Prahara, Prahāra: 28 definitions


Prahara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Prahar.

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In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Daivi Varnashram: Nakṣatra Gaṇḍānta

The word Prahara (प्रहर) is defined in jyotiṣa as a fixed period of 3 hours reckoned from sunrise. There are eight prahara in a day of 24 hours and the junctions of these prahara are fixed. In North India these are also referred to as ghaḍī (घडी) meaning ‘the watch’. The first prahara or a day is ruled by the lord of the day and the subsequent follow the order of the kālachakra. Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Moon and Rāhu is the regular order of planets in the Kālachakra.

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta (jyotisha)

Prahara (प्रहर) refers to a measure of equaling eight daṇḍas, as mentioned in the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.20.387ff.—Accordingly, “The sun moves across the zodiac day and night and crosses the oceans between the seven islands one after the other. According to Vedic astronomical calculations, the rotation of the sun consists of sixty daṇḍas, and it is divided into thirty-six hundred palas. The sun rises in steps consisting of sixty palas. Sixty palas equal one daṇḍa, and eight daṇḍas [i.e., aṣṭadaṇḍa] comprise one prahara. The day and the night are divided into eight praharas—four belonging to the day and four belonging to the night. After eight praharas, the sun rises again”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Prahara (प्रहर) refers to “hitting and thrusting (during a fight)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.8 (“The battle between the gods and Asuras”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then various military bands and drums like Bherīs, Mṛdaṅgas, Paṭahas, Āṇakas and Gomukhas were sounded by the soldiers terrifying those who happened to hear. Both [Vīrabhadra and Tāraka] were severely wounded by the mutual hits and thrusts (prahara) but still they continued their fight with added vigour like Mercury and Mars. On seeing the fight between him and Vīrabhadra, you, the favourite of Śiva went there and said to Vīrabhadra. [...]”.

2) Prahara (प्रहर) refers to a “blow” (by a thunderbolt), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.9 (“Boasting of Tāraka”).—Accordingly, as Tāraka-Asura fought with the Gods: “[...] Tāraka was shattered and split by that blow of the thunderbolt (vajra-prahāra), his power being sapped up already by the act of censure. He fell on the ground. Though he fell down, he got up immediately and furiously hit Indra who was seated on an elephant, with his spear and felled him to the ground. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Prahara (प्रहर).—A measure of time.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 8.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prahāra (प्रहार) refers to a set of three rules used in relation with the “five handstrokes” (pāṇiprahata): rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “now these hand-strokes, according to their application are controlled, semi-controlled or free”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Prahara (प्रहर) refers to:—(same as yāma) a three-hour time period in the 24-hour day. The first prahara starts at brahma-muhūrta. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Prahāra (प्रहार) refers to:—(or Yāma)One of the eight periods of the day. Each yāma consists of approximately three hours. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Prahara (प्रहर) or Praharāśva refers to an “injured” (horse), according to sections on the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—[The management of ardha-prahara-aśva (partially/slightly injured horse)]—The horse when hurt or injured should be treated immediately so as to keep fit. When the horse is partially injured, in such condition guggulu is advised. And the diet should be dugdha-pāyasa (milk pudding) for immediate/ speedily recovery.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Prahara (प्रहर):—A measure of time equals 3 hours

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prahara in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Prahara (प्रहर) refers to Unit of Time (possibly corresponding to three hours), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] Remaining in absorption for the [following] times; moments, breaths, Palas, Nāḍīs, Praharas, days, months and years, [the Yogin] then goes to the highest reality. [...]”.

Note: In Svacchandatantra (7.28c-d-7.29a-b), prahara corresponds to three hours:—“O Goddess, by four Praharas, there is a day, by four the night and therefore, by eight the day and night”.—This is supported by Brahmānanda’s commentary on Haṭhapradīpikā 3.112, which glosses prahara as a watch (yāma).

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Prahara in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Prahāra (प्रहार) refers to the “striking” (of a hawk), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the outlines of hawking]: “Saras Cranes and Comnon Cranes attached by a Kuhī excite a fierce emotion, for they are like winged mountains pursuing each other. Falling on the ground, they strike each other with their talons and make a fierce noise; then changing their position, they strike (prahāra) each other with their beaks in a terrible fight”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Prahara (प्रहर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a three-hour period, eight of which make up each day.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Prahāra (प्रहार) or Prahāradāna refers to “wounds”, representing one of the various actions of Māra, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 10).—Accordingly, “[Question: What are the works of Māra?]—[Answer].—[...] Māra has three types of actions: (a) play, laughter, idle chatter, singing, dancing, and everything that provokes desire; (b) iron fetters, beating, whipping, wounds (prahāradāna), spikes, knives, slashing and everything that is caused by hatred; (c) [demented mortifications] such as being burned, being frozen, tearing out one’s hair, starving, jumping into the fire, throwing oneself into the water, falling onto spears and everything that results from stupidity”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Prahara.—(SII 2; SITI), flaw in rubies. Note: prahara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prahara (प्रहर).—m (S) A watch, an eighth part of the natural day.

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prahāra (प्रहार).—m (S) Striking or hitting: also a blow or stroke.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prahara (प्रहर).—m A watch, an eighth part of the natural day.

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prahāra (प्रहार).—m Striking or hitting. A blow or stroke.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prahara (प्रहर).—The eighth part of a whole day, a watch (a period roughly reckoned at 3 hours); प्रहरे प्रहरेऽसहो- च्चारितानि गामानयेत्यादिपदानि न प्रमाणम् (prahare prahare'saho- ccāritāni gāmānayetyādipadāni na pramāṇam) T.S.

Derivable forms: praharaḥ (प्रहरः).

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Prahāra (प्रहार).—

1) Striking, beating, hitting; मतकल्पः प्रहारार्तो जीवन्नपि विशुद्ध्यति (matakalpaḥ prahārārto jīvannapi viśuddhyati) Y.3.248.

2) Wounding, killing.

3) A stroke, blow, hit, knock, thump; प्रहारमूर्च्छापगमे रथस्थाः (prahāramūrcchāpagame rathasthāḥ) R.7.44; मुष्टिप्रहार, तलप्रहार (muṣṭiprahāra, talaprahāra) &c.

4) A cut or thrust, as in खड्गप्रहार (khaḍgaprahāra).

5) A kick; as in पादप्रहार (pādaprahāra); लत्ताप्रहार (lattāprahāra).

6) Shooting.

7) A battle (raṇa); प्रहारे च पराक्रान्तः शूरः पञ्चत्वमागतः (prahāre ca parākrāntaḥ śūraḥ pañcatvamāgataḥ) Rām.4.23.12.

8) A Necklace.

Derivable forms: prahāraḥ (प्रहारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Prahārā (प्रहारा).—f. (= Sanskrit prahāra, m.; no other record of f. °rā, but compare next), blow, stroke: instr. sg. tala-prahārāya (v.l. °ye) Mahāvastu ii.74.15; ekāye tala-°rāye hato 18; ekāya tala-°rāye nihato 75.9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prahara (प्रहर).—m.

(-raḥ) A watch, an 8th part of the day, or a division comprising about three hours. E. pra before, ha to take, ap aff.

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Prahāra (प्रहार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Striking. 2. Wounding, killing. 3. A blow, a knock, a stroke. 4. A cut, a thrust. 5. A kick. 6. Suiting, fitting. E. pra before, hṛ to take, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prahara (प्रहर).—i. e. pra-hṛ + a, m., and praharaka prahara + ka, A watch, or a division comprising about three hours, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 29, 9; [Pañcatantra] 237, 3.

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Prahāra (प्रहार).—i. e. pra-hṛ + a, m. 1. Striking, [Pañcatantra] 245, 12; pecking, [Hitopadeśa] 107, 19; killing. 2. A stroke, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 83; a shot (of an arrow), [Pañcatantra] 141, 10; a kick, 215, 21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prahara (प्रहर).—[masculine] a watch i.e. a period of about 3 hours (lit. a stroke, scil. on a gong).

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Prahāra (प्रहार).—[masculine] stroke, blow, shot.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prahara (प्रहर):—[=pra-hara] a etc. See pra- √hṛ.

2) Prahāra (प्रहार):—[=pra-hāra] a See pra- √hṛ.

3) Prahara (प्रहर):—[=pra-hara] [from pra-hṛ] b m. (ifc. f(ā). ) a division of time (about 3 hours = 6 or 7 Nāḍikās; [literally] ‘stroke’, [scilicet] on a gong), [Varāha-mihira; Kathāsaritsāgara; Pañcatantra]

4) [v.s. ...] the 8th part of a day, a watch, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the subdivisions in a Śākuna (q.v.)

6) Prahāra (प्रहार):—[=pra-hāra] [from pra-hṛ] b m. striking, hitting, fighting, [Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] a stroke, blow, thump, knock, kick etc. (‘with’ [compound]; ‘on’ [locative case] or comp.), [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] m. a necklace, [Dharmaśarmābhyudaya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prahara (प्रहर):—[pra-hara] (raḥ) 1. m. A watch; 3 hours.

2) Prahāra (प्रहार):—(raḥ) 1. m. Striking, wounding.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Prahāra (प्रहार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pahara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prahara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prahara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Prahara (प्रहर) [Also spelled prahar]:—(nm) a measure of time equivalent to three hours; period of three hours.

2) Prahāra (प्रहार) [Also spelled prahar]:—(nm) an assault; a blow, stroke; ~[ka/karttā] one who makes an assault or strikes a blow.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Prahara (ಪ್ರಹರ):—

1) [noun] a stroke; a blow.

2) [noun] the act or fact of breaking up or spoiling (someone or something) completely.

3) [noun] eighth part of a day (approx. a preriod of three hours).

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Prahāra (ಪ್ರಹಾರ):—

1) [noun] the act of giving a blow.

2) [noun] a blow; a stroke.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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