too) scrupulous (to use) a handle, see note at Kd.15.28.2 above.

379.

Text paṭaṃ; Sinhalese edition and Kd.15.28.2 vaṭaṃ.

380.

Sinhalese and Siamese editions here have the following: paṭṭikaṃ (Siamese paṭṭikā) sūkarantañ ca / dasā muraja-veṇikā (Siamese murajja-) pavananto pi jirati / gaṇṭhikaṃ uccāvacañ ca phalakante pi ogahe gihīnivatthaṃ hatthisoṇḍaṃ macchakaṃ catukaṇṇakaṃ / (Siamese gihivatthaṃ soṇḍaṃ macchavāḷakaṃ catukkaṇṇakaṃ)—a strip of cotton cloth and one with a well made end/borders, like tambourine drums, a twisting (veṇikā, probably for sobhaṇa at Kd.15.29.2), an end, and knotting the rest, also where it was looped, / it wore out, a block, and various kinds, also shields and edges, taking back, / householders’ undergarments: the elephant’s trunk, the fish arrangement, the four cornered arrangement. This covers Kd.15.29.2Kd.15.29.4 (beginning), and clearly should be inserted.

381.

Reading with Sinhalese edition satavalliṃ, instead of satavali above.

382.

Text reads Yameḷe, which I take to be a plural of “Yameḷa and Tekula”. But Sinhalese edition reads Yameḷa. Siamese Sakaṭe, with variant reading Yameḷe. See note above to Kd.15.33.1.

383.

Text and Siamese edition tiracchānakathā. I follow Sinhalese tiracchānagatā vijjā since there is no mention of “talk”in Kd.15.33.2.

384.

pāru.

385.

Should read lujjati as in Sinhalese and Siamese editions, not lujjanti as in text.

386.

Kd.15.35.3 pidharo; above pidhāro; Sinhalese edition Pīdharo; Siamese edition pīṭharo.

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