Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

उदाहरणम्,
का कृष्णस्य प्रणय-जनि-भूः श्रीमती राधिकैका
  कास्य प्रेयस्य् अनुपम-गुणा राधिकैका न चान्या ।
जैह्म्यं केशे दृशि तरलता निष्ठुरत्वं कुचेऽस्या
  वाञ्छा-पूर्त्यै प्रभवति हरे राधिकैका न चान्या ॥

udāharaṇam,
kā kṛṣṇasya praṇaya-jani-bhūḥ śrīmatī rādhikaikā
  kāsya preyasy anupama-guṇā rādhikaikā na cānyā
|
jaihmyaṃ keśe dṛśi taralatā niṣṭhuratvaṃ kuce'syā
  vāñchā-pūrtyai prabhavati hare rādhikaikā na cānyā
||

—what?; kṛṣṇasya—of Kṛṣṇa; praṇaya—of love; jani—of origination; bhūḥ—is the place; śrīmatī—She has beauty; rādhikā—Rādhikā; ekā—unique; —which woman?; asya—of His; preyasī—girlfriend; anupama—have no comparison; guṇā—she whose qualities; rādhikā—Rādhikā; ekā—alone; na ca anyā—and no other woman; jaihmyam—crookedness; keśe—on the hair; dṛśi—in the eye (eyes); taralatā—restlessness; niṣṭhuratvam—hardness; kuce—on the breast; asyāḥ—Her; vāñchā—of the desires; pūrtyai—to fulfill; prabhavati—is able; hareḥ—of Hari; rādhikā—Rādhikā; ekā—alone; na ca anyā—and no other woman.

Who is the source of Kṛṣṇa’s love? It is Śrīmatī Rādhikā: She is unique. Who is His beloved with incomparable qualities? She is Rādhikā, and no other. She has crookedness in Her hair, fickleness in Her eyes, and hardness in Her breasts. Only Rādhikā, and no other, is able to fulfill Hari’s desires. (Govinda-līlāmṛta 11.122)

atra pūrvārdhe sa-praśne parārdhe cāpraśne tat-tulyānyasyā vyāvṛttiḥ. pūrvasmin pāde vyaṅgyā parasmiṃs tu vācyā.

The words “Who is the source of Kṛṣṇa’s love? It is Śrīmatī Rādhikā: She is unique” form the first variety of parisaṅkhyā (the answer is preceded by a question, and the rejection of similar things is implied).

“Who is His beloved with incomparable qualities? She is Rādhikā, and no other” is the second variety of parisaṅkhyā (the answer is preceded by a question, and the rejection of similar things is stated).

“She has crookedness in Her hair, fickleness in Her eyes, and hardness in Her breasts” is the third variety of parisaṅkhyā (the answer is not preceded by a question, and the rejection of similar things is implied).

“Only Rādhikā, and no other, is able to fulfill Hari’s desires” constitutes the fourth variety of parisaṅkhyā (the answer is not preceded by a question, and the rejection of similar things is stated).

Commentary:

This is Mammaṭa’s example of the first variety:

kim āsevyaṃ puṃsāṃ savidham anavadyaṃ dyu-saritaḥ
  kim ekānte dhyeyaṃ caraṇa-yugalaṃ kaustubha-bhṛtaḥ
|
kim ārādhyaṃ puṇyaṃ kim abhilaṣaṇīyaṃ ca karuṇā
  yad-āsaktyā ceto niravadhi-vimuktyai prabhavati
||

“What is to be frequented? The saintly proximity of the Ganges. What should be meditated upon in a solitary place? The feet of Viṣṇu, who has the Kaustubha jewel. What is to be honored? Virtue. What is to be desired? Compassion, by being accustomed to which the heart becomes qualified for a distinct type of liberation” (Kāvya-prakāśa verse 521).

These four verses are Paṇḍita-rāja Jagannātha’s examples:

kiṃ tīrthaṃ hari-pāda-padma-bhajanaṃ kiṃ ratnam acchā matiḥ
  kiṃ śāstraṃ śravaṇena yasya galati dvaitāndhakārodayaḥ
|
kiṃ mitraṃ satatopakāra-rasikaṃ tattvāvabodhaḥ sakhe
  kaḥ śatrur vada kheda-dāna-kuśalo durvāsanā-sañcayaḥ
||

“What is sacred? Devotion to Hari’s lotus feet. What is a jewel? A clear intellect. What is a scripture? That by hearing which the rise of the darkness of duality fades away. Who is a friend that always takes pleasure in helping others? The realization of the Truth. Tell me, my friend, who is an enemy that is expert in giving pain? The bad tendencies lodged in the subconscious” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 483).

kiṃ mitram ante sukṛtaṃ na lokaḥ kiṃ dhyeyam īśasya padaṃ na tokāḥ |
kiṃ kāmyam avyāja-sukhaṃ na bhogāḥ kiṃ jalpanīyaṃ hari-nāma nānyat ||

“In the end, who is a friend? Merit, not people. What should be thought of? The Lord’s feet, not children. What should be desired? Happiness eternal, not sense gratification. What should be muttered? Hari’s name, and nothing else” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara, KM p. 484).

sevāyāṃ yadi sābhilāṣam asi re lakṣmī-patiḥ sevyatāṃ
  cintāyām asi sa-spṛhaṃ yadi ciraṃ cakrāyudhaś cintyatām
|
ālāpaṃ yadi kāṅkṣase madhu-ripor gāthā tadālapyatāṃ
  svāpaṃ vāñchasi cen nirargala-sukhe cetaḥ sakhe supyatām
||

“If you want to render service, then serve Lakṣmī’s husband. If your inclination is contemplation, then contemplate for a long time on Viṣṇu, who wields the cakra. If you like to talk, then utter a song about Madhuripu. And if, my friend, you want to take rest, then let your heart take rest in Him, whose happiness is unbounded” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara).

tīrthaṃ gaṅgā tad-itarad[1] apāṃ nirmalaṃ saṅgha-mātraṃ
devau tasyāḥ prasava-nilayau nākino’nye varākāḥ
|
sā yatrāste sa hi janapado mṛttikā-mātram anyat
  tāṃ yo nityaṃ namati sa budho bodha-śūnyas tato’nyaḥ
||

“The Ganges is a holy place. Any body of water other than the Ganges is only a clear mass of water, at best. Hari and Hara, who are the origin of the Ganges, are the gods. The others gods, who live in the heavens, are low. A proper region is one that exists near the Ganges. The rest is only made of earth. An intelligent person is one who constantly offers respect to the Ganges. Other persons are not intelligent” (Rasa-gaṅgādhara).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

tad-itaram (Kāvya-mālā edition).

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