Sarayu, Sarayū, Śarayu, Śarayū, Sharayu: 19 definitions


Sarayu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śarayu and Śarayū can be transliterated into English as Sarayu or Sharayu, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of the Famous Rivers.—Śarayu, the Padma hand. Also see: Vyāvṛttacāpaveṣṭitau.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Sarayū (सरयू).—Name of a river originating from Himālaya, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.

Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Sarayū (सरयू).—A river very famous in the Purāṇas. The most important things associated with the river are given below:

(i) Seven tributaries of Gaṅgā originate from the golden peaks of the Himālayas and Sarayū is one of them. Those who bathe in the river will be absolved from sins. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 20)

(ii) The river exists in Varuṇa’s court worshipping him. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 8).

(iii) Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Arjuna and Bhīma, on their way to Girivraja from Indraprastha crossed this river. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 28).

(iv) It was at Gotāra (or Gopratara) in this river that Śrī Rāma drowned himself to death and attained Viṣṇupāda. (Vana Parva, Chapter 84, Verse 70).

(v) This river is the source of Agni (fire). (Vana Parva, Chapter 222, Verse 22).

(vi) Vasiṣṭha once blocked the course of Gaṅgā on its way to Kailāsa at Mānasasarovara. But, Gaṅgā broke the obstruction and flowed on, and Sarayū is the stream that started from there. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 155, Verse 23).

(vii) It is one of the rivers to be remembered both at dawn and dusk. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 165, Verse 21).

(viii) The city of Ayodhyā is situated on the banks of Sarayū. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Canto 5, Verse 5).

2) Sarayū (सरयू).—Wife of the Agni Vīra. The couple had a son called Siddhi. (Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 11).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sarayū (सरयू) is the name of a river (nadī) and mentioned as one of the seven holy Gaṅgas (saptagaṅgā), according to Śivapurāṇa 1.15. Accordingly, regarding the benefit in the rites of Devayajña:—“[...] a temple, the bank of a holy tank, the bank of an ordinary river, the bank of a holy river and the banks of the seven holy Gaṅgās (saptagaṅgā) are each of ten times more benefit than the previous. The seven holy Gaṅgās are Gaṅgā, Godāvarī, Kāverī, Tāmraparṇikā, Sindhu, Sarayū and Revā. The shores of the sea are of ten times more benefit than the previous. The summit of a mountain is of ten times more benefit than the shores of the sea”.

Note: Sarayū is a well known river, mentioned in the Ṛgveda V.53.9, along with the rivers Sarasvatī, Sindhu, Gaṅgā, Yamunā, and Śutudrī. Gharghara (Ghāgrā) and Tamasā (Tons) are its tributaries. It is a sacred river of Northern Kosa, with Ayodhyā, the sacred city of great antiquity, lying along its bank.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Sarayū (सरयू).—(Mahānadī) R. in Bhāratavarṣa; its source was visited by Balarāma who then travelled to Prayāgā along its bank. The river of Ayodhyā; Asamanjasa used to throw into it the children who were his playmates.1 R. from the Himālayas;2 sacred tīrtha;3 one of the 16 rivers married by Havyavāhana;4 in the Vaidyuta hill and has its source in the Mānasa lake;5 a Rākṣasa named Brahmapāda lived in the forest here called Vaibhrājyam;6 in the chariot of Tripurāri.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 18; IX. 8. 17; X. 79. 9-10; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 12. Ib. 15; III. 51. 65; 55. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 79;
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 25.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 22. 19.
  • 4) Ib. 51. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 14.
  • 5) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 15 and 70; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 21; 121. 17.
  • 6) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 95; 47. 15.
  • 7) Matsya-purāṇa 133. M; 163. 60.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sarayū (सरयू) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.18). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sarayū) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Sarayū (सरयू) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is the river of united provinces. The Ayodhyā nagara (town) is situated on the bank of this river and it meets the Gaṅges near Chapra.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Sarayū (सरयू) is an important river whose water (jala) qualities are described in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of water (jala) and their properties are mentioned here [viz., in jala-prakaraṇa]. The text explains the qualities of the water of certain important rivers like [viz., Sarayū].

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Sarayū (सरयू) is the name of a river, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If Mars should be eclipsed by Rāhu [—the eclipsed or eclipsing lunar or solar disc as the case may be], the people of Āvanti, those living on the banks of the Kāverī and the Narmada and haughty princes will be afflicted with miseries. If Mercury should be so eclipsed, men living between the Ganges and the Yamunā, on the banks of the Sarayū and in the country of Nepāla, those living about the east sea and on the banks of the Śoṇa will suffer and women, princes, soldier boys and men of letters will perish”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sarayū (सरयू): Sarayu was an ancient Indian river, sometimes thought of at probably today's Ghaghara river, and sometimes as a tributary. The river where Lakshamana practices austerities.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Sarayū (सरयू) is the name of a river mentioned by the Buddha while teaching the practice of disgust, as mentioned in the Tiṃsamattā-sutta (or Lohita-sūtra), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLIII.—Accordingly, “thus forty Bhikṣus from the land of Po-li (“inhabitant of the region of Pāvā”; Pāvā or Pāpā is the actual Kasia) who observed fully the twelve pure practices (dhūtaguṇa) came to the Buddha who taught them the practice of disgust (nirveda, saṃvega). The Buddha asked them: The five rivers, Heng-k’ie (Gaṅgā), Lan-meou-na (Yamunā), Sa-lo-yeou (Sarayū), A-tche-lo-p’o-t’i (Aciravati) and Mo-hi (Mahī) arise and empty into the great ocean (mahāsamudra). Is the mass of water contained in this ocean great or small? The Bhikṣus answered: It is very great. The Buddha continued: In the course of a single kalpa, during his animal existences, a single man has been cut up and flayed. In yet other circumstances when he committed a wrong-doing, his hands and feet have been cut off and his head has been has been cut off. Well then! His blood (lohita) that has been spilled surpasses the amount of water in the ocean”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śarayu (शरयु) or Śarayū (शरयू).—f. Name of a river; see सरयु (sarayu)()

Derivable forms: śarayuḥ (शरयुः), śarayūḥ (शरयूः).

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Sarayu (सरयु).—Air, wind.

-yuḥ, -yūḥ f. Name of a river on which stands Ayodhyā, or Oudh; तीर्थे तोयव्यतिकरभवे जह्नुकन्या- सरय्वोः (tīrthe toyavyatikarabhave jahnukanyā- sarayvoḥ) R.8.95;13.61,63;14.3.

Derivable forms: sarayuḥ (सरयुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarayu (शरयु).—f.

(-yuḥ-yūḥ) The Saraju-river; it is perferably, and more usually written sarayu, q. v.

--- OR ---

Sarayu (सरयु).—m.

(-yuḥ) Air, wind. f. (-yuḥ-yū) The Sarayu-river. E. sṛ to go, ayu Unadi aff.: also śarayu .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śarayu (शरयु).—[śara + yū] (better sarayū, q. cf.), f. The name of a river.

Śarayu can also be spelled as Śarayū (शरयू).

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Sarayu (सरयु).— (vb. sṛ), I. m. Air, wind. Ii. f., also yū , The name of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 49, 15 ().

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sarayu (सरयु).—[feminine] [Name] of a river.

Sarayu can also be spelled as Sarayū (सरयू).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śarayu (शरयु):—śarayū See sarayu, .

2) Sarayu (सरयु):—[from sara] m. air, wind, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] f. Name of a well-known river (commonly called Surjoo; on which stood the ancient city Ayodhyā cf. [Rāmāyaṇa i, 5; 6]; it is a tributary of the Gogra [see gharghara], and in [Ṛg-veda] is mentioned along with the rivers Sarasvatī, Sindhu, Gaṅgā, Yamunā, and Śutudrī).

4) Sarayū (सरयू):—[from sara] f. later Name of the river Sarayu (above), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śarayu (शरयु):—[(yuḥ-yū)] 2. 3. f. Name of a river, Sarayu, Sarju.

2) Sarayu (सरयु):—(yuḥ) 2. m. Air or wind. f. yu or yū, The Sarya river.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sarayū (सरयू) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saraū.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sarayu in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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