Manushya, aka: Manusya, Manuṣya; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Manushya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Manuṣya can be transliterated into English as Manusya or Manushya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

Manushya in Purana glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “men” (mankind) and represents a type of Ādhibhautika pain, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhibhautika and its subdivisions (eg., manuṣya) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhyātmika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—(man) The Purāṇas have not given a definite explanation regarding the origin of Man, the most important of all living beings. Many stories regarding the origin of Man were current among the ancient people. According to Hindu Purāṇas Man was born of Svāyambhuva Manu who in turn was born of Brahmā. According to Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa (Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa) all the living beings including man were born to Kaśyapaprajāpati of his eight wives, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā. From Aditi were born the devas; from Diti, the daityas; from Danu, the dānavas; from Kālī, the asuras Kālaka and Naraka; from Tāmrā, the birdflock Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Sukī; from Krodhavaśā the animal flock, Mṛgī, Mṛgamandā, Harī, Bhadramadā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Svetā and Surabhi; from Manu, mankind and from Analā, the flora.

There is basis to believe that the Greeks and the people of Bhārata accepted with slight modifications the theory of evolution. The Daśāvatāras of Viṣṇu almost represents the progressive changes in the form of a living thing from a fish into man. The theory of Darwin that life was first formed in water was current among the sages of ancient Bhārata, even from very early times.

"apa eva sasarjādau tāsu vīryamapāsṛjat //" (He created water first and cast virility therein).

In the Daśāvatāras (ten incarnations of Viṣṇu) the first avatāra is Matsya (Fish). The next one is Kūrma or Tortoise which is a progress in the form of fish. The third is Varāha or boar which is another step forward in evolution. The fourth is Narasiṃha (Man cum lion) which is the first step towards the formation of Man. That avatāra has got the traits of both man and animal. The next one is Vāmana or a small man. Then Śrī Rāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, both fully grown men but with different kinds of culture.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—Created out of the rajas element;1 four varṇas of.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 5. 23, 37-8; 6. 1.
  • 2) Ib. I. 6. 5.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Manushya in Mahayana glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) or Manuṣyagati refers to the “humans” according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—In the human destiny (manuṣyagati), the Bodhisattva sees beings who, by practicing the ten meritorious actions, have obtained a human body. The human life involves many sufferings and but little joy; when their life is over, people often fall into the unfortunate destinies (durgati).

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Manushya in Buddhism glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

Manuṣya (मनुष्य, “human ”) refers to one of the “six destinations” (gata) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 57). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., manuṣya). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Manushya in Jainism glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to a class of yakṣas, which are deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). According to Jain cosmological texts, such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna, the assigned color of yakṣas is black and their tree is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa). The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Manuṣya (मनुष्य) or Manuṣyāyu refers to “human realms or states of existence” and represents one of the four divisions of Āyu, or “life determining (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by human life (manuṣya-āyu)? The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in human realm is life in human realm.

2) Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “human state of existence body-making karma” and represents one of the four types of Gati (state of existence), which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by human (manuṣya) state of existence (gati) body-making (nāma) karmas? The karmas rises of which causes birth in the human realm are called human state of existence body-making karma. 

3) Manuṣya (मनुष्य, “human”) or Manuṣyānupūrvī refers to the “infernal migratory form” and represents one of the four types of Ānupūrvī (migratory form), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Manushya in Marathi glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

manuṣya (मनुष्य).—n when used with particular advertence to the male sex, masc. (S) Man or mankind; a man, a person, a human being. 2 Used, as our own word Man, for one of manly qualities or eminent qualifications. Ex. rājyānta kōṇhī ma0 navhatā mhaṇūna rājya buḍālēṃ. manuṣyāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ To depart from the common ways of men; to lead a devious, eccentric life. 2 To be reduced to the lowest depths of human wretchedness. 3 To be given over; to be considered as at the point of death.

--- OR ---

mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—n S Manhood, humanity, the state, condition, or quality of man.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

manuṣya (मनुष्य).—n A man; mankind. manuṣyāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ general. Lead a devious, eccentric life. Be given over.

--- OR ---

mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—n Manhood.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Manushya in Sanskrit glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—a. [manorapatyaṃ yat suk ca] Friendly or useful to man.

-ṣyaḥ 1 A man, human being, mortal.

2) A mate.

3) Ved. A class of manes.

--- OR ---

Mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—

1) Human nature, humanity; असारमिव मानुष्यम् (asāramiva mānuṣyam) Mb.12.288.45; किं पुनर्मानुष्यं विडम्ब्यते (kiṃ punarmānuṣyaṃ viḍambyate) V.2; यावन्मानुष्यके शक्यमुपपादयितुं तावत्सर्वमुपपाद्यताम् (yāvanmānuṣyake śakyamupapādayituṃ tāvatsarvamupapādyatām) K.62.

2) A mortal frame, human body; प्राप्यापि मानुष्यकमनेक- साधारणीभव (prāpyāpi mānuṣyakamaneka- sādhāraṇībhava) Dk.

3) Mankind, the race of human beings.

4) A collection of men; अश्वीयैरौक्षकैर्मानुष्यकै रथ्याभिरौष्ट्रकैः । धनश्चचाल वैपुल्यं वसुधाया विलोपयन् (aśvīyairaukṣakairmānuṣyakai rathyābhirauṣṭrakaiḥ | dhanaścacāla vaipulyaṃ vasudhāyā vilopayan) || Dharmābhyudayamahākāvyam.

5) = मनुष्यलोक (manuṣyaloka); मानुष्ये चिन्तयामास जन्मभूमि- मथात्मनः (mānuṣye cintayāmāsa janmabhūmi- mathātmanaḥ) Rām.1.16.31.

Derivable forms: mānuṣyam (मानुष्यम्).

See also (synonyms): mānuṣyaka.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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