Sh, Ś, Ṣ: 3 definitions


Sh means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ś and Ṣ can be transliterated into English as S or Sh, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Ś (श्).—A sibilant letter of the palatal class, possessed of the properties, श्वासानुप्रदान, अघोष (śvāsānupradāna, aghoṣa) and कण्ठविवृतत्व (kaṇṭhavivṛtatva);

2) Ś.—The initial indicatory (इत् (it)) letter श् (ś) of a non-taddhita affix in Panini's grammar, which is dropped;

3) Ś.—Substitute for च्छ् (cch) when followed by an affix beginning with a nasal consonant; e.g प्रश्नः (praśnaḥ), cf. P.VI.4.19;

4) Ś.—Substitute for स् (s) when followed by श् (ś) or any palatal letter;e.g. वृक्षश्छादयति वृक्षश्शेते (vṛkṣaśchādayati vṛkṣaśśete) Kas.on P. VIII. 4.40.

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Ṣ (ष्).—(l) a sibilant letter of the cerebral class of consonants possessed of the properties श्वास, अघोष, कण्ठविवार (śvāsa, aghoṣa, kaṇṭhavivāra) and महाप्राण (mahāprāṇa) ; (2) mute indicatory letter ष् (), attached to nouns as also to affixes with which nouns are formed, such as ष्वुन्, ष्कन्, ष्टरच्, ष्ट्रन् (ṣvun, ṣkan, ṣṭarac, ṣṭran) etc. showing the addition of the feminine affix ई (ī) (ङीष् (ṅīṣ)); cf. षिद्गौरादिभ्यश्च (ṣidgaurādibhyaśca) P. IV. 1.41 ; (3) changeable to स् (s) when placed at the beginning of roots in the Dhatupatha except in the case of the roots formed from nouns and the roots ष्ठिव् (ṣṭhiv) and ष्वष्क् (ṣvaṣk); (4) substitute for the last consonant of the roots ब्रश्च, भ्रस्ज्, सृज्, मृज्, यज्, राज्, भ्राज् (braśca, bhrasj, sṛj, mṛj, yaj, rāj, bhrāj), as also of the roots ending in छ् (ch) and श् (ś) before a consonant excepting a nasal and a semivowel, as also when the 47 consonant is at the end of the word; e. g. भ्रष्टा, स्रष्टा, यष्टुम् सम्राट् (bhraṣṭā, sraṣṭā, yaṣṭum samrāṭ) etc. cf P. VIII.2.36; (5) substitute for a visarjaniya preceded by a vowel except अ (a) and followed by a consonant of the guttural or the labial class which does not begin a different word, as also before the words पाश, कल्प, क, काभ्य (pāśa, kalpa, ka, kābhya) etc. cf. P. VIII. 3.39; cf. also P. VIII 3.41, 43, 44, 45 and 48 for some specified cases; (6) substitute for स् (s) when placed near a consonant of the cerebral class or near the consonant ष् (); e. g. वृक्षष्षण्डे, वृक्षष्टकारः (vṛkṣaṣṣaṇḍe, vṛkṣaṣṭakāraḥ) Kas. on P. VIII. 4.41.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Sh in Hindi refers in English to:—-the first of the conventional sibilant—trio ([sha, sha, sa]) of the Devnagri: alphabet. In current Hindi sound-pattern, however, the cerebral ([sha]) has merged its identity into the palatal sibilant ([sha])..—sh (श) is alternatively transliterated as Śa.

2) Sh in Hindi refers in English to:——the second of the sibilant-trio ([sha, sha, sa]) of the Devnagri: alphabet. In Modern Hindi sound pattern, however, this has lost its identity and is invariably pronounced as palatal sibilant ([sha]) rather than as cerebral (as it originally was)..—sh (ष) is alternatively transliterated as Ṣa.

context information


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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Ś (ஶ்) . Palatal sibilant.

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Ṣ (ஷ்) . The lingual sibilant.

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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