Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Dwelling not in comfort

Kd.4.1.1 BD.4.208 At one time the enlightened one, the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time several monks, friends and associates, entered on the rains in a certain residence in the Kosala country. Then it occurred to these monks: “Now by what means can we, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood?”

Kd.4.1.2 Then it occurred to these monks: “If we should neither address one another nor converse, but whoever should return first from the village for almsfood[1] should make ready a seat, should put out water for (washing) the feet, a footstool, a footstand, having washed a refuse-bowl[2] should set it out, should set out drinking water and water for washing.

Kd.4.1.3 Whoever should return last from the village for almsfood, if there should be the remains of a meal and if he should so desire, he may eat them; but if he does not so desire, he may throw them away where there is but little green grass[3] or he may drop them into water where there are no living creatures,[4] he should put up the seat, he should put away the water for (washing) the feet, the footstool, the footstand, he should put away the refuse-bowl having washed it, he should put away the drinking water and the water for washing, he should sweep the refectory.

Kd.4.1.4 Whoever should see a vessel for drinking water or a vessel for washing water or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacuation,[5] void and empty, should set out (water); if it is impossible for him (to do this) he should set out (water) by signalling with BD.4.209 his hand, having invited a companion (to help him) by a movement of his hand[6]; but he should not for such a reason break into speech. Thus may we, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood.”

Kd.4.1.5 Then these monks neither addressed one another nor conversed. Whoever returned first from the village for almsfood made ready a seat, put out water for (washing) the feet, a foot-stool, a footstand, set out a refuse-bowl having washed it, set out drinking water and water for washing. Vin.1.158

Kd.4.1.6 Whoever returned last from the village for almsfood, if there were the remains of a meal ate them if he so desired; if he did not so desire he threw them away where there was but little green grass or he dropped them into water where there were no living creatures, he put up the seat, he put away the water for (washing) the feet, the footstool, the footstand, he put away the refuse-bowl having washed it, he put away the drinking water and the water for washing, he swept the refectory.

Kd.4.1.7 Whoever saw a vessel for drinking water or a vessel for washing water or a vessel (for water) for rinsing after evacuation, void and empty, set out water. If it was impossible for him (to do this) he set out water by signalling with his hand, having by a movement of his hand invited a companion (to help him); but not for such a reason did he break into speech.

Kd.4.1.8 Now it was the custom for monks who had kept the rains to go and see the Lord.[7] Then these monks, having kept the rains, at the end of the three months packed away their lodgings and taking their bowls and robes, set out for Sāvatthī. In due course they approached Sāvatthī, the Jeta Grove, BD.4.210 Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery and the Lord. Having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. Now it is the custom for awakened ones, for Lords to exchange friendly greetings with in-coming monks.

Kd.4.1.9 Then the Lord spoke thus to these monks: “I hope that you were well, monks, I hope that you kept going, I hope that, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, you passed a comfortable rainy season and did not go short of almsfood?”

“We were well, Lord, we kept going, Lord, and we, Lord, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, passed a comfortable rainy season and did not go short of almsfood.”

Kd.4.1.10 Now, Truthfinders (sometimes) ask knowing, and knowing (sometimes) do not ask; they ask, knowing the right time (to ask), and they do not ask, knowing the right time (when not to ask). Truthfinders ask about what belongs to the goal, not about what does not belong to the goal; there is bridge-breaking for Truthfinders in whatever does not belong to the goal. In two ways do awakened ones, Lords question monks, either: “Shall we teach dhamma?” or “Shall we lay down a rule of training for disciples?”[8] Then the Lord spoke thus to these monks:

“But in what way did you, monks, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood?”

Kd.4.1.11 “In that connection did we, Lord, several friends and associates, enter on the rains in a certain residence in the Kosala country. Then it occurred to us, Lord: ‘Now by what means can we, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and Vin.1.159 not go short of almsfood?’ Then it occurred to us, Lord: ‘If we should neither address one another[9] … Thus could we, all together, on friendly terms and harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood.’ So we, Lord, neither addressed one another nor conversed. Whoever returned first from the village for almsfood made ready a seat[10] … but not for such a reason did he break into speech. Thus did we, Lord, all together, on friendly terms and BD.4.211 harmonious, spend a comfortable rainy season and not go short of almsfood.”

Kd.4.1.12 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Indeed, monks, these foolish men, having spent an uncomfortable time, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. Indeed, monks, these foolish men, having spent communion like beasts, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. Indeed … like sheep, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. Indeed … having spent communion in indolence, pretend to have spent an equally comfortable time. How, monks, can these foolish men observe an observance of members of (other) sects: the practice of silence?[11]

Kd.4.1.13 “It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

Monks, an observance of members of other sects, the practice of silence, should not be observed. Whoever should observe it, there is an offence of wrong-doing. I allow, monks, monks who have kept the rains to ‘invite’[12] in regard to three matters: what has been seen or heard or suspected. That will be what is suitable for you in regard to one another, a removal of offences[13], an aiming at (grasping) the discipline.[14]

Kd.4.1.14 And thus, monks, should one invite. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. Today is an Invitation day.[15] If it seems right to the Order, the Order may invite.’ A monk who is an elder, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, having sat down on his haunches, having saluted with joined palms, should speak to it thus: BD.4.212Your reverences, I invite the Order in respect of what has been seen or heard or suspected. Let the venerable ones speak to me out of compassion, and seeing I will make amends.[16] And a second time … And a third time, your reverences, I invite the Order in respect of what has been seen or heard or suspected. Let the venerable ones speak to me out of compassion, and seeing I will make amends.’ A newly ordained monk, having arranged his upper robe over one shoulder … having saluted with joined palms, should speak to it thus: ‘Honoured sirs, I invite the Order Vin.1.160 in respect of what has been seen … And a second time … And a third time … and seeing I will make amends.’”


Kd.4.2.1 Now at that time the group of six monks remained[17] on seats while monks who were elders, sitting down on their haunches, were themselves inviting. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying: “How can this group of six monks remain on seats while monks who are elders, sitting down on their haunches, are themselves inviting?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that the group of six monks remained on seats … were themselves inviting?”

“It is true, Lord.” The awakened one, the Lord rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can these foolish men remain on seats … are themselves inviting? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased …” And having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Monks, you should not remain on seats while monks who are elders, sitting down on their haunches, are themselves inviting. I allow you, monks, to invite while each and every one is sitting down on his haunches.


Kd.4.2.2 Now at that time a certain elder, feeble with age, thinking: “Until all have invited”, while sitting down on his haunches and waiting, fell down in a faint. They told this matter to the Lord. He said: “I allow you, monks, (each one) to sit down on his haunches during the period until he invites, and having invited, to sit down on a seat.

Footnotes and references:

1.

From here to near the end of Kd.4.1.4 cf. Kd.10.4.5; Kd.18.5.3; MN.i.207.

2.

This is a receptacle for the leavings of meals.

3.

appaharita, or few crops, or no green grass, MN-a.i.94 explaining by tiṇāni, grasses, and referring to Bu-Pc.11.

4.

This sentence occurs also at Kd.6.26.6, SN.i.169, Snp.p.15, MN.i.13.

5.

Cf. MN-a.ii.242.

6.

MN-a.ii.242 says that if any of these vessels is empty, having taken it to a pond and washed it inside and outside, having filtered water (into it), having set it down on the bank, they invite another monk (to help them) by a movement of the hand.
I think that hatthavikārena (“by a movement of the hand”) and hatthavilaṅghakena (“by signalling with the hand”) are complementary and are used to emphasise the gesture-language needed in place of speech. I therefore think that there should be no comma, as in Oldenberg’s edition, after hatthavikārena (there is none at MN.i.207) since this makes the passage read “if it is impossible for him (to do this) by a movement of the hand”, i.e. if he is not able to move the vessel single-handed. This is of course a possible reading, but it is not elegant Pali and balance and emphasis are lost.

7.

For following passage, cf. BD.1.153f.

11.

mūgabbata, custom of being dumb (mūga), according to Vin-a.1073, for three months. Cf. the monks who sat like dumb swine, mūgasūkarā, when they might have been speaking dhamma, above, BD.4.131.

12.

pavāretuṃ, a technical term used for a monk to “invite” others at the end of the rains to tell him if he has been seen or heard or suspected to have committed any offences. If they do so, and he acknowledges an offence by seeing it and making amends for it, he becomes rid of it, and is therefore pure to take his place in the Order’s business.

13.

āpattivuṭṭhānatā, or a rising up from an offence (or offences). Cf. āpatti vuṭṭhitā at Kd.2.3.5, and vuṭṭhāsi at Kd.3.10.1, a village was removed.

14.

vinayapurekkhāratā. Cf. atthapurekkhāra dhammapurekkhāra at e.g. Vin.3.130, Vin.4.11, Vin.4.277.

15.

pavāraṇā, invitation. MN-a.i.93 distinguishes four kinds of pavāraṇā and places first this one held at the end of the rains.

16.

I.e. for the offence imputed to him and “seen” by him.

17.

acchanti. Vin-a.1074 says they were sitting down, they did not stand up.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: