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Droṇa, aka: Drona; 7 Definition(s)

Introduction

Droṇa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. Check out some of the following descriptions and leave a comment if you want to add your own contribution to this article.

The Sanskrit term Droṇa can be transliterated into English as Drona, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purāṇa

Droṇa (द्रोण) is another name for Hemaparvata, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1a) Droṇa (द्रोण).—Married Kṛpī, and was the father of Aśvatthāma.1 Taught Dhanurveda to the Pāṇḍavas but served Duryodhana's army, succeeding Bhīṣma as commander, and after a five days' battle was killed by Dhṛṣṭadyumna;2 met by Kṛtavarman, Kṛṣṇa and Rāma.3 Informed by Uddhava of Rāma's visit to Hastināpura; invited for the Rājasuya of Yudhiṣṭhira.4 Went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse and met there Kṛṣṇa and the Vṛṣṇis.5 Ācārya of the Pāṇḍavas and the Kurus.6 Baladeva's respect for.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 27; IX. 21. 36. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 68; V. 35. 5, 27.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 15. 15-16; X. 78 [(95 (V) 16], 29-36.
  • 3) Ib. X. 52. [56 (V) 4], 12; 57. 2.
  • 4) Ib. X. 68. 17 and 28; 74. 10.
  • 5) Ib. X. 82. 24; 84. 57, 69 [1].
  • 6) Matsya-purāṇa 103. 5.
  • 7) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 35. 36; 38. 16, 47, 64.

1b) Mountain in Bhāratavarṣa, touching the sea;1 entered the waters for fear of Indra.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 76.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 121. 73.

1c) A Vasu born as Nanda; his wife was Abhimatī, and sons were Harṣa, Śoka, Bhaya and others.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 11; X. 8. 48-50.

1d) Mountain a hill of Śālmalidvīpa (Kuśadvīpa, Matsya-purāṇa) noted for great medicinal plants, viśalyakaraṇī and mṛtasanjīvini, capable of bringing back the dead to life.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 38-39; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 35; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 26; Matsya-purāṇa 122. 56.

1e) One of the seven Pralaya clouds.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 2. 8.

1f) A measure of grain.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 83. 12; 84. 2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

about this context:

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Āyurveda (science of life)

Droṇa (द्रोण) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘10.24 kilograms’ used in Āyurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Droṇa unit corresponds to 4 Āḍhaka units (a single Āḍhaka unit equals 2.56 kilograms). You need 4 Droṇa units to make a single Droṇī unit (1 Droṇī equals 40.96 kilograms).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

about this context:

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Hindu science dealing with subjects such as health, medicine, anatomy, etc. and has been in use throughout India since ancient times.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Droṇa (द्रोण, “bucket”) is a Sanskrit technical term translating in english to “bucket”, referring to ‘a measure of capacity’. It is used through vāstu-śāstra literature.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

about this context:

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Droṇa (द्रोण) denotes in the Rigveda a ‘wooden trough’, and more specifically it designates in the plural vessels used for holding Soma. The great wooden reservoir for Soma is called a Droṇa-kalaśa. The altar was sometimes made in the form of a Droṇa.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

A protagonist in several key episodes in the first half of the Mahābhārata. A great brahmin warrior (the son of the ṛṣi Bharadvāja), Droṇa is the teacher of both the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas, including his great favourite, Arjuna. In the war, Droṇa fights on the Kaurava side, and succeeds Bhīṣma as the commander of their army. By his own account he can only be defeated if tricked. This comes about when he is told by Yudhiṣṭhira that ‘Aśvatthāman’, his son, is dead, although this ‘Aśvatthāman’ is in fact an elephant. Believing Yudhiṣṭhira, a renowned man of truth, Droṇa allows himself to die in a yogic pose, and is subsequently beheaded by Drupada's son, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, in revenge for Droṇa's killing of his father. The real Aśvatthāman swears to destroy both the Pāñcālas and the Pāṇḍavas for these adharmic acts.

Source: Oxford Reference: A Dictionary of Hinduism

In the epic Mahābhārata, Drona was the royal guru to Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a master of advanced military arts, including the Devāstras. Arjuna was his favorite student. Droṇa's love for Arjuna was second only to his love for his son Aśhvatthāma. He was considered to be a partial incarnation of Bṛhaspati.

Droṇācārya had been the preceptor of most kings involved in the Kurukṣetra, on both sides. Droṇācārya strongly condemned the sending into exile of Pāṇḍavas by the wicked prince Duryodhana and his brothers and for their abusive treatment of the Pāṇḍavas, beside usurping their kingdom. But being a servant of Hastināpura, Droṇācārya was duty-bound to fight for the Kauravas, and thus against his favorite Pāṇḍavas.

Dronacharya was one of the most powerful and destructive warriors in the Kurukshetra War. He was an invincible warrior, whom no person on earth could defeat. He single-handedly slayed hundreds of thousands of Pandava soldiers, with his powerful armory of weapons and incredible skill. After the fall of Bhīṣma, he became the Chief Commander of the Kuru Army for 5 days of the war.

Droṇa implies that he was not gestated in a womb, but outside the human body in a droṇa (vessel or a basket). Droṇācārya spent his youth in poverty, but studied religion and military arts such as archery, in which he gained expertise, together with the then prince of Pañcāla, Drupada. Drupada and Droṇācārya became close friends. Droṇācārya married Kṛipi, the sister of Kṛipa, the royal teacher of the princes of Hastinapura. Like Droṇa himself, Kṛipī and her brother had not been gestated in a womb, but outside the human body (see Kṛipī page). Kṛpi and Droṇa had a son, Aśvatthāma.[3]

etymology: Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droṇa) or Dronacharya (Sanskrit: द्रोणाचार्य, droṇācārya)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

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