Kalika, aka: Kālīka, Kālikā, Kālika, Kalikā; 19 Definition(s)


Kalika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Kālikā (कालिका).—One of the six kinds of interest, according to Bṛhaspati;—Kālikā is what is due every month. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 8.153)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Kalika in Purana glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

1) Kālikā (कालिका).—A female attendant of Skanda. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Verse 14).

2) Kālika (कालिक).—One of the attendants given to Skanda by Pūṣan, the other being Pāṇītaka. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 43).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Kālika (कालिक).—A pupil of Kṛta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 51; Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 44.

1b) A son of Maya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 29.

2a) Kālikā (कालिका).—A śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 86.

2b) R. sacred to Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22-36.

3) Kalikā (कलिका).—A daughter of Vaiśvānara; after her came the Kālakeya asuras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 23-5; Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 23.

4) Kālīka (कालीक).—The kingdom of.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 121. 45.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kālika (कालिक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.39) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kālika) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Kālikā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.13).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Kalikā (कलिका) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Kalikā corresponds to Bhogavatī (according to Barata) as well as Sopāna. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Kālikā (कालिका) according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.66.—“In a cemetery, which is Kālikā’s land, one who knows the mantra well should mount a corpse facing south. One should press his bottom lip against his teeth and think of his enemy. One should recite a mantra for seven nights; one will then kill his enemy”.

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Katha (narrative stories)

Kalika in Katha glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

Kālikā (कालिका), daughter of the lord of Kālakūṭa, is one of the five Vidyādhara maidens vowed to take Naravāhanadatta as a husband, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 108. Accordingly, “... and he [Naravāhanadatta] saw those maidens with a blazing fire in front of them; and Vāyuvegayaśas, after dragging them away from it, said to the king: ‘This first here is Kālikā, the daughter of the lord of Kālakūṭa [...] and I am the fifth; all we five, when we saw you performing asceticism in the domain of the Siddhas, were bewildered with love...’”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kālikā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Kalikā (कलिका) refers to the “bud” of a flower, as mentioned in a list of four synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Kalikā] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Kālikā (कालिका) is another name for Kākolī, a medicinal plant identified with Roscoea purpurea from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.25-27 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Kālikā and Kākolī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

See Kali (9).

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Kālikā (कालिका) is a Prakrit name referring to “beings of a black complexion” and is mentioned as an example name for deriving personal names mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning kālikā) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Kalikā.—(LP), quarrel; cf. Gujarātī kali. Note: kalikā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Kalika in Pali glossary... « previous · [K] · next »

kālika : (adj.) temporal.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Kālika, (adj.) (fr. kāla 2) belonging to time, in time, as sabba-kālika always in time, cp. Gr. w(raίos Vv 392; with time, i.e. gradual, slowly, delayed S. I, 117=Nd2 645; usually neg. akālika 1. not delayed, immediate, in this world, comb. with sandiṭṭhika S. II, 58; S. I, 117= IV. 41=339=V. 343;—2. subject to time, i.e. temporal, vanishing PvA. 87;—3. unusual, out of season Miln. 114 (cp. akāla).—See also tāva-kālika. (Page 212)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

kalikā (कलिका) [or कली, kalī].—f S An unblown flower, a bud.

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kālika (कालिक).—a S Relating to time, temporal.

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kālikā (कालिका).—f (S) kālī f (S) pop. kālikāī f A form of Parvati or Durga.

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kāḷikā (काळिका) [or काळिकाई, kāḷikāī].—f (Or kāḷakāī) A terrific form of pārvatī.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kalikā (कलिका).—f A bud, an unblown flower.

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kālika (कालिक).—a Relating to time, temporal.

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kāḷikā (काळिका) [or kāḷikāī, or काळिकाई].—

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kalikā (कलिका).—

1) A digit of the moon.

2) A division of time.

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Kalika (कलिक).—Curlew.

Derivable forms: kalikaḥ (कलिकः).

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Kalikā (कलिका).—f.

1) An unblown flower; a bud; चूतानां चिरनिर्गताऽपि कलिका बध्नाति न स्वं रजः (cūtānāṃ ciranirgatā'pi kalikā badhnāti na svaṃ rajaḥ) Ś.6.4. किमा- म्रकलिकाभङ्गमारभसे (kimā- mrakalikābhaṅgamārabhase) Ś.6; Ṛs.6.17; R.9.33.

2) A digit. streak.

3) The bottom or peg of the Indian lute.

4) A king of poetic composition (akin to biruda).

See also (synonyms): kali.

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Kālika (कालिक).—a. (- f.) [काल-ठन्-ठक् वा (kāla-ṭhan-ṭhak vā)]

1) Relating to time.

2) Depending on time; विशेषः कालिकोऽवस्था (viśeṣaḥ kāliko'vasthā) Ak.

3) Seasonable, timely.

-kaḥ 1 A crane.

2) A heron.

-kā 1 Blackness, black colour.

2) Ink, black ink.

3) Price of an article to be paid by instalments.

4) Periodical interest paid at stated times.

5) A multitude of clouds, a dark cloud threatening rain; कुतस्त्रपा नश्यति न त्वदाननक्षपाकरादर्शनकारिकालिका (kutastrapā naśyati na tvadānanakṣapākarādarśanakārikālikā) Rām. Ch.2.55; कालिकेव निबिडा बलाकिनी (kālikeva nibiḍā balākinī) R.11.15. 6- Flaw (alloy &c.) in gold.

7) The liver.

8) A female crow.

9) A scorpion.

1) A spirituous liquor.

11) Name of Durgā; व्यभाव्यत प्रलयजकालिकाकृतिः (vyabhāvyata pralayajakālikākṛtiḥ) Śi.17.44.

12) A particular bloodvessel in the ear.

13) A line of hair extending from the pudenda to the navel.

14) A small singing bird.

15) A kind of fragrant earth.

16) A girl four years old personating Durgā at a festival.

17) Name of a Yoginī.

18) A kind of vegetable.

19) A kind of cucumber.

2) The Indian spikenard.

21) Mist.

22) An oil-woman.

-kam 1 Black sandal wood.

2) Hostility.

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Kālīka (कालीक).—A heron.

Derivable forms: kālīkaḥ (कालीकः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kalikā (कलिका).—(perhaps lit. a bud, i.e. a trifle, nothing of value?) Divy 499.24 kim ayaṃ kalikāyā (abl.? gen.?) dīyate, mūlyam anuprayaccha, why should it be given for nothing? give me a price. In LV 276.16 (verse) prāsādāś ca gavākṣa-harmya-kalikā(ḥ), without v.l., kalikā seems un- interpretable; Tibetan maṅ ldan pa, having many…, which suggests -kalitā(ḥ), provided with…

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Kālika (कालिक).—(compare 1 Kāla 3, Kālaka 4), n. of a nāga-king: Mvy 3258 (here seems to be distinguished from both Kāla and Kālaka); but in LV 281.10 ff.; 284.11; Divy 392.14 ff. he plays the same rôle attributed to the nāga-king 1 Kāla 3, q.v., before the Bodhisattva's enlightenment; see also Māy 247.22.

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Kālikā (कालिका).—n. of a rākṣasī: Māy 241.13; Av ii.66.4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kalika (कलिक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A curlew.

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Kalikā (कलिका).—f.

(-kā) 1. An unblown flower. 2. The bottom or peg of a lute. E. kal to count, in affix kali, and with ṅīṣ, kalī as above; again, kan pleonastic affix, and ṭāp fem. do.

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Kālika (कालिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) 1. Relating to time. 2. Seasonable. 3. Of long standing. 4. Of a dark colour, black, blackish, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) The curlew. n.

(-kaṃ) A black kind of Sandal: see kālīyaka. f.

(-kā) 1. Cloudiness, a multitude or succession of clouds. 2. A dark cloud threatening rain. 3. A fog or mist, &c. 4. The goddess Gauri. 5. A terrific goddess, a form of Chandi or Durga. 6. A female singer of Swarga. 7. Blackness, a black colour. 8. Afault or flaw in gold, &c. 9. Spirituous liquor. 10. A plant: see bṛścikapatra. 11. A kind of potherb. 12. The branch of a cucumber plant. 13. Spikenard. 14. A line of hair extending to the navel. 15. A female crow. 16. Price of a commodity on credit, or a price to be paid at a fixed period, or by instalments. 17. Piriodical interst paid by the month, &c. 18. An animalcule formed by the fermentation of milk. 19. Ink or blacking. 20. A small bird, commonly S'yama. 21. A medicinal plant: see kākoli. E. kāla black, &c. ṭhak or kan affix.

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Kālīka (कालीक).—m.

(-kaḥ) A curlew, a sort of heron: see kālika.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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