Api, aka: Apī, Āpi, Āpī; 6 Definition(s)

Introduction

Api means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Api (अपि).—Also in addition to; अपि (api) is used sometimes to mean absolute of or ungualified by any condition; cf. अन्येभ्येपि दृश्यते । अपिशब्दः सर्वोपाधिव्यभि-चारार्थः । निरुपपदादपि भवति । धीवा पीवा । (anyebhyepi dṛśyate | apiśabdaḥ sarvopādhivyabhi-cārārthaḥ | nirupapadādapi bhavati | dhīvā pīvā |) KS. on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.101, VII. 1.38; cf. अपिग्रहणे व्यभिचारार्थम् (apigrahaṇe vyabhicārārtham)) Durgasiṃha on Kāt. II.3.64.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

api : (ind.) and; even; and then.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Api, (indecl.) (Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind, o)piζsa back = close at one’s heels); Lat. ob. in certain functions; Goth. iftuma. ‹-› The assimil. form before vowels is app° (= Sk. apy°). See further details under pi.) both prep. & conj., orig. meaning “close by”, then as prep. “towards, to, on to, on” and as adv. “later, and, moreover”. — 1 (prep. & pref.) (a) prep. c. Loc.: api ratte later on in the night (q. v.) — (b) pref.: apidhāna putting on to; apiḷahati bind on to, apihita (= Gr. e)piqetόs, epithet) put on to, (q. v.). — 2. (conj. & part.). (a) in affirmative sentences meaning primarily “moreover, further, and then, even”: — (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kāmesu even in heavenly joys Dh.187; ko disvā na pasīdeyya api kaṇhâbhijātiko even an unfortunate-born Sn.563 api yojanāni gacchāma, even for leagues we go Pv IV.107 (= anekāni yojanāni pi g. PvA.270. Epithetic (more freq. in the form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh.106, 107; aham api daṭṭhukāmo I also wish to see Sn.685. Out of prothetic use (= even = even if) develops the conditional meaning of “if”, as in api sakkuṇemu (and then we may = if we may) J.V, 24 (c. = api nāma sakkuṇeyyāma; see further under b app’eva nāma). — api-api in correlation corresponds to Lat. et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both . . . and, and . . . as well as, & is esp. freq. in combn. app’ekacce . . . app’ekacce (and) some . . . and others, i. e. some . . . others (not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!), e. g. at D.I, 118; Th.2, 216; VvA.208, etc. —app’ekadā “morever once” = sometimes Vin.IV, 178; S.I, 162; IV, 111; J.I, 67; DhA.III, 303, etc. — (b) (in combn with other emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, moreover D.I, 96; Miln.25, 47. —api ca kho moreover, and yet, still, all the same It.89 (+ pana v. l.); Miln.20, 239. —api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, nevertheless J.I, 253. —api ssu so much so Vin.II, 76. —app’eva nāma (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin.I, 16 (surely); II, 85 (id.); cp. pi D.I, 205 (sve pi upasaṃkameyyāma tomorrow I shall surely come along), 226 (siyā thus shall it be); M.I, 460 = It.89 (moreover, indeed); J.I, 168 (surely) Vin.II, 262 (perhaps) J.V, 421 (id., piyavācaṃ labheyyāma). — (b) in interrog.-dubit. sentences as part. of interrog. (w. indic. or pot.) corresponding to Lat. nonne, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer (“not, not then”): api Yasaṃ kulaputtaṃ passeyya do you not see . . . Vin.I, 16; api samaṇa balivadde addasā have you not then seen . . . S.I, 115; api kiñci labhāmase shall we then not get anything? J.III, 26; api me pitaraṃ passatha do you then not see my father? PvA.38. — Also combd. with other interr. part. e. g. api nu J. II.415. (Page 54)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Api (अपि).—ind. (Sometimes with the a dropped according to the opinion of Bhāguri; vaṣṭi bhāgurirallopamavāpyorupasargayoḥ; pidhā, pidhāna &c.)

1) (Used with roots and nouns in the sense of) Placing near or over, taking towards, uniting with; reaching or going up to, proximity, nearness &c. [cf. Gr. epi, Zend api, Germ. and Eng. be]. (Note :api, as a prefix to roots, occurs mostly in Veda, its place being taken by abhi in classical literature).

2) (As a separable adverb or conjunction) And, also, too, moreover, besides, in addition, having a cumulative force (samuccaya); अस्ति मे सोदरस्नेहोऽप्येतेषु (asti me sodarasneho'pyeteṣu); Ś.1 on one's part, in one's turn; विष्णुशर्मणाऽपि राजपुत्राः पाठिताः (viṣṇuśarmaṇā'pi rājaputrāḥ pāṭhitāḥ) Pt.1; राजाऽपि मुनिवाक्यमङ्गीकृत्यातिष्ठत् (rājā'pi munivākyamaṅgīkṛtyātiṣṭhat) Dk.2; अपि-अपि (api-api) or अपि च (api ca) as well as, and also; अपि स्तुहि, अपि सिञ्च (api stuhi, api siñca) P.I.4.46 Sk., न नापि-न चैव, न वाऽपि, नापि वा चापि (na nāpi-na caiva, na vā'pi, nāpi vā cāpi) neither-nor; न चापि काव्यं नवमित्यवद्यम् (na cāpi kāvyaṃ navamityavadyam) M.1.2 nor; वाऽपि (vā'pi) or; अल्पोऽप्येवं महान् वाऽपि (alpo'pyevaṃ mahān vā'pi) Ms.3.53 whether small or great.

3) It is often used to express emphasis in the sense of 'too', 'even', 'very'; विधुरपि विधियोगाद् ग्रस्यते राहुणाऽसौ (vidhurapi vidhiyogād grasyate rāhuṇā'sau) H.1.19 the very moon; यूयमप्यनेन कर्मणा परिश्रान्ताः (yūyamapyanena karmaṇā pariśrāntāḥ) Ś.1 even you, you also; अन्यदपि (anyadapi) also another; अद्यापि (adyāpi) even, yet, still, even now; इदानीमपि (idānīmapi) even now; मुहूर्तमपि (muhūrtamapi) even for a moment, for one moment at least; नाद्यापि (nādyāpi) not yet; यद्यपि (yadyapi) though, although, even if; तथापि (tathāpi) still, यद्यपि बहु नाधीषे तथापि पठ पुत्र व्याकरणम् (yadyapi bahu nādhīṣe tathāpi paṭha putra vyākaraṇam); nevertheless, notwithstanding, yet; sometimes यद्यपि (yadyapi) is understood, तथाऽपि (tathā'pi) only being used; as in भवादृशेषु प्रमदाजनोदितं भवत्यधिक्षेप इवानुशासनम् । तथाऽपि वक्तुं व्यवसाययन्ति मां निरस्तनारीसमया दुराधयः (bhavādṛśeṣu pramadājanoditaṃ bhavatyadhikṣepa ivānuśāsanam | tathā'pi vaktuṃ vyavasāyayanti māṃ nirastanārīsamayā durādhayaḥ) Ki 1.28.

4) Though (oft. translatable by 'even', 'even if'); सरसिजमनुविद्धं शैवलेनापि रम्यम् (sarasijamanuviddhaṃ śaivalenāpi ramyam) Ś.1.2 though over-spread &c.; इयमधिकमनोज्ञा वल्कलेनापि तन्वी (iyamadhikamanojñā valkalenāpi tanvī) ibid. though in her bark dress; बलवदपि शिक्षितानाम् (balavadapi śikṣitānām) 1.2 though ever so learned. In this sense अपि (api) is most frequently used by writers to show real or imaginary opposition (virodha); कृष्णमपि असुदर्शनम्, पुष्पवत्यपि पवित्रा (kṛṣṇamapi asudarśanam, puṣpavatyapi pavitrā) &c.

5) But however.

6) Used at the beginning of sentences अपि (api) introduces a question; अपि सन्निहितोऽत्र कुलपतिः (api sannihito'tra kulapatiḥ) Ś.i; अपि क्रियार्थं सुलभं समित्कुशं (api kriyārthaṃ sulabhaṃ samitkuśaṃ)...अपि स्वशक्त्या तपसि प्रवर्तसे (api svaśaktyā tapasi pravartase) Ku.5.33,34,35; अप्यग्रणीर्मन्त्रकृतामृषीणां कुशाग्रबुद्धे कुशली गुरुस्ते (apyagraṇīrmantrakṛtāmṛṣīṇāṃ kuśāgrabuddhe kuśalī guruste) R.5.4.

7) Hope, expectation (usually with the potential mood); कृतं रामसदृशं कर्म । अपि जीवेत्स ब्राह्मणशिशुः (kṛtaṃ rāmasadṛśaṃ karma | api jīvetsa brāhmaṇaśiśuḥ) U.2 I hope the Brāhmaṇa boy comes to life. Note-In this sense अपि (api) is frequently used with नाम (nāma) and has the sense of (a) 'is it likely', 'may it be'; (b) 'perhaps', 'in all probability' or (c) 'would that', 'I wish or hope that'; अपि नाम कुलपतेरियमसवर्णक्षेत्रसंभवा स्यात् (api nāma kulapateriyamasavarṇakṣetrasaṃbhavā syāt) Ś.1; Ś.7; तदपि नाम मनागवतीर्णोऽसि रतिरमणबाणगोचरम् (tadapi nāma manāgavatīrṇo'si ratiramaṇabāṇagocaram) Māl.1 perhaps, in all probability; अपि नाम तयोः कल्याणिनोः अभिमतः पाणिग्रहः स्यात् (api nāma tayoḥ kalyāṇinoḥ abhimataḥ pāṇigrahaḥ syāt) ibid.; अपि नाम रामभद्रः पुनरपीदं वनमलङ्कुर्यात् (api nāma rāmabhadraḥ punarapīdaṃ vanamalaṅkuryāt) U.2; 'is it likely', 'I wish'; यथा वनज्योत्स्नानुरूपेण पादपेन संगता अपि नाम एवमहमप्यात्मनोऽनुरूपं वरं लभेयेति (yathā vanajyotsnānurūpeṇa pādapena saṃgatā api nāma evamahamapyātmano'nurūpaṃ varaṃ labheyeti) Ś.1 would that; अपि नामाहं पुरूरवा भवेयम् (api nāmāhaṃ purūravā bhaveyam) V.2 I wish I were P.

8) Affixed to interrogative words, अपि (api) makes the sense indefinite, 'any', 'some'; कोऽपि (ko'pi) some one; कीमपि (kīmapi) something; कुत्रापि (kutrāpi) somewhere; कदाऽपि (kadā'pi) at any time; कथमपि (kathamapi) any how &c. केऽपि एते प्रवयसः त्वां दिदृक्षवः (ke'pi ete pravayasaḥ tvāṃ didṛkṣavaḥ) U.4 some people. It may often be translated by 'unknown', 'indescribable', 'inexpressible' (anirvācya); व्यतिषजति पदार्थानान्तरः कोऽपि हेतुः (vyatiṣajati padārthānāntaraḥ ko'pi hetuḥ) U.6.12. तत्तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः (tattasya kimapi dravyaṃ yo hi yasya priyo janaḥ) 2.19; Mu.3.22; K.143; कोऽपि महिमा स्यात् (ko'pi mahimā syāt) U.6,6.11,7.12; Māl.1.26; R.1.46.

9) After words expressing number, अपि (api) has the sense of 'totality', 'all'; चतुर्णामपि वर्णानाम् (caturṇāmapi varṇānām) of all the 4 castes; सर्वैरपि राज्ञां प्रयोजनम् (sarvairapi rājñāṃ prayojanam) Pt.1.

1) It sometimes expresses 'doubt' or 'uncertainty', 'fear' (śaṅkā); अपि चोरो भवेत् (api coro bhavet) G. M. there is perhaps a thief.

11) (with pot. mood) It has the sense of संभावना (saṃbhāvanā) 'possibility', 'supposition'; P.I.4.96;III.3.154; अपि स्तुयाद्विष्णुम्, अपि स्तुयाद्राजानम्, अपि गिरिं शिरसा भिन्द्यात् (api stuyādviṣṇum, api stuyādrājānam, api giriṃ śirasā bhindyāt) Sk.; सोऽयमपि सिञ्चेत्सहस्रं द्राक्षाणां क्षणेनैकेन (so'yamapi siñcetsahasraṃ drākṣāṇāṃ kṣaṇenaikena) Dk.127.

12) Contempt, censure, or reproof; P.I.4.96,III.3.142; धिग्देवदत्तमपि स्तुयाद् वृषलम् (dhigdevadattamapi stuyād vṛṣalam); धिग्जाल्मं देवदत्तमपि सिञ्चेत् पलाण्डुम् (dhigjālmaṃ devadattamapi siñcet palāṇḍum); अपि जायां त्यजसि जातु गणिका- माधत्से गर्हितमेतत् (api jāyāṃ tyajasi jātu gaṇikā- mādhatse garhitametat) Sk. shame to &c. or fie upon, Devadatta &c.

13) It is also used with the Imperative mood to mark 'indifference on the part of the speaker', where he permits another to do as he likes, (anvavasarga or kāma- cārānujñā, the imperative being softened;) अपि स्तुहि (api stuhi) Sk. you may praise (if you like); अपि स्तुह्यपि सेधाऽस्मांस्तथ्यमुक्तं नराशन (api stuhyapi sedhā'smāṃstathyamuktaṃ narāśana) Bk.8.92.

14) अपि (api) is sometimes used as a particle of exclamation,

15) Rarely in the sense of 'therefore', 'hence' (ata eva).

16) Used as a separable preposition with gen. it is said to express the sense of a word understood (padārtha), and is treated as a कर्म- प्रवचनीय (karma- pravacanīya) P.I.4.96; the example usually given is सर्पि- षोऽपि स्यात् (sarpi- ṣo'pi syāt) where some word like बिन्दुरपि (bindurapi) 'a drop,' 'a little' &c. has to be understood, 'there may perhaps be a drop of ghee', 'I presume there may be at least a drop' &c. अपि संभावनाप्रश्नशङ्कागर्हासमुच्चये । तथायुक्तपदार्थेषु कामचारक्रियासु च (api saṃbhāvanāpraśnaśaṅkāgarhāsamuccaye | tathāyuktapadārtheṣu kāmacārakriyāsu ca) || Viśva.; अपिः पदार्थसंभावनान्ववसर्गगर्हासमुच्चयेषु (apiḥ padārthasaṃbhāvanānvavasargagarhāsamuccayeṣu) P.I.4.96. G. M. adds the sense of आशिस् (āśis) 'blessing' (bhadramapi), मृति (mṛti) 'death' (maraṇamapi) and भूषा (bhūṣā) 'decoration' (api nahyati hāraṃ). cf. also...अपिः प्रश्नविरोधयोः । संभावनायां गर्हायां समुच्चयवितर्कयोः (apiḥ praśnavirodhayoḥ | saṃbhāvanāyāṃ garhāyāṃ samuccayavitarkayoḥ) | Nm.

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Apī (अपी).—[api-i] 2 P. (Mostly Vedic)

1) To go in or near, enter into or upon, approach.

2) To have a share in, partake of, suffer; जरामृत्युं पुनरेवापियन्ति (jarāmṛtyuṃ punarevāpiyanti) Muṇḍ. 1.2.7.

3) To join, flow, flow into, dissolve, be resolved into; स्वमपीतो भवति तस्मादेनं स्वपितीत्याचक्षते (svamapīto bhavati tasmādenaṃ svapitītyācakṣate) Ch. Up.

4) To die.

5) To pour out (as a river).

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Āpi (आपि).—[āp-ṇicin]

1) Obtaining wealth &c.

2) A friend, acquaintance, ally (bandhu); °त्वम् (tvam) friendship, alliance; आपित्वे नः प्रपित्वे तूयमा गहि (āpitve naḥ prapitve tūyamā gahi) Rv.8.4.3.

Derivable forms: āpiḥ (आपिः).

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Āpī (आपी).—See आप्यै (āpyai).

See also (synonyms): āpīna.

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Āpī (आपी).—a. Fat, stout.

-pīḥ f. The 2th Nakṣatra or lunar mansion.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Api (अपि).—indecl., (1) if: SP 229.4 (verse) apy ekavāraṃ pi vadeta sūtram, if he should recite the sūtra even (pi) once; (2) after negative expressions, but, German sondern (Sanskrit api tu; compare CPD s.v. api A, 1, a, 4): Mv ii.109.16 (na adya kiṃcit parvo na utsavo,) api drumasya…dhītā…āgatā, it is no holiday or festival today, but the daughter of Druma …has arrived; 110.12, na me svayaṃ dṛṣṭo nāpi parato śruto, api me…aṅgulīyakā utsaṅge patitā, I have not seen him myself nor yet heard of him from another, but… his ring fell in my lap; 248.12 na ca kiṃci śarīrapīḍā āsi, api me samudrapāraṃ gatvā āgatvā, and I have no bodily disease, but as I am going to the other side of the sea and [Page047-a+ 71] coming back— (sentence unfinished); (3) api…api, either…or; in Sanskrit apparently only api vā, or vāpi, are so used; but in Pali pi…pi, see CPD s.v. api, B (1): SP 321.12 (prose) varṇenāpi na rocate gandhenāpi rasen- āpi na rocate, is not pleasing by reason of either color or smell or taste; [(4) in api nāma tvaṃ…adinnam… ādiyasi Mv i.346.13, api nāma apparently means surely! most certainly! in a strong asseveration. But exactly the same expression is repeated twice below, 346.20 and 347.8, with asti (nāma) instead of api, and this is the true reading; see s.v. 1 asti (1);] (5) apy eva nāma (= api nāma, perhaps, in Sanskrit BR s.v. api 13; in Pali, both api nāma and app' eva nāma, perhaps, CPD s.v. api, A, 1, c), (a) perhaps SP 228.1; 459.8; Śikṣ 58.16; Bbh 15.7; (b) if only, in strong wish (so Sanskrit api nāma, e.g. Śākuntala, Pischel^2, HOS 16, 1.20.30), Mv iii.272.8 apy eva nāma āryaputraḥ agāram adhyāvaseyā, if only my dear lord would take up domestic life! This meaning is recognized for api alone, BR s.v. 11. See apy-ekatya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 334 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Adyapi
Adyāpi (अद्यापि).—ind. Even now, still. E. adya, and api certainly.
Kimapi
Kimapi (किमपि).—ind. 1) to some extent, somewhat, to a considerable extent. 2) inexpressibly, i...
Api-ca
Api, (indecl.) (Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind...
Api-nu
Api, (indecl.) (Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind...
Yada-tad-api
Yadā-tad-āpi.—(LP), ‘only’. Note: yadā-tad-āpi is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary”...
Athapi
Athāpi (अथापि).—moreover, and again &c. (= atha in most cases); °च (ca) likewise, also. Athāpi ...
Yadapi
Yadapi (यदपि).—ind. although, though; वक्रः पन्था यदपि भवतः (vakraḥ panthā yadapi bhavataḥ) Me....
Vyabhicaradapi
Vyabhicārādapi (व्यभिचारादपि).—[ Laṅk 246.4, not even in exceptional cases (Suzuki), but also b...
Api-ca-kho
Api, (indecl.) (Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. e)/pi on to, o)/pi (o)/piqen behind...
Nama
Nāma (नाम).—ind. A particle implying. 1. Certainty. 2. Possibility. 3. Anger. 4. Reproach. 5. C...
Dhatu
Dhātu (धातु).—m. (-tuḥ) 1. A principle or humour of the body, as phlegm, wind, and bile. 2. Any...
Upanishad
Upaniṣad (उपनिषद्).—f. (-ṣad or -ṣat) 1. A portion of the religious writings of the Hindus; the...
Vada
Vaḍā (वडा).—f. (-ḍā) Pulse ground and fried with oil or butter. E. val to cover, ac and ṭāp aff...
Nibbana
Nibbāna, (nt.).—I. Etymology. Although nir+vā “to blow”. (cp. BSk. nirvāṇa) is already...
Kama
Kamā (कमा).—f. (-mā) Beauty, rediance. E. kam to desire, aṅ and ṭāp affs.--- OR --- Kāma (काम)....

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