Shodasha, Shodashan, Ṣoḍaśa, Ṣoḍaśan, Sodasa: 30 definitions

Introduction:

Shodasha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ṣoḍaśa and Ṣoḍaśan can be transliterated into English as Sodasa or Shodasha or Sodasan or Shodashan, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Shodash.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) or Ṣoḍaśasvara refers to the “sixteen vowels”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “(Kuṇḍalinī) in her straight form (ṛjvī) is in the little-known (aprasiddha) place. Once she has filled the lake of nectar in the end of the sixteen (vowels) (ṣoḍaśānta), she who is the living being (jīvarūpiṇī) fills everything right up to the living being. In the form of the well-known senses (akṣa), she measures out time. [...]”.

The commentary on these lines in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā explains that: “Thus she is the one at the ‘end of the sixteen’ [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-antā], that is, she is at the end of the sixteen vowels [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-svara-antā]. The meaning is that she is the supreme (energy) of Unstruck Sound (anacka) and is without (phonemic) measure (nirmātrā). Here itself she is the living being because (she) fills (the body)”.

2) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) or Ṣoḍaśaśakti refers to the “sixteen energies”, according to Ṭīkā [on the Manthānabhairavatantra?]:—Accordingly, “Everything arises out of the End of the Twelve [i.e., dvādaśānta] and merges (into it). [...] There Bhairava is Kubjeśa and the form of the power (which is his consort) is Kubjikā who is surrounded by sixteen energies [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-śaktiśaktiḥ ṣoḍaśabhir]. What are these sixteen? They are (the vowels, beginning with the letter A and ending with visarga”.

3) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) or Ṣoḍaśabheda refers to the “sixteen divisions” (of the thirty-three Gods ?), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, “ The sacred seat Jāla is the Unmanifest. It is well placed in the southern quarter. [...] Accomplished, divine, with six faces, giving supreme bliss, the guardian of the field is called ‘Jaya’. I praise the sacred seat Jāla, revered by the gods, which is divided into sixteen divisions [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-bheda—ṣoḍaśair bhedabhinnam]”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) refers to the “sixteen (goddesses of attraction)”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] May the deities of the ten gestures, who [have forms that] are in accordance with the powers of their respective gestures, are mild, and carry a snare and goad, endow me with the object of my desire. May the sixteen goddesses of attraction (ṣoḍaśa-ākṛṣṭiśakti), [representing] the perennial constitutive digits of Kalānidhi [i.e. the Moon], draw towards me the object of my desire. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) refers to “a measure of sixteen (palas)”, according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus it has has been said in the third Skandha of the sacred Bhāgavata. Its meaning is [as follows]. Eighty guñjas make one karṣa. The same has the designation of suvarṇa. Four karṣas are one pala. Thus, a vessel should be made of six palas of copper; it should be pierced at the base by means of a needle made of twenty guñjas’ weight of gold and four aṅgulas in length. Through this perforation, by the time a prastha measure of water enters, that bowl sinks in the water, because of the prastha measure of water that filled it. Then that vessel becomes the standard measure for the period of one ghaṭī. There the unit of one prastha contains sixteen palas [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-pala]. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) or Ṣoḍaśabheda refers to the “sixteen varieties of regular devotional service”, according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 2.24.291ff.—Accordingly:—“[...] Within the category of regulative devotional service, there are also immature devotees. These are also of four varieties. Thus in regulative devotional service there are altogether sixteen varieties [i.e., ṣoḍaśa-bheda]. On the path of spontaneous devotional service, there are also sixteen categories of devotees. Thus there are thirty-two types of ātmārāmas enjoying the Supreme Lord on these two paths. When these thirty-two types of devotees are qualified with the words ‘muni’, ‘nirgrantha’, ‘ca’ and ‘api’, the meanings can be increased in different ways and very soundly elaborated upon. [...]”.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Shodasha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ṣoḍaśopacāra (षोडशोपचार) or Ṣoḍaśopacāra refers to the “sixteen types of offerings”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.13 (“Śiva-Pārvatī dialogue”).—Accordingly, after Śiva permitted Pārvatī to stay by his side: “[...] She washed Śiva’s feet and drank that holy water. With a cloth heated in fire she wiped his body. After worshipping Him with sixteen types of offerings [i.e., ṣoḍaśopacāraṣoḍaśenopacāreṇa] duly, and bowing to Him repeatedly she used to return to her father’s abode. O excellent sage, a long time elapsed as she continued her service to Him who was engrossed in meditation. [...]”

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) refers to “sixteen” (arms) (of Sudarśana), according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “When kings are overpowered by enemies with an army (or: by strong enemies), when cities are burnt down and the Kings’ army is driven away, when people in various districts do not have access to food [and other goods]—if the kingdom is thus oppressed by the enemies’ army, oh Great Sage, and if in this inadequate situation the King’s enemies are unimpeded, he should have a sixteen-armed (ṣoḍaśa-bhuja) Sudarśana constructed [and properly installed, for his power is] without obstacles”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

1) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) refers to (1) Ṣoḍaśāra (sixteen petals) and (2) Ṣoḍaśasvara (sixteen vowels), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 6.28-32ab, while describing the śaśimaṇḍala]—“[The Mantrin] should write the name [of the afflicted] in the middle of a great wheel [that] has sixteen petals (ṣoḍaśāra). [He] adorns [the wheel] with the sixteen vowels (ṣoḍaśasvara-bhūṣita), and encloses it with the mantra using the ādyanta pattern. The Mantrin should draw, as before, the jīva in the middle of saḥ, etc., protected at the end with the covering [i.e., the mantra]. The amṛteśa-mantra envelops [him] on all sides, at each syllable, in the middle of all petals, in the middle of the lunar orb. [...]”.

2) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) Kalāṣoḍaśaka refers to the “sixteen (parts)” (of the full moon), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 7.216cd-217, while describing the meditation on the kālahaṃsa]—“After [this, the Yogin] visualizes the heart lotus, with sixteen petals, situated in the opening of the channel that pierces the tube [i.e., the lotus stem. He imagines] a white, radiant, completely full moon, endowed with sixteen parts (kalāṣoḍaśaka-anvita), and with his body in the shape of a lotus pericarp. [Then, he pictures] the self, It is to be imagined [as seated] in the middle of that [moon], and is as spotless as pure crystal. [The self is] pervaded with amṛta, [which washes over him] in a wave from the ocean of the milky nectar of immortality”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) or Ṣoḍaśalāśyā refers to the “sixteen (dances)” which (as part of the Gurumaṇḍala rite) refers to one of the various rituals typically performed as a part of the larger rites, according to Buddhist teachings followed by the Newah in Nepal, Kathmandu Valley (whose roots can be traced to the Licchavi period, 300-879 CE).—[...] Within the gurumaṇḍala the mantra-pātra, from the Cakrasaṃvara-samādhi and Vāruṇī-pūjā is also worshiped, along with caṇḍalī-yoga, “yogic heat”, as amṛta-kuṇḍalī, “the nectar of kuṇḍalinī (yoga)”. The gurumaṇḍala also contains the ṣoḍaśa-lāśyā, “the sixteen dances”, which is actually sixteen dancing Goddesses, which symbolize offerings of the senses, and are usually performed using mudrās, “hand gestures”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Sodāsa (सोदास) is the son of Siṃhikā and Naghuṣa (son of Mṛgāvatī and king Hiraṇyagarbha), according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “Siṃhikā was the wife of the man-lion Naghuṣa and he ruled his ancestral kingdom, delighting in her. One day, Naghuṣa went to conquer the kings in the north country and left Queen Siṃhikā in his own realm. [...] In the course of time a son, Sodāsa, was borne to King Naghuṣa by Queen Siṃhikā. One day, King Naghuṣa handed over the kingdom to Sodāsa and took mendicancy, the one means to emancipation”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) refers to the “sixteen (lower heavens)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “And, having obtained the good fortune of heaven, [those corporeal beings] enjoy heavenly pleasure in the lower heavens and in the celestial vehicles [com.—When the particle “and” is added (cakārātte) the (previously mentioned) corporeal beings (aṅginaḥ) are in the sixteen (ṣoḍaśeṣu) lower heavens (kalpeṣu); Because of the particle “and” (cakārāt) (the corporeal beings are also) in the celestial vehicles (vimāneṣu) which are situated there (tatrastheṣu)] or among other groups [of gods]. They fall from that place [and] immediately they enter the Rasātala hell. They roam about the whole world like the wind [and] they fall down into the Naraka hell”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṣōḍaśa (षोडश).—a S Sixteen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ṣōḍaśa (षोडश).—a Sixteen. ṣōḍaśa saṃskāra m pl The sixteen great saṃskāra.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्).—num. a. (pl.) Sixteen.

 

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश).—a. (-śī f.) Sixteenth; केशान्तः षोडशे वर्षे ब्राह्मणस्य विधीयते (keśāntaḥ ṣoḍaśe varṣe brāhmaṇasya vidhīyate) Manusmṛti 2.65,86.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश).—mfn.

(-śaḥ-śī-śaṃ) Sixteenth. E. ṣoḍaśan sixteen, ḍaṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्).—mfn. Plu. only. (-śa) Sixteen. E. ṣaṣ six, and daśan ten.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश).—i. e. ṣoḍaśan + a, or curtailed, ord. num., f. śī, Sixteenth, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 58.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्).—i. e. ṣaṣ-da- śan, numeral adj. Sixteen, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 186, 3; 182, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश).—[feminine] ī the sixteenth; [neuter] a sixteenth [particle]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्).—[adjective] [plural] sixteen.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश):—[=ṣo-ḍaśa] [from ṣo > ṣaṣ] a etc. See below.

2) [=ṣo-ḍaśa] [from ṣaṣ] 1. ṣo-ḍaśa mf(ī)n. (ifc. f(ā). ) the sixteenth, (with aṃśa or bhāga m. a 16th part, [Manu-smṛti; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]; ṛṣabha-ṣoḍaśāḥ [Gautama-dharma-śāstra] or vṛṣabha-ṣ [Manu-smṛti ix, 124], ‘15 cows and one bull’), [Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] + 16 [Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

4) [v.s. ...] consisting of 16 [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Pañcaviṃśa-brāhmaṇa] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] Pl. incorrectly for ṣo-ḍaśan, 16 [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]

6) [=ṣo-ḍaśa] [from ṣaṣ] n. 1/16 [Atharva-veda; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) [from ṣaṣ] 2 in [compound] for ṣo-ḍaśan below.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्):—[=ṣo-ḍaśan] [from ṣaṣ] mfn. [plural] ([nominative case] śa) sixteen, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]; etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश):—[(śaḥ-śī-śaṃ) a.] Sixteenth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्):—(śa) a. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ṣoḍaśan (षोडशन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Solasa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shodasha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Shodasha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ṣoḍaśa (षोडश) [Also spelled shodash]:—(a) sixteen; (nm) the number sixteen; —[śrṛṃgāra] see [solaha siṃgāra].

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Sodāsa (सोदास) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saudāsa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ṣōḍaśa (ಷೋಡಶ):—

1) [adjective] preceded by fifteen others in a series; sixteenth.

2) [adjective] of sixteen kinds or types.

3) [adjective] sixteen fold.

--- OR ---

Ṣōḍaśa (ಷೋಡಶ):—

1) [noun] the cardinal number sixteen; 16.

2) [noun] the ceremony performed on the sixteenth day of death.

3) [noun] a particular religious sacrifice.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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