Prayatna: 12 definitions

Introduction

Prayatna means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) refers to one of the “five stages of the action” (avasthā) in a dramatic playwright (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. These actions represents a Hero’s striving towards the object. The fruits of these actions (phalayoga) relates to dharma (duty), kāma (enjoyment of pleasure) and artha (wealth).

The corresponding “means of attaining objects of the plot” (arthaprakṛti), is the Vital Drop (bindu).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—One of the five stages of action (avasthā);—Hero’s striving towards the Attainment of the Object when the same is not in view, and his steps exciting curiosity about it, is called the Efforts (prayatna).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—Effort; the word is used in connection with the effort made for producing sound; cf. तुल्यास्यप्रयत्नं सवर्णम् (tulyāsyaprayatnaṃ savarṇam) P.1.1.9 these efforts are described to be of two kinds बाह्य (bāhya) and आभ्यन्तर (ābhyantara) of which the latter are considered in determining the cognate nature of letters (सावर्ण्य (sāvarṇya)); cf.आभ्यन्तरप्रयत्नाः सवर्णसंज्ञायामाश्रीयन्ते (ābhyantaraprayatnāḥ savarṇasaṃjñāyāmāśrīyante);Kas. on P. I. 1.9;

2) Prayatna.—Specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modificatory rule or the like; cf. सैवाननुवृत्तिः शब्देनाख्यायते प्रयत्नाधिक्येन पूर्व-सूत्रेपि संबन्धार्थम् (saivānanuvṛttiḥ śabdenākhyāyate prayatnādhikyena pūrva-sūtrepi saṃbandhārtham) Kas. on P. IV. 3.22.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Prayatna in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Prayatna (प्रयत्न, “effort”) refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to Praśastapāda and all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Prayatna (effort) is another special quality (guṇa) which remains in the self. Annaṃbhaṭṭa has given only a very brief description of this quality. He just says activity (kṛti) is effort. This description of effort is not very clear since effort is not the actual act. It may be said to be the “readiness of the mind coupled with an attempt towards performing that act”.

According to Praśastapāda, prayatna is of two kinds, viz.,

  1. jīvanapūrvaka,
  2. icchādveṣapūrvaka.

The first one is that which arises from just living and the second one arises from desire and aversion.

Viśvanātha says that effort is of three kinds, viz.,

  1. pravṛtti (inclination),
  2. nivṛtti (disinclination),
  3. jivanakāraṇa (that which sustains life).

The cause of inclination is the desire to do (cikīrṣā) notion of feasibility through one’s effort (kṛtisādhya), knowledge of being productive of the desirable (iṣṭasādhanatvamati) and the perception of the material (upādānasya adhyakṣyam). Disinclination arises from aversion and the knowledge of producing something repugnant. The effort which sustains life is described as the cause of the movement of the vital force in the body. This continues throughout life, and it is beyond senses.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prayatna (प्रयत्न).—m (S) Great or strenuous exertion. 2 An effort; a vehement endeavor. 3 A common term for the two acts or efforts of the air in the lungs and air-passages in the production of articulate utterance. See ābhyantaraprayatna & bāhyaprayatna. 4 An endeavor, essay, or effort gen.; any exerting of one's self towards. Pr. prayatnīṃ paramēśvara.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prayatna (प्रयत्न).—m Strenuous exertion. An effort. An endeavour. Ex. prayatnīṃ or prayatnāantīṃ paramēśvara.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—

1) Effort, exertion, endeavour; तस्येदं विपुलं विधेर्विलसितं पुसां प्रयत्नच्छिदः (tasyedaṃ vipulaṃ vidhervilasitaṃ pusāṃ prayatnacchidaḥ) Mu.5.2.

2) Persevering or continued effort; perseverence.

3) Labour, difficulty; प्रयत्नप्रेक्षणीयः संवृत्तः (prayatnaprekṣaṇīyaḥ saṃvṛttaḥ) Ś.1 'hardly visible', 'seen with difficulty'.

4) Great care, caution; कृतप्रयत्नोऽपि गृहे विनश्यति (kṛtaprayatno'pi gṛhe vinaśyati) Pt.1.2.

5) (In gram.) Effort in uttering, effort of the mouth in the production of articulate sounds; see Sk. on P.VIII.2.1.

6) (In phil.) Active effort of three kinds; प्रवृत्तिश्च निवृत्तिश्च तथा जीवनकारणम् । एवं प्रयत्न- त्र्यैविध्यं तान्त्रिकैः परिदर्शितम् (pravṛttiśca nivṛttiśca tathā jīvanakāraṇam | evaṃ prayatna- tryaividhyaṃ tāntrikaiḥ paridarśitam) ||

7) Activity, action in general.

Derivable forms: prayatnaḥ (प्रयत्नः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—n.

(-tnaṃ) 1. Continued or presevering effort, exertion. 2. Act, action. 3. (In logic,) Active effort of three kinds, engaging in any act, prosecuting it, and completing it. 4. Caution, care. 5. Articulation of sounds. E. pra intensitive, yatna effort.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—[pra-yatna], m. 1. Persevering exertion, effort, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 143. 2. Great care, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 79. 3. Difficulty, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 5, 11 (scarcely). 4. Articulation of sound, [Pāṇini, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 1, 1, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayatna (प्रयत्न).—[masculine] effort, endeavour, pains at ([locative] or —°), activity; °—, [instrumental], & [ablative] with pains, carefully; hardly, scarcely.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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