by S. Mahalakshmi | 2017 | 83,507 words
This page relates ‘Fifteen states formed by Jagrat, Svapna, Sushupti and Turiya’ of the English study of the Cidgaganacandrika: an important Tantric work belonging to the Krama system of Kashmir Shaivism. Written by Kalidasa (Shrivatsa) in 312 Sanskrit verses, the Cidgagana-Candrika deals with the knowledge regarding both the Macrocosmic and Microcosmic phenomena. This study includes renditions from the two available commentaries—the Divyacakorika and the Kramaprakashika
The four states of the individual, Jāgrat, Svapna, Suṣupti and Turīya are found inter se in these four states. Turīyātīta is absolute. In Turīyātīta there is no contact of either objectivity or subjectivity. It is for this reason that only four different states are to be found in each of the four states of the individual subjective body.
Jāgrat in all these four states
The state of Jāgrat, wakefulness exists in all these four states.
1) The first state is Jāgrat Jāgrat, wakefulness in the world of wakefulness.This objective wakefulness is the absence of wakefulness actually because in this state only the world of objectivity exists and there is complete loss of subjective consciousness. when they observe any object such as a lotus they become completely one with that object and lose consciousness that they are the observers. In saivism we call this state Abuddha:, the state of absolute unawareness.
2) Jāgrat svapna is the next state, i.e., dreaming in the state of wakefulness. When subjective consciousness enters into objective consciousness and loses consciousness of that objectivity and lives, while in wakefulness, only in the impressions of objectivity, this is dreaming in the state of wakefulness. For instance, when in the objective world, you look at a particular person and you are not aware of looking at that person, then you are traveling in your own impressions, this is Jāgrat svapna in other words, day dreaming; In our philosophy this state is termed as Buddh ā vasthā, that state which has some awareness, some consciousness.
3) Jāgrat Suṣupti, deep sleep in the state of wakefulness, the next state in Jāgrat is, when in the state of wakefulness that individual subjective body loses consciousness of the objective world and loses consciousness of the world of impressions; when externally he is not experiencing the objective world and internally he is not experiencing the objective world of impressions. In Śaivism this state is called Prabuddha:, “with consciousness,” because he has reached very near to the supreme consciousness of Being.
4) Jāgrat Turīya, the fourth state in the state of wakefulness is the highest and most refined state in Jāgrat. In this state, the individual subjective body, after losing consciousness of both external and internal objectivity, enters into some consciousness of self, of Being. He is partly illuminated by that awareness of self and he becomes quite aware internally of the consciousness of self. He moves and travels in the objective world, and at the same time he resides in self consciousness. He does not lose hold of his internal subjective consciousness. Saivism calls Jāgrat Turīya as Suprabuddha:, absolutely full of awareness.
Jāgrat refers to that state wherein one is full of awareness from his own point of view of individual consciousness, not from the point of view of subjective consciousness. Worldly people call this state Jāgrat (waking) but Yogis differently name this state as Pi ṇḍastha: because it is really the state of becoming one with objectivity. This state,th erefore, is not actually the state of waking (Jāgrat). Enlightened souls (Jñānis) have another name Sarvatobhadra (everywhere divine) for this state as they experience in this state that the Being of Śiva has expanded His Body of Consciousness in names, forms, space, and time and feel the consciousness of Śiva everywhere. For these enlightened souls wherever they go they feel the divinity of Śiva Consciousness. Whenever they travel in the objective world, whether in name, form, space, time, whether walking or talking, whatever they may be doing, they are traveling in Absolute Consciousness.
Svapna in all these four states
Likewise in Svapna, the state of dreaming, where you travel only in impressions, the four states of Jāgrat, svapna, Suṣupti and Turīya are found. Svapna is the state found in dreaming, in impressions, in memory, in madness, and in intoxication.
1) Svapna Jāgrat is the first state in svapna, i.e., wakefulness in the state of dreaming. When the subjective body travels in impressions and is given to those impressions in the field of objectivity and at the same time loses consciousness of those impressions, this is the state of individuality in the waves of impressions and sometimes travels in the waves of objectivity. Everything in this state, whether normal or abnormal, seems normal and ordinary to him. It is objective because one travels in objectivity and is lost in the object. Saivism calls this as Gat āgatam, which means ‘you go and you come’-some times it is a pen and sometimes it is different object.
2) Svapna svapna, dreaming in the state of dreaming is the next stage found in svapna, the dreaming state. In this state the individual subjective body travels only in the world of impressions without the least awareness of their connection of one to the other. You see a pencil, then you see a book, then you fly in the air, then you are driving a motor car and yet you are not aware of any of this. You feel that everything is perfectly alright. Saivism calls this state as Suvikṣiptam, ‘absolutely dispersed consciousness, ‘You travel here and there, you do this and see that, and yet you do not know anything.
3) Svapna Suṣupti, deep sleep in the state of dreaming is the third state found in svapna. Sometimes in the dreaming state this subjective body, while traveling in the world of impressions and thoughts, also develops some awareness of subjectivity. Realization that you are not awake, that you must be dreaming exists. One is traveling in subjectivity; however, that subjectivity does not remain. As this state is Suṣupti in the state of dreaming one’s subjective consciousness comes and goes. Questions and arguements arise and then they are forgetten. There exists the loss of this consciousness and again the travel in impressions. This state of individuality is called Saṃgatam, which means ‘touched’. Experience of the occasional touch of consciousness is the significance of this state.
4) Svapna Turīya, the fourth state in the state of dreaming is the next and highest state in Svapna. When one is in the dreaming state and observes some particular object, he perceives this particular object in the world of impressions. At that very moment, while in the dreaming state, he becomes aware and becomes conscious that he is not awake, that he is in the dreaming state and, by the grace of his Guru, he castes away the objective world of impressions and enters into samādhi, this is the state of Svapna Turīya. This state, however, is not permanent. Again he falls into the dreaming state full of impressions and begins to dream. Realizing that he is again dreaming he enters again into samādhi and then again another dream comes and takes him away. He moves from the dreaming state to samādhi and then back to the dreaming state and again to samādhi and so forth. He is incapable of maintaining that state of samādhi. Saivism terms this state as Susam āhitam, which means ‘absolutely aware, full of awareness.’
The dreaming state is called Svapna, (the absence of worldly activity) by worldly people because the outer objective world is absent in this state. Yogis name this state Padastham meaning, ‘being established where you are’, because here you get established in your own point. Yogis find that Svapna is a nearer way when entering into samādhi, in the path of retracing the absolute. In the state of Svapna the struggle is only half as much as the struggle in Jāgrat to enter into the samādhi state. Concentration of awareness is much easier in Svapna than in Jāgrat. Children exist primarily in Svapna. If illuminating power is put in them by some Guru or greater soul they will enter into samādhi in an instant. They have no external thoughts, they have only internal thoughts. They are very near to their own Self. Jñānis call the state of Svapna, Vy āpti, which means ‘pervasion’, because in the dreaming state they pervade everything and they know that they are pervading. The reality is that none of the objects are produced by any outside agency. They are all existing in their own self. It is Universal Will that acts. The Jñāni is touched with Universal Will as he does not desire to direct his actions in a dream.
Suṣupti in all these four states
1) The first state of these four states in Suṣupti, deep sleep is Suṣupti Jāgrat, wakefulness in the state of deep sleep. In this state of deep sleep, there is loss of all impressions and thoughts and dwelling in absolute void (Śūnya). While remaining in this state one is not aware and does not taste its joy. In this state of dreamless sound sleep, one neither travels in objectivity nor in impressions, and on coming out from the dreamless state, there is this experience “I was peacefully sleeping,” does not occur in Suṣupti Jāgrat. In Suṣupti Jāgrat you remember afterwards that you were experiencing nothing. Śaivism calls this as Udita, full of rising because one throws away the world of impressions and enters into the negation of impressions. There is a rise out of the world of impressions towards Śiva.
2) Suṣupti svapna, dreaming in the state of deep sleep is the next state in deep sleep, where in deep sleep one travels in the world of unconscious subjectivity. It is the world of subjectivity where subjectivity is absent from consciousness. In deep sleep there is no consciousness, nor awareness of that subjectivity. One remains in that subjectivity without knowledge that he is in subjectivity. In this state however, one has some impression of being in subjectivity, there is some congnition of remaining in that subjectivity. In this state one is slightly conscious of his traveling in subjectivity. Saivism calls this state as Vipulam, which means ‘gets nourished.’ This means that the impression and awareness that one is traveling in the world of subjective consciousness gradually becomes stronger and stronger, it slowly increases.
3) Suṣupti Suṣupti, deep sleep in the state of deep sleep is the third state of deep sleep. In this state, while one is traveling in the world of subjective consciousness, the impression, the faint idea that this is the world of subjective consciousness remains in the background through out, without interruption as against the interrupted perception in the state of Suṣupti svapna. However in both Suṣupti svapna and Suṣupti Suṣupti, where the impression, the faint idea that this is the world of subjective consciousness remains in the background, Suṣupti is in predominance. Śaivism states this state in which the subtle awareness that this is the world of subjective consciousness remains in uninterrupted continuity, is Śānta meaning “peaceful”. This is called Śānta because one’s awareness remains in the background in an absolutely peaceful state. There is no agitation in this state.
4) Suṣupti Turīya, the fourth state in the state of deep sleep is the fourth state of deep sleep. In this state one travels in the world of subjective consciousness. He is aware in the background of that subjective consciousness in continuation and at the same time experiences the bliss of this state. In the state Suṣupti Suṣupti experience is not of the real bliss of this subjective state, but only the experience of peace. In Suṣupti Turīya, however, there is experience of the positive bliss of this state. This state leads one enter into samādhi while consciousness still remains in the background. Saivism terms this state Suprasannam because this is that state which affords absolutely full bliss even though one is not fully aware of that bliss.
Worldly people call the state of deep sleep Su ṣupti (asleep) because knowledge of objectivity is absent in this state. In this state there is neither objectivity nor impressions. This state for worldly people is full of unconsiciousness. This state is an appeased state, Tūṣṇīmbhāva, which means‘absolute silence’. They feel that after leaving this state they are more peaceful and find this state to be nourishing. Yogis, however,feel that in this state of sound sleep they become attached to their own nature. For them it is full of consiciousness. Yogis call this state ‘R ūpastha, which means ‘established in one’s own Self’, because here they are established in their own Consciousness. Jñānis call this state Mah āvyāpti (the great pervasion) because here they find that there is absolutely no limitation of objectivity or impressions.
Peculiarity of Turīya state
In Trika Śaivism predominance is given to the three energies for Śiva, viz., Parā Śakti- the supreme energy, Parāparā Śakti- medium energy, and Aparā Śakti -inferior energy. The kingdom of Aparā Śakti, the lowest energy, is found in wakefulness and dreaming. The kingdom of Parāpara is deep sleep. Lastly the kingdom of Parā Śakti, the supreme energy, is found in the state of Turīya.
The state of Turīya is above the state of Pramātṛ. It is called the state of Pramiti where subjective consciousness prevails without the agitation of objectivity. Where the agitation of objectivity is also found in subjective consciousness then it is the state of Pramātṛ. The state of Pramiti is without any object at all. In other words, when he is residing in his own Nature, that subjective consciousness is called the state of Pramiti.
In the state of Turīya the penetration of all energies is simultaneous, not in succession. All of the energies are residing together without distinction there, but not in manifestation. Turīya is called Savy āpāra because all of the energies get their power to function in that state. This state is also known as Anāmaya because it remains unagitated by all of these energies.
This state is called Turīya (the fourth), by worldy people, Rūpātīta by Yogis, and Pracyaya by illuminated humans (Jnanis). Worldly people use this name because they have no descriptive name for this state. They are unaware of this state, have not experienced it and, therefore, simply say that it is the fourth state. Yogis have named due to the reason that this state has crossed ‘the touch of one’s self ‘and is ‘the establishment of one’s self.’ The touch of one’s self was found in sound sleep (Suṣupti), however, the establishment of this takes place in Turīya. Jñānis, find the entire undifferentiated totality of universal existence in this state of Turīya. There is no succession here.
Turīya in the three states of Jāgrat, Svapna and Suṣupti
The states of Turīya Jāgrat, Turīya svapna, and Turīya Suṣupti only are possible in Turīya. As Turīya cannot be divided Turīya Turīya is not possible. The preceding states of individual subjective consciousness, Jāgrat, Svapna, and Suṣupti, each have four aspects, the state of Turīya has only three.
1) The state of Turīya Jāgrat exists when the consciousness of Turīya is not vividly manifested. The consciousness of Turīya is in a subconscious state, found in the background as unmanifested. In this state, though strong consciousness exists, it is not manifested totally, it is yet to be manifested. Turīya Jāgrat is called Manonmanam ‘beyond the span of the mind’, because it is that state where the mind has taken rise in mindlessness, complete thoughtlessness.
2) In Turīya svapna the consciousness of Turīya is more vividly manifested. Consciousness is stronger here. The state of Turīya svapna is named Anantam which means ‘unlimited’ as there is found the unlimitedness of the Self. There is no limitation of Being here. This is the state of unlimited Being.
3) In the state of Turīya Suṣupti the consciousness of Turīya is most vivid. Consciousness is the strongest. Turīya Suṣupti is called Sarvārtha. Sarvārtham means that in this state, although you are unlimited, yet you find existing here all of the limitations of the universe.
Turīyātīta the ultimate state
Turīyātīta is that state which is the absolute fullness of Self. It is filled with all consciousness and bliss. It is really the last and the supreme state of the Self. This state is found in samādhi, as well as in each and every activity of the world. There is no possibility in this state for the practice of yoga. If you can practice yoga then you are not in Turīyātīta. In yoga there is the intention of going somewhere. Here, there is no where to go, nothing to achieve. As concentration does not exist here the existence of the hand of yoga is not possible.
There are only two names actually attributed to this state of Turīyātīta, one given by worldly people and one by Jñānis. Worldly people, because they know nothing about this state, call it Turīyātīta, which means ‘that state which is beyond the fourth.’ Jñānis, on the other hand, have named this state as Mahāpracaya which means ‘the unlimited and unexplainable supreme totality.’ Yogis have no knowledge of this state. It is completely outside of their experience. Yogis have however, by the use of their imagination and through guesswork, imagined one name which might be appropriate for this state. They say that it is Satatoditam which means ‘that state which has no pause, no break.’ It is a breakless and unitary state. It is there in samādhi; When samādhi is absent; In the worldly state; In the dreaming state; And in the state of deep sleep. In each and every state of the individual subjective body it is there. These are the five states of individual subjectivity in the Trika system.