Ap, Āp, Ape: 21 definitions


Ap means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Ap (अप्, “water”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings. Ap is also regarded as one of the five bhūtas (‘elements’) possessing a specific quality making it cognizable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

Ap (अप्, “water”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Ap or water is the second of the nine dravyas. Taste is the special quality of water. The sense of taste is composed through the elements of water. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines water (ap) as that which has cold-touch. As in the case of earth, Annaṃbhaṭṭa points out the non-applicability of this definition to water which is just produced and destroyed. He then proceeds to refute this by saying that the definition of water may be described as having the generic attribute other than dravyatva which has the same substratum with cold-touch. So, he shows the faultless definition of water as that which possesses aptva. Kaṇāda gives the definition of water (ap) as “rūparasasparśavatya āpo dravāḥ snigdhāḥ”. Hence, according to Kaṇāda, water possesses the qualities of colour, taste and touch; it is fluid and soothing. He again says cold-touch is the special quality of water.

Water (ap), like earth is divided into two types nitya (eternal) and anitya (noneternal). The eternal water is the atom of water and non-eternal is the products of water. The qualities of the eternal atoms of water are eternal and the qualities of non-eternal watery substances are non-eternal. Again it is of three types–body, sense-organ and object. Watery body is found in the Varuṇaloka, sense-organ is that through which one perceives taste which is located at the tip of the tongue. Viṣayas are rivers, seas etc.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Ap (अप्).—(I) kṛt affix अ (a), in the sense of verbal activity (भाव (bhāva)) or any verbal relation (कारक (kāraka)) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ (kartṛ)) applied to roots ending in ऋ () or उ (u) and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ (grah, vṛ, dṛ) etc. mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ (ghaña). e.g. करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः (karaḥ, garaḥ, śaraḥ, yavaḥ, lavaḥ, pavaḥ, grahaḥ, svanaḥ) etc, cf. P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् (ap) applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् (loman) preceded by अन्त् (ant) or वहिर् (vahir) e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः (kalyāṇīpañcamā rātrayaḥ, antarlomaḥ, bahirlomaḥ paṭaḥ) cf. P. V. 4.116, 117.

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Āp (आप्).—(l) common term for the fem. endings टाप्, डाप् (ṭāp, ḍāp) and चाप् (cāp) given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; cf. अव्ययादाप्सुपः (avyayādāpsupaḥ) P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; cf. also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. etc.; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the loc. pl. cf. अनाप्यकः (anāpyakaḥ) P. VII.2.112.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ap (अप्, “water”) (also known as Jala) is used in the preparation of earthen phallic emblems (pārthiva-liṅga), according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] after washing the clay clean with water (jala) and kneading it slowly he shall prepare a good earthen phallic image according to the Vedic direction. Water (ap) shall be sanctified with the mantra “Āposmān” etc. The rite of “phāṭikābandha” shall be performed with “Namaste Rudra” mantra. The purity of the place of worship shall be heightened with the mantra “Śambhavāya” etc. The sprinkling of water over pañcāmṛta shall be performed with the word Namaḥ prefixed”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ap (अप्) refers to “primordial water”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 1), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] There was darkness (chaos) in the beginning. Then came water [i.e., ap] (into existence). On it (floated) a golden-coloured egg, the (divine) seed consisting of the Earth and the Firmament from which there arose Brahmā, the creative agent with the sun and moon for his eyes. Kapila says that the universe had its origin in pradhāna; Kaṇātha in dravya and the like; a few in kāla (time); others in Svabhāva (nature); and some in karma. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Ap (अप्) refers to the element “water”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIX.—Accordingly, “some say that water (ap-) is the greatest of all substances. Why? Because at the zenith (ūrdhvam), at the nadir (adhas) and at the four cardinal points (diś) of the great earth (mahāpṛthivī), there is no place where there is no water. If the Lokapāla gods did not moderate the rain (varṣa) of the heavenly Nāgas and if there were no jewel (maṇi) to disperse the waters, heaven and earth would collapse. Furthermore, it is as a result of the waters that the classes of animate (sattva) and inanimate (asattva) beings in the world take birth (jāti) and grow (vṛddhi). That is why we can know that water (ap) is very great. This is why the Buddha says here that the Bodhisattva who wishes to know the number of drops of water (bindu) and to disperse them drop by drop so that they have no more power, must practice the perfection of wisdom”.

By cultivating the Prajñāpāramitā, this great earth (mahāpṛthivī) is reduced to its subtle atoms (paramāṇu). Because the earth element (pṛthivī) possesses color (rūpa), odor (gandha), taste (rasa) and touch (spraṣṭavya), it is heavy (guru) and does not have activity (kriyā) on its own.—Because the water (ap-) element has no taste (rasa), it is superior to earth by means of its movement (calana).—Because the fire (tejas) element has neither odor (gandha) nor taste (rasa), it is superior to water (ap) in its power (prabhāva).—Because the wind (vāyu) element is neither visible (rūpa) nor has it any taste (rasa) or touch (spraṣṭavya), it is superior to fire by means of its movement (īraṇa).—The mind (citta) which has none of these four things [color, taste, smell and touch] has a still greater power.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Ap (अप्) refers to the “(realm of) water”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Having entered into the way of the realm of the dharma, he knows the fact that [...] there is no duality of the realm of aggregates and the realm of the dharma; why?—because the realm of aggregates has the nature of the realm of the dharma; there is no duality of the realm of earth, water (ap-dhātu), fire or wind and the realm of the dharma; why?—because the earth, water, fire or wind has the nature of the realm of the dharma; [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Ap (अप्, “water”), Āpas or Jala refers to one of the five types of immobile beings (sthāvara), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.13. The sthāvara is a type of empirical (saṃsārī) soul, or sentient (jīva). The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘stationery-body-making karma’/ sthāvara-nāmakarma, having only one type of sense organ namely body and which cannot move around freely are called with stationery bodies (sthāvara), eg., ap.

What is the meaning of water (ap)? The crust of the water having coolness as its own nature but no consciousness is called water. What is the meaning of water-bodied living beings? The living being which has water as its body is called water bodied living being. How many types of water are there? There are four types of water namely water, water-bodied, life in water body and life tending towards a water body.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ap (अप्).—n S (Constantly occurring in poetry.) Water.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ap (अप्).—n Water.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ap (अप्).—f. [āp -kvip -hrasvaśca Uṇādi-sūtra 2.58] (Deelined in classical language only in pl.; āpaḥ, apaḥ, adbhiḥ, adbhaṣaḥ, apām and apsu, but in singular and pl. in Veda)

1) Water (regarded in Ved. as sacred divinities, āpo devīḥ); खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिः (khāni caiva spṛśedadbhiḥ) Manusmṛti 2.6. Water is generally considered to be the first of the 5 elements of creation, as in अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् (apa eva sasarjādau tāsu bījamavāsṛjat) Manusmṛti 1.8; या सृष्टिः स्रष्टुराद्या (yā sṛṣṭiḥ sraṣṭurādyā) Ś.1.1; but in Manusmṛti 1.78 it is said to have been created from ज्योतिस् (jyotis) or तेजस् (tejas) after मनस्, आकाश, वायु (manas, ākāśa, vāyu) and ज्योतिस् (jyotis) or अग्नि (agni); ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः । अद्भयो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः (jyotiṣaśca vikurvāṇādāpo rasaguṇāḥ smṛtāḥ | adbhayo gandhaguṇā bhūmirityeṣā sṛṣṭirāditaḥ) ||

2) Air, the intermediate region.

3) The star S virginis (citrā). For the changes of अप् (ap) at the end of comp. See P.V.4.74,VI.3.97- 98. [cf. L. aqua, Gr. appos; Lith. uppe, Goth. ahva; Pers. ab; Zend ap; Old Germ. aha].

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Āp (आप्).—5. P., rarely 1 P. (āpnoti or āpati, āpa, āpat, āpsyati, āptum, āpta)

1) To obtain, attain, get; स शान्ति- माप्नोति न कामकामी (sa śānti- māpnoti na kāmakāmī) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.7; 3.2; 3.19. पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि (putramevaṃguṇopetaṃ cakravartinamāpnuhi) Ś.1.12; अनुद्योगेन तैलानि तिलेभ्यो नाप्तुमर्हति (anudyogena tailāni tilebhyo nāptumarhati) H. Pr.25; शतं क्रतूनामपविध्नमाप सः (śataṃ kratūnāmapavidhnamāpa saḥ) R.3.38; so फलम्, कीर्तिम्, सुखम् (phalam, kīrtim, sukham) &c.

2) To reach, go to; overtake, meet, fall in with; शबरीमापतुर्वने (śabarīmāpaturvane) Bhaṭṭikāvya 6.59.

3) To pervade, occupy, enter into.

4) To undergo, suffer, meet with; दिष्टान्तमा- प्स्यति भवान् (diṣṭāntamā- psyati bhavān) R.9.79; Manusmṛti 8.188.

5) To equal. -pass. (āpyate)

1) To be reached, found, met with, obtained &c.

2) To arrive at one's end or aim.

3) To become filled. -Caus. (āpayati)

1) To cause to reach or obtain.

2) To cause any one to feel or perceive.

3) To hit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ap (अप्).—f. pl. only, (āpaḥ) Water. E. āpa to obtain, and kvip Unadi affix; the vowel of the radical becomes short.

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Āp (आप्).—[āpa] r. 1st, 5th & 10th cls. (ḷ) āpḷ (āpati, āpnoti or -nute and āpayati) 1. To pervade or occupy. 2. To obtain, to gain. In the first sense it is usually employed with vi prefixed, and in the second with ava or pra; also with abhi and vi prefixed, to spread one place to another; with pari and vi or saṃ and vi, to obtain completely; with saṃ and vi to meet with, light upon or fall into; with upa, saṃ and pra, to arrive at, to enter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ap (अप्).—f., in the classical literature plur.: N.V. āpas, I. adbhis, D.A. adbhyas. Water, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 8. adbhir dā, To give and confirm the gift by pouring water, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 168.

— Cf. [Latin] aqua amnis, [Gothic.] ahva,

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Āp (आप्).—i. 1 and 10; ii. 5, āpnu, [Parasmaipada.] (in ved. and epic writings also [Ātmanepada.], Mahābhārata 14, 597. Originally also ăp; cf. the ved. desiderative ap + sa; [Latin] ăpiscor, ops, opto, cœpi, copia; i. e. originally ). 1. To attain, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 8, 24. 2. To incur, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 188. 3. To obtain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 63. āpta (cf. [Latin] aptus). 1. Fit, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 12. 2. Trusted, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 80; just, 8, 63. 3. Near, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 101; a friend, ib. 8, 64. 4. Large, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 79. Comp. An-āpta, unapt, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 294.

— Desid. īpsa, To desire to obtain, Mahābhārata 1, 1090. īpsita. 1. Desired, [Nala] 3, 2. 2. Loved, [Nala] 1, 4. 3. Ordained, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 48. n. A wish, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 22, 170. Comp. Yathā -īpsita, adj. as desired, [Sundopasundopākhyāna] 4, 5; acc. tam, adv. 1. According to one’s wish. 2. Willingly. 3. Independently.

— With the prep. abhi abhi, [desiderative.] To desire, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 136; with infin., Chr. 11, 14.

— With ava ava. 1. To attain, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 1, 27. 2. To meet, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 3, 46. 3. To obtain, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 105. an-avāpta, adj. Not obtained, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 209.

— With pratyava prati-ava, To recover, Śiś, 5, 40.

— With samava sam-ava. 1. To meet, Rām, 4, 44, 71. 2. To incur, Chr. 23, 20. 3. To obtain, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 40.

— With pari pari, To cease, Mahābhārata 15, 1073. paryāpta. 1. Adequate, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 1, 10. 2. Sufficient, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 7. 3. Enough (no more), Chr. 42, 13. 4. Full, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 26. 5. Many, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 185, 10. 6. Large, Man, 3, 40. Comp. A-paryāpta, adj. inadequate; with infin., [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 7. Ati-, adj. excessive, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 15, 18. Su-, adj. well finished, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 76. A-paryāptavant, adj. unable, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 16, 28.

— Desid. 1. To demand, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 161. 2. To desire, Mahābhārata 1, 5515; [Ātmanepada.], Mahābhārata 2, 563. 3. To take care, Mahābhārata 3, 17327. 4. To defend, Mahābhārata 4, 480.

— With pra pra. 1. To reach, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 22, 37. To attain, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 57. 2. To meet, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 328. 3. To incur, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 355. 4. To obtain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 277. 5. To get in, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 263. 6. To find, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 142; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 406. prāpta. 1. Proper, right, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 188, 4. 2. Having obtained, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 2. astaṃ prāpta, Dead, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 13, 74. 3. Having arrived, [Nala] 23, 18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ap (अप्).—1. [substantive] work.

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Ap (अप्).—2. [feminine] [plural] (sgl. only in V.) water, waters.

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Āp (आप्).—āpnoti (āpnute), [participle] āpta (q.v.) obtain, reach, overtake, meet with, find; acquire, win, get, beget; pervade, occupy; befall, betide. [Passive] become filled. [Causative] āpayati cause to reach or attain, bring to, let a person ([accusative]) have or feel a thing ([accusative]). [Desiderative] īpsati, te (q.v.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ap (अप्):—1. ap n. ([genitive case] apas), work (according to, [Boehtlingk’s Sanskrit-Woerterbuch in kuerzerer fassung]), [Ṛg-veda i, 151, 4.]

2) 2. ap f. (in [Vedic or Veda] used in [singular] and [plural], but in the classical language only in [plural], āpas) water

3) air, the intermediate region, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska]

4) the star δ Virginis

5) the Waters considered as divinities. ifc. ap may become apa or īpa, ūpa after iand ustems respectively.

6) cf. [Latin] agua; [Gothic] ahva, ‘a river’; Old [German] aha, and affa at the end of compounds; [Lithuanian] uppe, ‘a river’; perhaps [Latin] amnis, ‘a river’, for apnis cf. also ἀφρός

7) Āp (आप्):—1. āp [class] 5. [Parasmaipada] āpnoti ([Atharva-veda ix, 5, 22], etc.), (perf. āpa [Aorist] āpat [future] āpsyati [infinitive mood] āptum) [Ātmanepada] (perf. 3. [plural] āpire, [Ṛg-veda ix, 108, 4], p. [perfect tense] āpāna, [Ṛg-veda ii, 34, 7], but also [present tense] p. āpnāna, [Ṛg-veda x, 114, 7]) to reach, overtake, meet with, fall upon, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.;

—to obtain, gain, take possession of [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc., [Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.;

—to undergo, suffer, [Manu-smṛti];

—to fall, come to any one;

—to enter, pervade, occupy;

—to equal:—[Passive voice] āpyate, to be reached or found or met with or obtained;

—to arrive at one’s aim or end, become filled, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.:—[Causal] [Parasmaipada] āpayati, to cause to reach or obtain or gain, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad] etc.;

—to cause any one to suffer;

—to hit, [Kathāsaritsāgara] :—[Desiderative] [Parasmaipada] and [Ātmanepada] īpsati and īpsate ([Pāṇini 7-4, 55]) to strive to reach or obtain, [Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.:—[Desiderative] of the [Causal] āpipayiṣati, to strive to reach, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa];—

8) [probably connected with 1. ap; cf. apna; [Greek] ἄφενος, ἀφνειός; [Latin] apiscor, aptus, ops; Old [German] uoban; [modern] [German] öben.]

9) 2. āp (ā-√āp) [perfect tense] āpa, to arrive at, come towards, [Ṛg-veda x, 32, 8.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ap (अप्):—f.

(-p; in the classical literature only used in the plural: -āpaḥ-apaḥ-adbhiḥ-adbhyaḥ-apām-apsu) 1) Water.—According to the Hindu doctrine it is one of the five elements the several denominations of which are ākāśa (æther), vāyu (air), agni (fire), ap (water), pṛthivī (earth), (each of these being also replaced by synonymes, as ākāśa by vyoman, vāyu by marut, agni by tejas, ap by vāri, pṛthivī by kṣiti &c.; comp. under ākāśa &c.); the place, however, which water holds in the Hindu cosmogony varies according to the doctrines. Thus the Bṛhad-Āraṇyaka Upan. represents it as the first material creation, it being produced by Death after the creation of Soul; but its character in this Upanishad is not yet that of an element in the later sense of the word; nor is it such an element in the Aitareya-Upan., where the order of the primitive material creation is ambhas (the waters above the heavens), marīci (the sphere of sunbeams or atmosphere), mara (the sphere of death or earth) and ap (the sphere of waters beneath the earth).—In the Taittirīya-Upan. the order and successive origin of the elements is the same as in the Vedānta, viz. æther, in which originates air and thus successively fire, water, earth. But the Vedānta complicates this simple view by assuming a creation of subtle elements (see sūkṣmaśarīra) æther &c., produced by Chaitanya or the worldly Brahman, whence arise through an intricate division and combination of the several parts of each, the material elements (see sthūlaśarīra) æther &c.; this system holds moreover that each successive element becomes possessed of the qualities of each preceding one, i. e. the quality of æther being sound, air obtains the qualities of sound and touch, and in a similar progress, fire the qualities of sound, touch and form, water of sound, touch, form and savour, earth of sound, touch, form, savour and odour.—According to the Sāṅkhya the coarse elements also arise from subtle elements, but the latter (tanmātra q. v.), produced by Ahaṅkāra or the type of I, are the qualities sound, touch, form, savour and odour, æther proceeding from sound, air from touch, fire from form, water from savour and earth from odour. (Compare also Suśruta’s mythological developement of the Sāṅkhya-Yoga: avyaktaṃ mahānahaṃkāraḥ pañca tanmātrāṇi cetyaṣṭau prakṛtayaḥ śeṣāḥ ṣoḍaśa vikārāḥ . svaḥ svaścaiṣāṃ viṣayodhibhūtam . svayamadhyātmamadhidaivataṃ ca . atha buddherbrahmā . ahaṃkārasyeśvaraḥ . manasaścandramāḥ . diśaḥ śrotrasya . tvaco vāyuḥ . sūryaścakṣuṣoḥ . rasanasyāpaḥ . pṛthivī ghrāṇasya . &c.)—The Nyāya systems, more especially the Vaiśeṣika, do not discuss the origin of these elements, the order of which they retain, but attach themselves chiefly to the definition of their properties; accord. to the Vaiśeṣika the qualities of water are touch, number, quantity, individuality, conjunction, disjunction, greater or less comprehensiveness (extension), velocity, gravity, fluidity, colour, savour and viscidity. (For those of the other elements see s. vv. ākāśa &c.) The cosmogony of Manu which is neither the pure Sāṅkhya nor the pure Vedānta doctrine (although Kullūka endeavours to explain his terms as if they were pure Vedānta terms), but a theory apparently prior to both and combining their views, imagines the coarse elements as proceeding from the subtle portions of the seven intellectual creations—puruṣāḥ which are, according to Kullūka, ahaṃkāra, mahat and the five subtle elements(?)—and endowed with the same qualities as assigned to them by the Vedānta.—According to the Viṣṇupurāṇa ‘elementary Egotism (the type of I, ahaṃkāra) becoming productive as the rudiment of sound, produced from it æther, of which sound is the characteristic, investing it with its rudiment of sound; æther becoming productive, engendered the rudiment of touch; whence originated strong wind, the property of which is touch; and æther with the rudiment of sound, enveloped the rudiment of touch; then wind becoming productive, produced the rudiment of form (colour); whence fire proceeded of which form is the attribute, and the rudiment of touch enveloped the wind with the rudiment of colour; fire becoming productive produced the rudiment of savour, whence proceed all juices in which savour resides, and the rudiment of colour invested the juices with the rudiment of savour; the waters becoming productive engendered the rudiment of smell; whence an aggregate (earth) originates, of which smell is the property.’ In a note to this passage (Viṣṇupurāṇa p. 16) Professor Wilson observes that ‘the successive series of rudiments and elements and their respectively engendering the rudiments and elements next in order occur in most of the Purāṇas in nearly the same words’, that ‘some of the Purāṇas, as the Matsya, Vāyu, Linga, Bhāgavata and Mārkaṇḍeya add a description of a participation of properties amongst the elements, which is rather Vedānta than Sāṅkhya’ and mentions a passage of the Moksha Dharma (vv. 6778. 6779) of the Māhābhārata which is an exception, since its order of the elements is æther, water, fire, air, earth. [On the cosmogony of the chapter in which these latter verses occur, Arjunamiśra has the following gloss: koyaṃ sargaprakāraḥ . na hi sāṅkhyādisargeṣvayaṃ kramaḥ . ucyate . anyoyaṃ prakāraḥ sargasya . paurāṇikādisaṃmateṣu &c.; but he omits to say which Purāṇas give this anomalous order of the elements.] For the Bhāgav. Pur. comp. Iii. 26. 29. ff. and the two verses Vii. 12. 25 and 30: khe khāni vāyau niḥśvāsāṃstejasyūṣmāṇamātmavān . apsvasṛkśleṣmapūyāni kṣitau śeṣaṃ yathodbhavam (scil. nyaset); and apsu kṣitimapo jyotiṣyado vāyau nabhasyamum . kūṭasthe tacca mahati tadavyaktekṣare ca tat (this reverted order being that in which dissolution takes place).—In the Vedas, however, apāṃ garbhaḥ ‘the child of the waters’ is an epithet of Agni, ‘because he comes forth from amid the waters’ or ‘because he resides as lightning amidst the rain-waters’ (according to Mahīdhara); comp. also garbho apasām s. v. apas; from the same reason probably Agni is also called apāṃ or apo napāt ‘the grandson of the waters’, but, in Sāyaṇa’s opinion, ‘because trees grow through the agency of water and fire comes (through the friction of the wood) of trees. For the other explanations of these words see s. vv. apānnapāt, apānnaptṛ; comp. also aponapāt, aponaptṛ, aponaptriya, aponaptrīya, apānnaptriya, apānnaptrīya.—apāṃ vratam is the liturgical name of the Sāmav. verses 2. 25. 26. (= Ii. 1. 1. 9.) and 2. 47-49. (= Ii. 1. 1. 18.); apāṃ sāma of 1. 544. (= I. 6. 1. 4. 12.); apāmīvam of 2. 502-504. (= Ii. 4. 2. 7.); apāṃ nidhiḥ of 1. 151. (= I. 2. 2. 1. 7.); apāṃ sarpam of the Āraṇyagāna (of the Sāmav.) Ii. 7. (not in the Sāmav.).

2) (ved.) The same as antarikṣa.

3) (In Astronomy.) The star Virginis. [Compounds the latter part of which is ap assume the samās. aff. a, e. g. pra or parā and ap form prāpa, parāpa; but sometimes the word remains unchanged, if it is a [bahuvrihi compound] compound, e. g. svap, bahvap (in which case the neuter plur. is svāmpi, bahvāmpi); if the first part of the compound is anu, the grammarians assume that ap becomes ūp provided the meaning refers to a place, i. e. anūpa (comp. also sūpa); if it is dvi, antar or a prepositional prefix not ending in a or ā, that ap becomes īp; comp. dvīpa, antarīpa, nīpa, vīpa, anvīpa, pratīpa, samīpa (samāpa being an exception); if the prepos. prefix ends in a or ā, that ap may change to īp or not; comp. prāpa or prepa, parāpa or parepa.—(Another explanation of these compounds will be found in the Preface.)].—Compare also apa and apas. E. āp, uṇ. aff. kvip with the shortening of the initial vowel. For another etym. see the Preface.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ap (अप्):—(āpaḥ) 5. f. Plu. Water.

2) Āp (आप्):—(na, ḷ, au ki) 1. a. āpati, 5. c. āpnoti pnute 10. a. āpayati. To pervade; to obtain, gain, get; With vi to spread; with ava or pra to get; with abhi-vi to spread from place to place; with upa or saṃ-pra to arrive at; with pari-vi or saṃ-vi to gain completely.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ap in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ap in Hindi refers in English to:——a Sanskrit prefix denoting—away, off, base, down, deterioration or inferiority; as an allomorph of [apa] in Hindi, it also denotes 'self' as ~[kaji] selfish; ~[svarthi] selfish..—ap (अप) is alternatively transliterated as Apa.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Āpe (ಆಪೆ):—[noun] a kind of plant.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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