Ap, aka: Āp; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Ap means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Ap (अप्, “water”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings. Ap is also regarded as one of the five bhūtas (‘elements’) possessing a specific quality making it cognizable.

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Ap (अप्, “water”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Ap or water is the second of the nine dravyas. Taste is the special quality of water. The sense of taste is composed through the elements of water. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines water (ap) as that which has cold-touch. As in the case of earth, Annaṃbhaṭṭa points out the non-applicability of this definition to water which is just produced and destroyed. He then proceeds to refute this by saying that the definition of water may be described as having the generic attribute other than dravyatva which has the same substratum with cold-touch. So, he shows the faultless definition of water as that which possesses aptva. Kaṇāda gives the definition of water (ap) as “rūparasasparśavatya āpo dravāḥ snigdhāḥ”. Hence, according to Kaṇāda, water possesses the qualities of colour, taste and touch; it is fluid and soothing. He again says cold-touch is the special quality of water.

Water (ap), like earth is divided into two types nitya (eternal) and anitya (noneternal). The eternal water is the atom of water and non-eternal is the products of water. The qualities of the eternal atoms of water are eternal and the qualities of non-eternal watery substances are non-eternal. Again it is of three types–body, sense-organ and object. Watery body is found in the Varuṇaloka, sense-organ is that through which one perceives taste which is located at the tip of the tongue. Viṣayas are rivers, seas etc.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Ap (अप्).—(I) kṛt affix अ (a), in the sense of verbal activity (भाव (bhāva)) or any verbal relation (कारक (kāraka)) excepting that of an agent, (कर्तृ (kartṛ)) applied to roots ending in ऋ () or उ (u) and the roots ग्रह्,वृ,दृ (grah, vṛ, dṛ) etc. mentioned in P. III.3.58 and the following rules in preference to the usual affix घञ (ghaña). e.g. करः, गरः, शरः, यवः, लवः, पवः, ग्रहः, स्वनः (karaḥ, garaḥ, śaraḥ, yavaḥ, lavaḥ, pavaḥ, grahaḥ, svanaḥ) etc, cf. P.III, 3.57-87 ; (2) compound-ending अप् (ap) applied to Bahuvrīhi compounds in the feminine gender ending with a Pūraṇa affix as also to Bahuvrīhi compounds ending with लोमन् (loman) preceded by अन्त् (ant) or वहिर् (vahir) e. g. कल्याणीपञ्चमा रात्रयः, अन्तर्लोमः,बहिर्लोमः पटः (kalyāṇīpañcamā rātrayaḥ, antarlomaḥ, bahirlomaḥ paṭaḥ) cf. P. V. 4.116, 117.

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Āp (आप्).—(l) common term for the fem. endings टाप्, डाप् (ṭāp, ḍāp) and चाप् (cāp) given by Pāṇini in Adhy. IV, Pāda 1; cf. अव्ययादाप्सुपः (avyayādāpsupaḥ) P. II.4.82. P.IV.1.1.; P.VI.1.68; cf. also P.VI.3.63. P.VII.3.44; P.VII.3.106, 116; P.VII.4.15. etc.; (2) a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the loc. pl. cf. अनाप्यकः (anāpyakaḥ) P. VII.2.112.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Ap (अप्, “water”) (also known as Jala) is used in the preparation of earthen phallic emblems (pārthiva-liṅga), according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] after washing the clay clean with water (jala) and kneading it slowly he shall prepare a good earthen phallic image according to the Vedic direction. Water (ap) shall be sanctified with the mantra “Āposmān” etc. The rite of “phāṭikābandha” shall be performed with “Namaste Rudra” mantra. The purity of the place of worship shall be heightened with the mantra “Śambhavāya” etc. The sprinkling of water over pañcāmṛta shall be performed with the word Namaḥ prefixed”.

Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Ap (अप्) refers to the element “water”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIX.—Accordingly, “some say that water (ap-) is the greatest of all substances. Why? Because at the zenith (ūrdhvam), at the nadir (adhas) and at the four cardinal points (diś) of the great earth (mahāpṛthivī), there is no place where there is no water. If the Lokapāla gods did not moderate the rain (varṣa) of the heavenly Nāgas and if there were no jewel (maṇi) to disperse the waters, heaven and earth would collapse. Furthermore, it is as a result of the waters that the classes of animate (sattva) and inanimate (asattva) beings in the world take birth (jāti) and grow (vṛddhi). That is why we can know that water (ap) is very great. This is why the Buddha says here that the Bodhisattva who wishes to know the number of drops of water (bindu) and to disperse them drop by drop so that they have no more power, must practice the perfection of wisdom”.

By cultivating the Prajñāpāramitā, this great earth (mahāpṛthivī) is reduced to its subtle atoms (paramāṇu). Because the earth element (pṛthivī) possesses color (rūpa), odor (gandha), taste (rasa) and touch (spraṣṭavya), it is heavy (guru) and does not have activity (kriyā) on its own.—Because the water (ap-) element has no taste (rasa), it is superior to earth by means of its movement (calana).—Because the fire (tejas) element has neither odor (gandha) nor taste (rasa), it is superior to water (ap) in its power (prabhāva).—Because the wind (vāyu) element is neither visible (rūpa) nor has it any taste (rasa) or touch (spraṣṭavya), it is superior to fire by means of its movement (īraṇa).—The mind (citta) which has none of these four things [color, taste, smell and touch] has a still greater power.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Ap (अप्, “water”), Āpas or Jala refers to one of the five types of immobile beings (sthāvara), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.13. The sthāvara is a type of empirical (saṃsārī) soul, or sentient (jīva). The state of empirical souls due to the rise of ‘stationery-body-making karma’/ sthāvara-nāmakarma, having only one type of sense organ namely body and which cannot move around freely are called with stationery bodies (sthāvara), eg., ap.

What is the meaning of water (ap)? The crust of the water having coolness as its own nature but no consciousness is called water. What is the meaning of water-bodied living beings? The living being which has water as its body is called water bodied living being. How many types of water are there? There are four types of water namely water, water-bodied, life in water body and life tending towards a water body.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

ap (अप्).—n S (Constantly occurring in poetry.) Water.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ap (अप्).—n Water.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ap (अप्).—f. [āp -kvip -hrasvaśca Uṇ.2.58] (Deelined in classical language only in pl.; āpaḥ, apaḥ, adbhiḥ, adbhaṣaḥ, apām and apsu, but in singular and pl. in Veda)

1) Water (regarded in Ved. as sacred divinities, āpo devīḥ); खानि चैव स्पृशेदद्भिः (khāni caiva spṛśedadbhiḥ) Ms.2.6. Water is generally considered to be the first of the 5 elements of creation, as in अप एव ससर्जादौ तासु बीजमवासृजत् (apa eva sasarjādau tāsu bījamavāsṛjat) Ms.1.8; या सृष्टिः स्रष्टुराद्या (yā sṛṣṭiḥ sraṣṭurādyā) Ś.1.1; but in Ms.1.78 it is said to have been created from ज्योतिस् (jyotis) or तेजस् (tejas) after मनस्, आकाश, वायु (manas, ākāśa, vāyu) and ज्योतिस् (jyotis) or अग्नि (agni); ज्योतिषश्च विकुर्वाणादापो रसगुणाः स्मृताः । अद्भयो गन्धगुणा भूमिरित्येषा सृष्टिरादितः (jyotiṣaśca vikurvāṇādāpo rasaguṇāḥ smṛtāḥ | adbhayo gandhaguṇā bhūmirityeṣā sṛṣṭirāditaḥ) ||

2) Air, the intermediate region.

3) The star S virginis (citrā). For the changes of अप् (ap) at the end of comp. See P.V.4.74,VI.3.97- 98. [cf. L. aqua, Gr. appos; Lith. uppe, Goth. ahva; Pers. ab; Zend ap; Old Germ. aha].

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Āp (आप्).—5. P., rarely 1 P. (āpnoti or āpati, āpa, āpat, āpsyati, āptum, āpta)

1) To obtain, attain, get; स शान्ति- माप्नोति न कामकामी (sa śānti- māpnoti na kāmakāmī) Bg.2.7; 3.2; 3.19. पुत्रमेवंगुणोपेतं चक्रवर्तिनमाप्नुहि (putramevaṃguṇopetaṃ cakravartinamāpnuhi) Ś.1.12; अनुद्योगेन तैलानि तिलेभ्यो नाप्तुमर्हति (anudyogena tailāni tilebhyo nāptumarhati) H. Pr.25; शतं क्रतूनामपविध्नमाप सः (śataṃ kratūnāmapavidhnamāpa saḥ) R.3.38; so फलम्, कीर्तिम्, सुखम् (phalam, kīrtim, sukham) &c.

2) To reach, go to; overtake, meet, fall in with; शबरीमापतुर्वने (śabarīmāpaturvane) Bk.6.59.

3) To pervade, occupy, enter into.

4) To undergo, suffer, meet with; दिष्टान्तमा- प्स्यति भवान् (diṣṭāntamā- psyati bhavān) R.9.79; Ms.8.188.

5) To equal. -pass. (āpyate)

1) To be reached, found, met with, obtained &c.

2) To arrive at one's end or aim.

3) To become filled. -Caus. (āpayati)

1) To cause to reach or obtain.

2) To cause any one to feel or perceive.

3) To hit.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ap (अप्).—f. pl. only, (āpaḥ) Water. E. āpa to obtain, and kvip Unadi affix; the vowel of the radical becomes short.

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Āp (आप्).—[āpa] r. 1st, 5th & 10th cls. (ḷ) āpḷ (āpati, āpnoti or -nute and āpayati) 1. To pervade or occupy. 2. To obtain, to gain. In the first sense it is usually employed with vi prefixed, and in the second with ava or pra; also with abhi and vi prefixed, to spread one place to another; with pari and vi or saṃ and vi, to obtain completely; with saṃ and vi to meet with, light upon or fall into; with upa, saṃ and pra, to arrive at, to enter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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