Manushya, Manusya, Manuṣya, Manuṣyā: 27 definitions


Manushya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Manuṣya and Manuṣyā can be transliterated into English as Manusya or Manushya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Manushy.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Manushya in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Viṣṇu-purāṇa

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “men” (mankind) and represents a type of Ādhibhautika pain, according to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa 6.5.1-6. Accordingly, “the wise man having investigated the three kinds of worldly pain, or mental and bodily affliction and the like, and having acquired true wisdom, and detachment from human objects, obtains final dissolution.”

Ādhibhautika and its subdivisions (e.g., manuṣya) represents one of the three types of worldly pain (the other two being ādhyātmika and ādhidaivika) and correspond to three kinds of affliction described in the Sāṃkhyakārikā.

The Viṣṇupurāṇa is one of the eighteen Mahāpurāṇas which, according to tradition was composed of over 23,000 metrical verses dating from at least the 1st-millennium BCE. There are six chapters (aṃśas) containing typical puranic literature but the contents primarily revolve around Viṣṇu and his avatars.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—(man) The Purāṇas have not given a definite explanation regarding the origin of Man, the most important of all living beings. Many stories regarding the origin of Man were current among the ancient people. According to Hindu Purāṇas Man was born of Svāyambhuva Manu who in turn was born of Brahmā. According to Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa (Sarga 14, Araṇya Kāṇḍa) all the living beings including man were born to Kaśyapaprajāpati of his eight wives, Aditi, Diti, Danu, Kālikā, Tāmrā, Krodhavaśā, Manu and Analā. From Aditi were born the devas; from Diti, the daityas; from Danu, the dānavas; from Kālī, the asuras Kālaka and Naraka; from Tāmrā, the birdflock Krauñcī, Bhāsī, Śyenī, Dhṛtarāṣṭrī and Sukī; from Krodhavaśā the animal flock, Mṛgī, Mṛgamandā, Harī, Bhadramadā, Mātaṅgī, Śārdūlī, Svetā and Surabhi; from Manu, mankind and from Analā, the flora.

There is basis to believe that the Greeks and the people of Bhārata accepted with slight modifications the theory of evolution. The Daśāvatāras of Viṣṇu almost represents the progressive changes in the form of a living thing from a fish into man. The theory of Darwin that life was first formed in water was current among the sages of ancient Bhārata, even from very early times.

"apa eva sasarjādau tāsu vīryamapāsṛjat //" (He created water first and cast virility therein).

In the Daśāvatāras (ten incarnations of Viṣṇu) the first avatāra is Matsya (Fish). The next one is Kūrma or Tortoise which is a progress in the form of fish. The third is Varāha or boar which is another step forward in evolution. The fourth is Narasiṃha (Man cum lion) which is the first step towards the formation of Man. That avatāra has got the traits of both man and animal. The next one is Vāmana or a small man. Then Śrī Rāma and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, both fully grown men but with different kinds of culture.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “human beings”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.16 (“Brahmā consoles the gods”).—Accordingly, as the Gods said to Brahmā: “[...] O dear, lord of all, we are extremely harassed and agitated due to Tāraka. Agni, Yama, Varuṇa, Nirṛti, Vāyu and other guardians of the deities are under his control. None of them is ever independent. All serve him in the manner of human beings [i.e., manuṣya-dharman] accompanied by their followers. Being harassed by him, the gods have become subservient of him. They are engaged in carrying out his wishes. All of us are his servants. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—Created out of the rajas element;1 four varṇas of.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 5. 23, 37-8; 6. 1.
  • 2) Ib. I. 6. 5.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Manushya in Yoga glossary
Source: The Tantric Śaiva Origins of Rājayoga

Mānuṣya (मानुष्य) or Mānuṣyapiṇḍa refers to a “mortal body”, according to the Kaulajñānanirṇaya (17.36–38ab) which is attributed to Matsyendranātha, one of the supposed founders of Haṭhayoga.—Accordingly, “When one knows the self by the self, the self can take on any form at will. Theself is the supreme deity. He by whom this is known is the king of yogins. He is said to be Śiva. He is clearly liberated and may liberate another. O goddess, he is always very pure, like a lotus in the mud. Having adopted a mortal body [i.e., mānuṣya-piṇḍamānuṣyaṃ piṇḍam], he sports in the world as a Śiva”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) or Manuṣyagati refers to the “humans” according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—In the human destiny (manuṣyagati), the Bodhisattva sees beings who, by practicing the ten meritorious actions, have obtained a human body. The human life involves many sufferings and but little joy; when their life is over, people often fall into the unfortunate destinies (durgati).

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to a “human being”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[Characteristics of behavior of all beings] [...] The behaviour’s essence, essential character (lakṣaṇa), [...] the essential character of the lord of the world of death, the essential character of gods, the essential character of human being (manuṣya-lakṣaṇa), the essential character of the entrance into the fixed course of disciples, the essential character of the entrance into the fixed course of isolated Buddhas, [...]—he knows all the essential characters of behavior truly as they are, and there is no fault at all in his understanding”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

1) Manuṣyā (मनुष्या) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Manuṣyā).

2) Manuṣya (मनुष्य) is the name of a Rāśi (zodiac sign) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Manuṣya (मनुष्य, “human ”) refers to one of the “six destinations” (gata) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 57). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., manuṣya). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to a class of yakṣas, which are deities categorised as belonging to the vyantara class of Gods (devas). According to Jain cosmological texts, such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna, the assigned color of yakṣas is black and their tree is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa). The vyantaras represent a class of Gods (devas) comprising eight groups of deities that wander about the three worlds (adhaloka, madhyaloka and ūrdhvaloka).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

1) Manuṣya (मनुष्य) or Manuṣyāyu refers to “human realms or states of existence” and represents one of the four divisions of Āyu, or “life determining (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by human life (manuṣya-āyu)? The karmas rise of which causes the body of the living beings stay in human realm is life in human realm.

2) Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “human state of existence body-making karma” and represents one of the four types of Gati (state of existence), which represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which in turn represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by human (manuṣya) state of existence (gati) body-making (nāma) karmas? The karmas rises of which causes birth in the human realm are called human state of existence body-making karma. 

3) Manuṣya (मनुष्य, “human”) or Manuṣyānupūrvī refers to the “infernal migratory form” and represents one of the four types of Ānupūrvī (migratory form), representing one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “human (birth)”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] And even among the five-sensed beings, many belong to the animal world such as the cow, the deer, the bird, the serpent, etc. Hence human birth (manuṣya-bhāva) is as difficult of attainment as a heap of jewels at the crossing of the roads. And if one loses the condition of a human being by negligence, it is as difficult to attain it once again, as it is difficult for a burnt tree to regain its old freshness. Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family, keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. [...]”.

Synonyms: Nara, Nṛ, Martya.

Source: The Original Paṇhavāyaraṇa/Praśnavyākaraṇa Discovered

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) refers to “human beings”, as taught in the Paṇhavāgaraṇa (Sanskrit: Praśnavyākaraṇa): the tenth Anga of the Jain canon which deals with the prophetic explanation of queries regarding divination.—The Praśnavyākaraṇa deals with the praśnavidyā in a rather complex way. It is divided into at least 33 short chapters [e.g., manuṣya-adhikāra; part of the chapter called jīvacintā-prakaraṇa], some of which are further divided into sub-chapters. Some contents of the text, mainly those related with articulation and pronunciation can have significance far beyond the scope of the praśnavidyā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Manuṣya.—cf. Mānisi (EI 24), a servant. Note: manuṣya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

manuṣya (मनुष्य).—n when used with particular advertence to the male sex, masc. (S) Man or mankind; a man, a person, a human being. 2 Used, as our own word Man, for one of manly qualities or eminent qualifications. Ex. rājyānta kōṇhī ma0 navhatā mhaṇūna rājya buḍālēṃ. manuṣyāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ To depart from the common ways of men; to lead a devious, eccentric life. 2 To be reduced to the lowest depths of human wretchedness. 3 To be given over; to be considered as at the point of death.

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mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—n S Manhood, humanity, the state, condition, or quality of man.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

manuṣya (मनुष्य).—n A man; mankind. manuṣyāntūna uṭhaṇēṃ general. Lead a devious, eccentric life. Be given over.

--- OR ---

mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—n Manhood.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—a. [manorapatyaṃ yat suk ca] Friendly or useful to man.

-ṣyaḥ 1 A man, human being, mortal.

2) A mate.

3) Ved. A class of manes.

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Mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—

1) Human nature, humanity; असारमिव मानुष्यम् (asāramiva mānuṣyam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.288.45; किं पुनर्मानुष्यं विडम्ब्यते (kiṃ punarmānuṣyaṃ viḍambyate) V.2; यावन्मानुष्यके शक्यमुपपादयितुं तावत्सर्वमुपपाद्यताम् (yāvanmānuṣyake śakyamupapādayituṃ tāvatsarvamupapādyatām) K.62.

2) A mortal frame, human body; प्राप्यापि मानुष्यकमनेक- साधारणीभव (prāpyāpi mānuṣyakamaneka- sādhāraṇībhava) Dk.

3) Mankind, the race of human beings.

4) A collection of men; अश्वीयैरौक्षकैर्मानुष्यकै रथ्याभिरौष्ट्रकैः । धनश्चचाल वैपुल्यं वसुधाया विलोपयन् (aśvīyairaukṣakairmānuṣyakai rathyābhirauṣṭrakaiḥ | dhanaścacāla vaipulyaṃ vasudhāyā vilopayan) || Dharmābhyudayamahākāvyam.

5) = मनुष्यलोक (manuṣyaloka); मानुष्ये चिन्तयामास जन्मभूमि- मथात्मनः (mānuṣye cintayāmāsa janmabhūmi- mathātmanaḥ) Rām.1.16.31.

Derivable forms: mānuṣyam (मानुष्यम्).

See also (synonyms): mānuṣyaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—m.

(-ṣyaḥ) Man, a man, mankind. E. manu the progenitor of mankind, yat aff. of descent, and yuk augment.

--- OR ---

Mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—n.

(-ṣyaṃ) Manhood, manliness, humanity, the state or quality of man or mortal. E. manuṣa a man, ṣyañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—i. e. manus + ya, I. m. Man, a man, [Pañcatantra] 255, 17; mankind, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 39. Ii. f. ṣī, A woman.

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Mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—i. e. mānuṣa + ya, I. adj. Human, [Nala] 19, 28. Ii. n. The state of a man.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manuṣya (मनुष्य).—[adjective] human or humane; [masculine] man, husband.

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Mānuṣya (मानुष्य).—[neuter] = mānuṣa [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Manuṣya (मनुष्य):—[from man] a mf(ā)n. human, manly, useful or, friendly to man, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a man, human being, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a man (as opp. to woman), [Manu-smṛti; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] a husband, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

5) [v.s. ...] a class of deceased ancestors (those who receive the Piṇḍa offering), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

6) b etc. See p. 784, col. 3.

7) Mānuṣya (मानुष्य):—[from mānuṣa] n. ([from] manuṣya) human nature or condition, humanity, manhood, manliness, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. human, manly, [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Mahābhārata; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Manuṣya (मनुष्य):—(ṣyaḥ) 1. m. Man.

2) Mānuṣya (मानुष्य):—(ṣyaṃ) 1. n. Manhood; humanity.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Maṇusa, Maṇussa, Māṇussa, Māṇussaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Manushya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Manushya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Manuṣya (मनुष्य) [Also spelled manushy]:—(nm) a man, human being; ~[kṛta] man-made; artificial; —[gaṇanā] census; —[jāti] the human race, mankind; —[loka] the earth, this world.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Manuṣya (ಮನುಷ್ಯ):—[noun] a human being.

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Mānuṣya (ಮಾನುಷ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the characters, qualities that are natural to or desired of human beings.

2) [noun] a human being.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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