Prayatna: 25 definitions


Prayatna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Prayatn.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) refers to one of the “five stages of the action” (avasthā) in a dramatic playwright (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These actions represents a Hero’s striving towards the object. The fruits of these actions (phalayoga) relates to dharma (duty), kāma (enjoyment of pleasure) and artha (wealth).

The corresponding “means of attaining objects of the plot” (arthaprakṛti), is the Vital Drop (bindu).

Source: Natya Shastra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—One of the five stages of action (avasthā);—Hero’s striving towards the Attainment of the Object when the same is not in view, and his steps exciting curiosity about it, is called the Efforts (prayatna).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—Effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; cf. तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् (tulyāsyaprayatnaṃ savarṇam) P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य (bāhya) and आभ्यन्तर (ābhyantara) of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters (सावर्ण्य (sāvarṇya)); cf.आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते (ābhyantaraprayatnāḥ savarṇasaṃjñāyāmāśrīyante);Kas. on P. I. 1.9;

2) Prayatna.—Specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; cf. सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्व-सूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् (saivānanuvṛttiḥ śabdenākhyāyate prayatnādhikyena pūrva-sūtrepi saṃbandhārtham) Kas. on P. IV. 3.22.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prayatna in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Prayatna (effort) is another special quality (guṇa) which remains in the self. Annaṃbhaṭṭa has given only a very brief description of this quality. He just says activity (kṛti) is effort. This description of effort is not very clear since effort is not the actual act. It may be said to be the “readiness of the mind coupled with an attempt towards performing that act”.

According to Praśastapāda, prayatna is of two kinds, viz.,

  1. jīvanapūrvaka,
  2. icchādveṣapūrvaka.

The first one is that which arises from just living and the second one arises from desire and aversion.

Viśvanātha says that effort is of three kinds, viz.,

  1. pravṛtti (inclination),
  2. nivṛtti (disinclination),
  3. jivanakāraṇa (that which sustains life).

The cause of inclination is the desire to do (cikīrṣā) notion of feasibility through one’s effort (kṛtisādhya), knowledge of being productive of the desirable (iṣṭasādhanatvamati) and the perception of the material (upādānasya adhyakṣyam). Disinclination arises from aversion and the knowledge of producing something repugnant. The effort which sustains life is described as the cause of the movement of the vital force in the body. This continues throughout life, and it is beyond senses.

Nyaya book cover
context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Prayatna (प्रयत्न):—Ability to initiate

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “effort”, according to the Nāradasaṃhitā verse 29.86-95 (pp. 181-184), a Sanskrit work on astrology having the Saralā commentary by Vasatirāma Śarmā.—Accordingly, “[...] In an auspicious copper basin, or in a clay basin that has been filled with water, having decorated it with effort [i.e., prayatnaprayatnataḥ] by means of sandal paste, flowers and coloured rice, the basin which is placed upon grains of rice, to which a gold piece is added and which is covered by a pair of clothes, one should place the bowl after having seen the rise of half of the Sun’s orb. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “effort” [i.e., ‘taking great pains’], according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.105cd-106ab, while describing the ritual that protect the king and his kingdom]—“The [Mantrin takes] should take great pains (prayatna) to prepare the weapons for sacrifice [which brings about] siddhis. He obtains success with weapons [i.e., victory in battle]. He [who commissions the sacrifice] attains the fruit [of victory]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Prayatna in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “strenuously” (preventing someone from talking harsh words), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.28 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī said to her maid: “This base Brahmin must be prevented strenuously (prayatna). He is inclined to say something again. He will surely censure Śiva. Not only does he who disparages Śiva incur sin but also he who hears the same. A person who disparages Śiva is definitely worthy of being killed by Śiva’s attendants. If it is a brahmin he must be dismissed or the hearer shall go away from that place immediately. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Prayatna in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “(making an) effort” (to practice Yoga), according to the Dattātreyayogaśāstra (roughly contemporary with the Amanaska’s second chapter).—Accordingly, while discussing the merits of Yogic practice: “Without practice, [the Yogin] becomes worldly. Therefore, having remembered the teachings of his guru, he should practise [yoga] day and night. Thus, [only] through the constant practice of Yoga, does the [second] stage [of Yoga called] Ghaṭa arise. Without the practice of yoga, [it is all] in vain. [Yoga] is not perfected through social gatherings. Therefore, [the Yogin] should practise only yoga with every effort (sarva-prayatna)”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “effort (in practice)”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, [while describing the visualized form of Navātman Bhairava]: “[...] The Vaḍava Fire is energized by the Yoga of Stillness. It is delighted by the bliss of Navātman and is rich with the juice of the bliss of (its own) energy. The Vaḍava Fire is energized by the Yoga of the Supreme Nectar. One who is free of the bondage of phenomenal existence has crossed the ocean of phenomenal existence. Therefore, one should practice Stillness with all effort (sarva-prayatna). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) refers to “zeal” (e.g., ‘a Bhikṣu dedicates to his own body his full zeal’), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 3).—Accordingly, “The Buddha said to Ānanda: ‘Henceforth after my departure, you yourself will be your own refuge (ātmaśaraṇa), the Dharma will be your refuge (dharmaśaraṇa), and you will have no other refuge (ananyaśaraṇa). How, O Bhikṣu, will you be your own refuge, how will the Dharma be your refuge, and how will you have no other refuge? The Bhikṣu considers his own body; he always dedicates to it his full attention (ekacitta), his wisdom (prajñā), his zeal (prayatna), his energy (vīrya) and he rejects the worldly desires and resulting dissatisfactions. In the same way, he considers the body of another, then his own body and that of another at the same time. [...]’.”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prayatna (प्रयत्न).—m (S) Great or strenuous exertion. 2 An effort; a vehement endeavor. 3 A common term for the two acts or efforts of the air in the lungs and air-passages in the production of articulate utterance. See ābhyantaraprayatna & bāhyaprayatna. 4 An endeavor, essay, or effort gen.; any exerting of one's self towards. Pr. prayatnīṃ paramēśvara.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prayatna (प्रयत्न).—m Strenuous exertion. An effort. An endeavour. Ex. prayatnīṃ or prayatnāantīṃ paramēśvara.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—

1) Effort, exertion, endeavour; तस्येदं विपुलं विधेर्विलसितं पुसां प्रयत्नच्छिदः (tasyedaṃ vipulaṃ vidhervilasitaṃ pusāṃ prayatnacchidaḥ) Mu.5.2.

2) Persevering or continued effort; perseverence.

3) Labour, difficulty; प्रयत्नप्रेक्षणीयः संवृत्तः (prayatnaprekṣaṇīyaḥ saṃvṛttaḥ) Ś.1 'hardly visible', 'seen with difficulty'.

4) Great care, caution; कृतप्रयत्नोऽपि गृहे विनश्यति (kṛtaprayatno'pi gṛhe vinaśyati) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.2.

5) (In gram.) Effort in uttering, effort of the mouth in the production of articulate sounds; see Sk. on P.VIII.2.1.

6) (In phil.) Active effort of three kinds; प्रवृत्तिश्च निवृत्तिश्च तथा जीवनकारणम् । एवं प्रयत्न- त्र्यैविध्यं तान्त्रिकैः परिदर्शितम् (pravṛttiśca nivṛttiśca tathā jīvanakāraṇam | evaṃ prayatna- tryaividhyaṃ tāntrikaiḥ paridarśitam) ||

7) Activity, action in general.

Derivable forms: prayatnaḥ (प्रयत्नः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—n.

(-tnaṃ) 1. Continued or presevering effort, exertion. 2. Act, action. 3. (In logic,) Active effort of three kinds, engaging in any act, prosecuting it, and completing it. 4. Caution, care. 5. Articulation of sounds. E. pra intensitive, yatna effort.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—[pra-yatna], m. 1. Persevering exertion, effort, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 143. 2. Great care, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 79. 3. Difficulty, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 5, 11 (scarcely). 4. Articulation of sound, [Pāṇini, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 1, 1, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—[masculine] effort, endeavour, pains at ([locative] or —°), activity; °—, [instrumental], & [ablative] with pains, carefully; hardly, scarcely.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prayatna (प्रयत्न):—[=pra-yatna] [from pra-yat] m. persevering effort, continued exertion or endeavour, exertion bestowed on ([locative case] or [compound]), activity, action, act, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. ([instrumental case] sg. and [plural] [ablative] and -tas ind. with special effort, zealously, diligently, carefully; tna [in the beginning of a compound] and tnāt ind. also = hardly, scarcely)

2) [v.s. ...] great care, caution, [Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) active efforts (of 3 kinds, viz. engaging in any act, prosecuting it, and completing it)

4) [v.s. ...] [plural] volitions (one of the 17 qualities of the Vaiśeṣikas), [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 68]

5) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) effort in uttering, mode of articulation (also āsya-pray, distinguished into ābhyantara-p and bāhya-p, internal and external effort), [Prātiśākhya; Pāṇini 1-1, 9 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

6) Prayatnā (प्रयत्ना):—[=pra-yatnā] [from pra-yatna > pra-yat] f. Name of a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न):—[pra-yatna] (tnaṃ) 1. n. Great or preserving effort; action; caution.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Payatta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Prayatna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Prayatna in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न) [Also spelled prayatn]:—(nm) effort, endeavour; attempt; (in Phonetics) manner of articulation; -[lāghava] economy of effort; ~[vān/śīla] assiduous, diligent, one who makes efforts; hence ~[śīlatā] (nf); —[karanā] to try, to make an effort; to attempt/endeavour.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Prayatna (ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ):—

1) [noun] an earnest, and usu.strenuous, effort or attempt; an endeavour.

2) [noun] exertion of strength or mental power.

3) [noun] a distressing or difficult happening or situation; a trouble.

4) [noun] (phys.) the force required to puts an object at rest into motion or alters the motion of a moving object.

5) [noun] ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ಪಡು [prayatna padu] prayatna paḍu = ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸು [prayatnisu]; ಪ್ರಯತ್ನ ಮಾಡು [prayatna madu] prayatna māḍu = ಪ್ರಯತ್ನಿಸು [prayatnisu].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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