Adhaka, Āḍhaka: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Adhaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Āḍhaka (आढक) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘2.56 kilograms’ used in Ayurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. Āḍhaka is also known as Pātra (‘cup’ or ‘pot’). A single Āḍhaka unit corresponds to 4 Prastha units (a single Prastha unit equals 640 grams). You need 4 Āḍhaka units to make a single Droṇa unit (1 Droṇa equals 10.24 kilograms).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Source: Google Books: The Roots of Āyurveda

Āḍhaka (आढक) is a Sanskrit technical term corresponding to approximately 3 kilograms, according to The Roots of Āyurveda (by Wujastyk). It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā or the Suśruta-saṃhtiā.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Āḍhaka (आढक) (or Kaṃsa, Kalaśa) refers to a unit of measurement of weight (1 āḍhaka equals 3.072kg; 4 āḍhakas = 1 droṇa = 12.288kg), as defined in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning āḍhaka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

A relative overview of weight-units is found below, āḍhaka indicated in bold. In case of liquids, the metric equivalents would be the corresponding litre and milliliters.

1 Ratti or Guñjā = 125mg,
8 Rattis - 1 Māṣa = 1g,
4 Māṣa - 1 Kaḻañc = 4g,
12 Māṣas - 1 Karṣa = 12g,
1 Karṣa /Akṣa - 1 Niṣka = 12g,
2 Karṣas - 1 Śukti = 24g,
2 Śukti - 1 Pala = 48g,
2 Palas - 1 Prasṛti = 96g,
2 Prasṛtis - 1 Kuḍava = 192g,
2 Kuḍava - 1 Mānikā = 384g,
2 Mānikās - 1 Prastha (Seru) = 768g,
4 Prasthas - 1 Āḍhaka (Kaṃsa) = 3.072kg,
4 Āḍhakas or Kalaśas - 1 Droṇa = 12.288kg,
2 Droṇas - 1 Surpa = 24.576kg,
2 Surpas - 1 Droṇī (Vahi) = 49.152kg,
4 Droṇīs - 1 Khari = 196.608kg,
1 Pala = 48g,
100 Palas - 1 Tulā = 4.8kg,
20 Tulās - 1 Bhāra = 96kg.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Āḍhaka (आढक):—A unit of Measurement; - Four prastha are equal to one adhak = 3. 073 kg of metric units used for both solids & liquids

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Āḍhaka (आढक) refers to a measurement unit equaling four droṇas, according to Kāśīnātha Upādhye’s Dharmasindhu, a commentary on the Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (an astrological work).—Accordingly, “[...] Then that vessel becomes the standard measure for the period of one ghaṭī. There the unit of one prastha contains sixteen palas. For it has been said: one pala is four suvarṇas; then kuḍava, prastha, āḍhaka, droṇa and khārikā, are respectively each four times the previous unit. In another text, it has been said that four fistfuls are one kuḍava, four kuḍavas are one prastha. Some others say that the time taken for uttering sixty long syllables is one pala, and that the duration of sixty palas is one nāḍikā. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ

Āḍhaka (आढक) refers to a measure of capacity roughly corresponding to 1/2 droṇa, and represents a Jaina technical term mentioned in the mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Āḍhaka.—(IE 8-6; EI 27), a measure of capacity; often regarded as equal to 264 handfuls and to one-fourth of a droṇa; 16 to 20 seers according to Bengali authors; also used as a shortened form of āḍhavāpa or ādhakavāpa. Note: āḍhaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Āḍhaka (आढक).—A measure of grain, the 4th of a Droṇa = 64 Prasthas = 16 Kuḍavas = (nearly 7 lbs. 11 ozs. avoir.); अष्टमुष्टिर्भवेत् कुञ्चिः कुञ्चयोऽष्टौ तु पुष्कलम् । पुष्कलानि च चत्वारि आढकः परिकीर्तितः (aṣṭamuṣṭirbhavet kuñciḥ kuñcayo'ṣṭau tu puṣkalam | puṣkalāni ca catvāri āḍhakaḥ parikīrtitaḥ) ||

-kī 1 A kind of pulse (Mar. tūra).

2) A kind of fragrant earth (Mar. gopīcaṃdana).

Derivable forms: āḍhakaḥ (आढकः), āḍhakam (आढकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āḍhaka (आढक).— (a transformation of ardha + ka), m. n. A measure of grain, equal to 7 lb. 11 oz. avoirdupois, [Hitopadeśa] [prologue.] [distich] 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āḍhaka (आढक).—[masculine] [neuter] (adj. —° [feminine] ī) a cert. measure of grain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āḍhaka (आढक):—mn. ([gana] ardharcādi q.v.; ifc. f(ī). , [Pāṇini 4-1, 22 and v, 1, 54] [commentator or commentary]) a measure of grain (= 1/4 droṇa = 4 prasthas = 16 kuḍavas = 64 palas = 256 karṣas = 4096 māṣas; = nearly 7 lbs. 11 ozs. avoirdupois; in Bengal = two mans or 164 lbs. avds.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Āḍhaka (आढक):—[ā-ḍhaka] (kaḥ) 1. m. A measure of grain equal to 7 lb. 11 oz. () 2. f. A kind of pulse; fragrant earth.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Āḍhaka (आढक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āḍhaga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Adhaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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