Prayojana: 25 definitions


Prayojana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Prayojan.

In Hinduism

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Nyaya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to “purpose”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Prayojana (प्रयोजन, “aim”) refers to the fourth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Every one acts according to one’s purpose or aim. One acts either to obtain desirable objects or to reject undesirable ones. Gautama defines it as for which one acts. For example, a man brings rice for the purpose of food. This is prayojana.

Nyaya book cover
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Mimamsa glossary
Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

1) Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to one of the four criteria every Tantric or Yogic text must include.—Prayojana is a statement of its purpose or objective.

2) Prayojana (प्रयोजन, “purpose”) refers to one of the various tools used by authors displaying their skill in the art of writing.—Whenever an author composes a work he/she has a purpose (prayojana) in mind. A particular message which the author wants to convey to others. Sometimes it is a well thought out concept and sometimes vague. When reading a passage try to discover what the general purpose of the author is and do not be distracted by the rhetoric which may be used in it’s articulation.

Mimamsa book cover
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Prayojana (प्रयोजन).—Object, motive or purpose in undertaking a particular thing; the word is used although rarely, in the sense of a cause also; cf. इमान्यस्य प्रयोजनानि अध्येयं व्याकरणम् (imānyasya prayojanāni adhyeyaṃ vyākaraṇam) M. Bh. Ahnika 1. For the advantages of the study of Vyakarana, see M. Bh. Ahnika 1. See also Vyakarana Mahabhasya Vol. VII pp.226,227, D.E. Society's edition.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Prayojana (प्रयोजन):—[prayojanaṃ] Statements which specifies the main idea, chief purpose of a particular science or method; Objective for which the actions are initiated or for which various measured are adopted.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to “purpose”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.12.—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Himācala (i.e., Himālaya): “This auspicious slender-bodied maiden of comely hips and moon-like face should not be brought near me. I forbid you again and again. A woman is a phase of illusion. As the scholars who have mastered the Vedas say particularly, a young damsel is a hindrance to ascetics. O mountain, I am an ascetic, a Yogin, never affected by illusion. Of what avail [i.e., prayojana] is a woman thrust on me? [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to the “goal (of human practice)”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Ordinary human practice [can even occur] with an object such as the sense organs, or heaven and liberation, although [these always remain] beyond the reach of the sense organs, [but] only inasmuch as they are [somehow] manifest in the concept [representing them]. And [since it is] so, being an object is nothing but having a form that is [presently] being manifest, and the goal (prayojana) [of human practice] only concerns what is merely such [and nothing beyond manifestation]”

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to “purpose”, according to Kṣemarāja’s commentary on the Svacchandatantra verse 4.142a.—Accordingly, “He should not purify the [portion of karma] which is for the future propitiation of mantras for the purpose of supernatural powers (bhūti-prayojana); this is the meaning”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to the “necessity” (of writing a book), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] Though the delights of hunting are well known even to men of no intelligence, still hunting affords peculiar delight to the mind of one who knows the science of hawking. Therefore, to heighten that delight, feel the necessity (prayojana) of writing the science of hunting sometimes in detail and sometimes in brief. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) refers to “purpose” (i.e., “that forms the principal factor in all activities”) and represents one of the necessary elements of a literary work, as used in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 2, l. 12]—‘Prayojana’ means “purpose”. The word ‘ādi’ occurring in ‘prayojanādi’ stands for the other three requisites (anubandhas)—the necessary elements of a literary work viz. adhikārin (the person qualified to study), abhidheya (subject-matter) and sambandha (connection). The adhikārin here is the group of persons already put on a wrong scent by the propounders of absolute one-sideness (ekdāta-vāda) but who are at the same time open to correction. The abhidheya is the refutation of this absolutism (vide p. 9) and establishment of anekānta-vada or the doctrine of ‘many-in-one’ or ‘one-in-many’. The sambandha between the subject (which is here identical with ‘purpose’) and this work, is that of the type of ‘sādhya-sādhana’. The anantara-prayojana (immediate purpose) of the author is the same as abhidheya viz. refutation of the allegations against anekāntavāda, and the paramparā-prayojana (ultimate purpose) is dharma. In the case of the listeners i.e. here students, the immediate purpose is acquisition of the knowledge of this work and that in the end, dharma.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Prayojana.—(LP), need; cf. drammaiḥ hasta-prāptaiḥ prayojanaṃ jāyate (LP), ‘when there is a necessity of having the money back [before the stated time].’ Note: prayojana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prayōjana (प्रयोजन).—n (S) Need, necessity, call or occasion for. Ex. jyālā tōṇḍapāṭha yētēṃ tyālā pōthīcēṃ pra0 lāgata nāhīṃ. 2 Reason, ground, occasion. Ex. gurugṛhīṃ rāhaṇyācēṃ pra0 vidyā. 3 A festive occasion and the feasting attendant,--a marriage, thread-investiture &c. 4 Motive, cause, origin.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prayōjana (प्रयोजन).—n Need, necessity. Reason, ground. A festive occasion. Motive.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prayojana (प्रयोजन).—

1) Use, employment, application.

2) Use, need, necessity (with instr. of that which is needed and gename of the user); सर्वैरपि राज्ञां प्रयोजनम् (sarvairapi rājñāṃ prayojanam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1; बाले किमनेन पृष्टेन प्रयोजनम् (bāle kimanena pṛṣṭena prayojanam) K.144.

3) End, aim, object, purpose; प्रयोजनमनुद्दिश्य न मन्दोऽपि प्रवर्तते (prayojanamanuddiśya na mando'pi pravartate); पुत्रप्रयोजना दाराः पुत्रः पिण्डप्रयोजनः । हितप्रयोजनं मित्रं धनं सर्वप्रयोजनम् (putraprayojanā dārāḥ putraḥ piṇḍaprayojanaḥ | hitaprayojanaṃ mitraṃ dhanaṃ sarvaprayojanam) || Subhās; गुणवत्तापि परप्रयोजना (guṇavattāpi paraprayojanā) R.8.31.

4) A means of attaining; एतच्चतुर्विधं विद्यात् पुरुषार्थप्रयोजनम् (etaccaturvidhaṃ vidyāt puruṣārthaprayojanam) Manusmṛti 7.1.

5) A cause, motive, occasion; दुरधिगमा हि गतिः प्रयोजनानाम् (duradhigamā hi gatiḥ prayojanānām) Kirātārjunīya 1.4.

6) Profit, interest.

7) The signification, sense (of a word); नासमवायात् प्रयोजनेन स्यात् (nāsamavāyāt prayojanena syāt) MS.4.3.31.

Derivable forms: prayojanam (प्रयोजनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayojana (प्रयोजन).—n.

(-naṃ) 1. Use, need, necessity, (with an inst.) 2. Cause, occasion. 3. Motive, origin. 4. Purpose, object, intention, design. 5. Profit, interest. 6. Means of attaining. E. pra before, yuj to join, aff. lyuṭ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayojana (प्रयोजन).—i. e. pra-yuj + ana, n. 1. Cause, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 80, 11; motive, [Pañcatantra] 107, 10. 2. Purpose, design, [Pañcatantra] 58, 2; 240, 15. 3. Use, [Pañcatantra] 5, 5; need, [Hitopadeśa] 54, 20; profit, [Pañcatantra] 88, 10; interest, 114, 22. 4. Means of attaining, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 100.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayojana (प्रयोजन).—[neuter] cause, reason, motive, aim, purpose, use of ([instrumental]).

kiṃ (or bhavatu) prayojanaṃ what is the use of, enough of ([instrumental]); kena prayojanena, kasmai-nāya, (also *[ablative], *[genetive] & *[locative]) the same.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prayojana (प्रयोजन):—[=pra-yojana] [from pra-yuj] n. (ifc. f(ā). ) occasion, object, cause, motive, opportunity, purpose, design, aim, end, [Prātiśākhya; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] prayojanena, with a particular intention, on purpose, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] na-vaśāt idem, [Pañcatantra]

4) [v.s. ...] kena prayojanena, from what cause or motive ? [Prabodha-candrodaya]

5) [v.s. ...] kasmai prayojanāya, kasmāt prayojanāt, kasya prayojanasya and kasmin prayojane idem, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 27]

6) [v.s. ...] nam ati-√kram, to neglect an opportunity, [Mahābhārata]

7) [v.s. ...] profit, use or need of, necessity for, [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra] etc. (with [instrumental case], taruṇā kim prayojanam, what is the use of the tree? [Kuvalayānanda]; bhavatv etaiḥ kusumaiḥ prayojanam, let these flowers be used, [Śakuntalā]; with [genitive case] or [dative case] [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-3, 27; ii, 3, 72])

8) [v.s. ...] means of attaining, [Manu-smṛti vii, 100]

9) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) a motive for discussing the point in question, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 64]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayojana (प्रयोजन):—(naṃ) 1. n. Cause; object.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Prayojana (प्रयोजन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pauṃjaṇa, Pauṃjaṇayā, Pauṃjaṇā, Paoaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prayojana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Prayojana (प्रयोजन) [Also spelled prayojan]:—(nm) purpose; motive, intention; cause; use; ~[vāda / ~vāditā] purposivism; ~[vādī] a purposivist; purposivistic; —[siddhi] achievement/fulfilment of a purpose.

2) Prāyojanā (प्रायोजना):—(nf) a project.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prayojana in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Prayōjana (ಪ್ರಯೋಜನ):—

1) [noun] the act of employing, using or putting into service; use.

2) [noun] an instance of employing or using something.

3) [noun] the condition in which the use of something being inevetable or unavoidable; necessity.

4) [noun] gain or benefit; advantage.

5) [noun] something for which something is done or not done; purpose; intention.

6) [noun] a rich and elaborate meal served to a large number of people.

7) [noun] (nyāya phil.) the motive for discussing the point in question (?).

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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