Sanskrit quote nr. 38 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकस्मादुन्मत्त प्रहरसि किमध्वक्षितिरुहं ह्रदं हस्ताघातैर्विदलसि किमुत्फुल्लनलिनम् ।
तदा जानीमस्ते करिवर बलोद्गारमसमं सटां सुप्तस्यापि स्पृशसि यदि पञ्चाननशिशोः ॥

akasmādunmatta praharasi kimadhvakṣitiruhaṃ hradaṃ hastāghātairvidalasi kimutphullanalinam |
tadā jānīmaste karivara balodgāramasamaṃ saṭāṃ suptasyāpi spṛśasi yadi pañcānanaśiśoḥ ||

⏑⎼⎼¦⎼⎼⎼¦⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⏑⎼¦¦⏑⎼⎼¦⎼⎼⎼¦⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⏑⎼¦¦
⏑⎼⎼¦⎼⎼⎼¦⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⏑⎼¦¦⏑⎼⎼¦⎼⎼⎼¦⏑⏑⏑¦⏑⏑⎼¦⎼⏑⏑¦⏑⎼¦¦

Meter name: Śikhariṇī; Type: Akṣaracchanda (sama); 17 syllables per quarter (pāda); Caesurae after the sixth syllable.

Primary English translation:

“It is in vain, when mad, that you uproot the way-side tree; and wherefore trash the lake that blooms with lotuses? Oh best of elephant, we shall admit your strength/when you touch the mane of sleeping lion cub.”

(translation by D. H. H. Ingall)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Unmatta (उन्मत्त): defined in 7 categories.
Prahara (प्रहर): defined in 6 categories.
Kim (किम्): defined in 3 categories.
Adhva (अध्व): defined in 1 categories.
Kshitiruha (ksitiruha, kṣitiruha, क्षितिरुह): defined in 1 categories.
Hrada (ह्रद): defined in 5 categories.
Hasta (हस्त, hastā, हस्ता): defined in 11 categories.
Aghata (aghāta, अघात): defined in 3 categories.
Vidala (विदल): defined in 3 categories.
Utphulla (उत्फुल्ल): defined in 2 categories.
Nalina (नलिन): defined in 3 categories.
Ta (त, tā, ता): defined in 4 categories.
Tad (तद्): defined in 2 categories.
Yushmad (yusmad, yuṣmad, युष्मद्): defined in 3 categories.
Karivara (करिवर): defined in 1 categories.
Bala (बल, balā, बला): defined in 19 categories.
Udgara (udgāra, उद्गार): defined in 2 categories.
Asama (असम): defined in 5 categories.
Supta (सुप्त): defined in 2 categories.
Ap (अप्): defined in 5 categories.
Yad (यद्): defined in 3 categories.
Pancanana (pañcānana, पञ्चानन): defined in 4 categories.
Shishu (sisu, śiśu, शिशु): defined in 3 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Jainism, Sanskrit, Shilpashastra (iconography), Purana, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Marathi, Hinduism, Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology), Pali, India history, Vastushastra (architecture), Yoga (school of philosophy), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Ayurveda (science of life), Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Buddhism, Itihasa (narrative history), Dharmashastra (religious law), Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy), Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akasmādunmatta praharasi kimadhvakṣitiruhaṃ hradaṃ hastāghātairvidalasi kimutphullanalinam”
  • akasmād -
  • akasmāt (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • unmatta -
  • unmatta (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    unmatta (vocative single)
    unmatta (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    unmatta (vocative single)
  • prahara -
  • prahara (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    prahara (vocative single)
  • si -
  • si (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
  • kim -
  • kim (indeclinable interrogative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable interrogative)
    kim (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    kim (pronoun, neuter); (2 der.)
    kim (nominative single)
    kim (accusative single)
  • adhva -
  • adhva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    adhva (vocative single)
    adhvan (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    adhva (compound)
  • kṣitiruham -
  • kṣitiruha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    kṣitiruham (adverb)
    kṣitiruham (accusative single)
    kṣitiruh (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    kṣitiruham (accusative single)
  • hradam -
  • hrada (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    hradam (adverb)
    hradam (accusative single)
    hradā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    hradam (adverb)
  • hastā -
  • hasta (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    hasta (vocative single)
    hasta (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    hasta (vocative single)
    hastā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    hastā (nominative single)
    hastā (nominative single)
  • aghātair -
  • aghāta (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    aghātaiḥ (instrumental plural)
  • vidala -
  • vidala (noun, masculine); (4 der.)
    (compound)
    (compound)
    vidala (vocative single)
    vidala (vocative single)
    vidala (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    (compound)
    (compound)
    vidala (vocative single)
    vidala (vocative single)
  • si -
  • si (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    (adverb)
  • kim -
  • kim (indeclinable interrogative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable interrogative)
    kim (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    kim (pronoun, neuter); (2 der.)
    kim (nominative single)
    kim (accusative single)
  • utphulla -
  • utphulla (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    utphulla (vocative single)
    utphulla (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    utphulla (vocative single)
  • nalinam -
  • nalina (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    nalinam (adverb)
    nalinam (nominative single)
    nalinam (accusative single)
  • Line 2: “tadā jānīmaste karivara balodgāramasamaṃ saṭāṃ suptasyāpi spṛśasi yadi pañcānanaśiśoḥ”
  • tadā -
  • tadā (indeclinable adverb); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    tadā (indeclinable correlative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable correlative)
    tadā (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
  • jānīmas -
  • jñā (verb class 9); (1 der.)
    jānīmaḥ (present active first plural)
  • te -
  • ta (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    te (locative single)
    ta (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    te (nominative dual)
    te (vocative dual)
    te (accusative dual)
    te (locative single)
    (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    te (nominative dual)
    te (vocative single)
    te (vocative dual)
    te (accusative dual)
    tad (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    te (nominative dual)
    te (accusative dual)
    sa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    te (nominative plural)
    (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    te (nominative dual)
    te (accusative dual)
    te (nominative dual)
    te (accusative dual)
    yuṣmad (pronoun, none); (2 der.)
    te (dative single)
    te (genitive single)
  • karivara -
  • karivara (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    karivara (vocative single)
  • balo -
  • bala (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    bala (vocative single)
    bala (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    bala (vocative single)
    balā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    balā (nominative single)
    bal (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    bala (imperative active second single)
  • udgāram -
  • udgāra (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    udgāram (adverb)
    udgāram (accusative single)
  • asamam -
  • asama (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    asamam (adverb)
    asamam (accusative single)
    asama (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    asamam (adverb)
    asamam (nominative single)
    asamam (accusative single)
    asamā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    asamam (adverb)
    sam (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    asamam (imperfect active first single)
  • saṭām -
  • saṭā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    saṭām (accusative single)
  • suptasyā -
  • supta (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    suptasya (genitive single)
    supta (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    suptasya (genitive single)
    svap -> supta (participle, masculine); (1 der.)
    suptasya (genitive single), from √svap (class 2 verb)
    svap -> supta (participle, neuter); (1 der.)
    suptasya (genitive single), from √svap (class 2 verb)
  • api -
  • api (indeclinable preposition); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable preposition)
    ap (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    api (locative single)
    api (Preverb); (1 der.)
    (Preverb)
  • spṛśasi -
  • spṛś (verb class 6); (1 der.)
    spṛśasi (present active second single)
  • yadi -
  • yadi (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    yadi (indeclinable relative); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable relative)
    yadi (indeclinable); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    yad (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    yadi (locative single)
  • pañcānana -
  • pañcānana (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    pañcānana (vocative single)
    pañcānana (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    pañcānana (vocative single)
  • śiśoḥ -
  • śiśu (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    śiśoḥ (ablative single)
    śiśoḥ (genitive single)
    śiśu (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    śiśoḥ (ablative single)
    śiśoḥ (genitive single)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Subhāṣitaratnakośa 1072: Contains Sanskrit aphorisms on the subject of court poetry. Supposedly, contents were drawn from a large library housed in the monastery of Jagaddala. The book was compiled by Vidyākara in the 12th century.
More info

Saduktikarṇāmṛta (Sures Chandra Banerji: 1831; Rāmāvatāra Śarmā: 4.39,1): Name of a Sanskrit anthology, containing poetical verses. The final section is devoted to verses of the author’s father (Vaṭudāsa). The book was compiled by Śrīdharadāsa in 1205.
More info

Anyoktimuktāvalī 36.88: The book was written by Haṃsavijaya in 1679.
More info

Authorship

Vidyākara (11th century) is the compiler of the Subhāṣitaratnakośa, into which he included this quote, ascribing the authorship to Nārāyaṇa. Vidyākara was a Buddhist scholar and author of poetic works.

Śrīdharadāsa (12th century) is the compiler of the Saduktikarṇāmṛta, into which he included this quote, ascribing the authorship to Nārāyaṇa. Śrīdharadāsa was active at the Sena court and author of various Sanskrit works. His father was Vaṭudāsa. In one of his major books, the Saduktikarṇāmṛta, he identifies himself as holding a substantial feudal rank (mahāmāṇḍālika).

Haṃsavijaya (1650) is the author of the Anyoktimuktāvalī. He was also known as Haṃsavijayagaṇi or Haṃsavijayagaṇīśa.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 38 and can be found on page 7. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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