Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana

by Gaurapada Dāsa | 2015 | 234,703 words

Baladeva Vidyabhusana’s Sahitya-kaumudi covers all aspects of poetical theory except the topic of dramaturgy. All the definitions of poetical concepts are taken from Mammata’s Kavya-prakasha, the most authoritative work on Sanskrit poetical rhetoric. Baladeva Vidyabhushana added the eleventh chapter, where he expounds additional ornaments from Visv...

[This is the vaidharmya variety of dṛṣṭānta (contrasted example):]

त्वयि दृष्टे जगन्-नाथ नष्टा मम भव-व्यथा ।
दृष्टा नीरज-वृन्दस्य ग्लानिर् अस्तं गते रवौ ॥

tvayi dṛṣṭe jagan-nātha naṣṭā mama bhava-vyathā |
dṛṣṭā nīraja-vṛndasya glānir astaṃ gate ravau ||

When You are seen, O Lord of the world, my pain of material life comes to nil. The witheredness of daytime lotuses is seen when the sun sets.

prativastūpamāyām ekasyaiva dharmasya dvidhā kṛtiḥ. dṛṣṭānte dharmayoḥ sāmyam. arthāntara-nyāse tu sāmānya-viśeṣa-rūpayor vākyārthayoḥ sāmarthya-samarthaka-bhāva ity eṣām asāṅkaryaṃ bhāvyam.

In prativastūpamā, the same common attribute is made twice. In dṛṣṭānta, the common attribute in the other sentence is merely similar. In arthāntara-nyāsa (corroboration), however, one sentence is corroborated by the other, and one of them is a generality whereas the other is a particular instance. The distinction between these three ornaments should be understood in that way.

Commentary:

The elaboration is entirely from the pen of Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa. He follows Viśvanātha Kavirāja’s principle of differentiation between prativastūpamā and dṛṣṭānta.[1]

Everyone agrees that the difference between arthāntara-nyāsa and those two ornaments is that in the former, one general statement is corroborated by a particular instance or vice versa, whereas in those two ornaments, one general statement is corroborated by another general statement or a particular instance is corroborated by another particular instance. Viśvanātha Kavirāja specifies that in dṛṣṭānta, the thing mentioned in the example must be well-known: dṛṣṭānte prakhyātam eva vastu pratibimbatvenopādīyate (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 10.59 vṛtti). This verse by Kālidāsa exemplifies vaidharmya-dṛṣṭānta (contrasted example).

The king talks about Śakuntalā:

mānuṣīṣu kathaṃ vā syādasya rūpasya sambhavaḥ |
na prabhā-taralaṃ jyotir udeti vasudhā-talāt ||[2]

“How could the origination of this form possibly occur among human women? A light which has waves of effulgence does not arise from the surface of the Earth” (Abhijñāna-śākuntalam).

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

eka-rūpaḥ kvacit kvāpi bhinnaḥ sādhāraṇo guṇaḥ || bhinne bimbānubimbatvaṃ śabda-mātreṇa vā bhidā || (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 10.24); atra “śmaśrulaiḥ” ity asya “saraghā-vyāptaiḥ” iti dṛṣṭāntavat pratibimbitam. […] atraike eva smeratva-vikasitatve prativastūpamāvacchedena nirdiṣṭe (Sāhitya-darpaṇa 10.24 vṛtti).

[2]:

The verse is cited by Bhoja as an example of the prativastūkti variety of his sāmya ornament (Sarasvatī-kaṇṭhābharaṇa 4.68).

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