Catushpatha, Catuṣpatha, Catuḥpatha, Catur-patha, Catuppatha: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Catushpatha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Catuṣpatha can be transliterated into English as Catuspatha or Catushpatha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chatushpatha.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Shaivism glossary
Source: archive.org: Sardhatrisatikalottaragama

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to “creating four direction by crossing twigs” which is prescribed as one of the operations/ preliminary ceremonies related to the kuṇḍa (“fire-pit”), according to the various Āgamas and related literature. Catuṣpatha is mentioned in the Mṛgendra-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 6). The Mataṅgapārameśvara (Kriyā-pāda, chap 4) mentions Catuṣpathakalpana, while the Kiraṇa-āgama (kriyā-pāda, chpater 4), Ajita-āgama (Kriyā-pāda, chapter 21) and the Svāyambhuva-āgama (chapter 17) mentions Catuṣpathanyāsa.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to “crossroads”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “The teacher in the western house is one who belongs to the sequence of the line (of teachers). [...] He should offer bali at a crossroads [i.e., catuṣpatha], (at the foot of) a solitary tree or a cremation ground or at the gathering of the Mothers. He does this once he has placed the sacrificial food (there) and eaten a little of it in front of the Krama. Within six months (he attains) success, and in eight (he becomes) pure. Satisfied, (the Yoginīs) give (him) whatever he desires. Success is to be found in the sacred seats, primary and secondary, or in the meeting grounds and in the gathering of (initiates) of the Rule as well as in the eight houses (of the Mothers) for one who is fearless and not otherwise. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Ayurveda glossary

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to “meeting point of four streets”, and is mentioned in a list of places highly susceptible to snake-bites, as taught in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā mentions that snake-bites that happen in certain places [like a meeting point of four streets (catuṣpatha)] are highly inimical to the victim.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Catuḥpatha (चतुःपथ) refers to a “crossroads” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [as the Bhagavān teaches an offering manual]: “A wax Garuḍa should be made. [...] When there is a disturbance by winds, it should be placed at crossroads (catuḥpatha) or at the city gate. All winds are stopped in a moment. Even the Vairambha winds are stopped. They are bound and unable to blow again. Merely upon showing, all Nāgas will run away”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to a “place where four roads meet”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “Now, [the Blessed One] has taught [holy sites] such as the pīṭha and upapīṭha in sequence. [...] (7) The melāpaka [sites] are proclaimed to be a bank of a river, a garden, an ocean, and a place where four roads meet (catuṣpatha). (8) The upamelāpaka [sites] are on the summit of a mountain, the center of a village, and Vṛndākaumāriparvaka (or a mountain [where there is] a flock of maidens). A lineage land is [also] the upamelāpaka. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to the “crossing of the roads”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] And even among the five-sensed beings, many belong to the animal world such as the cow, the deer, the bird, the serpent, etc. Hence human birth is as difficult of attainment as a heap of jewels at the crossing of the roads (catuṣpatha). And if one loses the condition of a human being by negligence, it is as difficult to attain it once again, as it is difficult for a burnt tree to regain its old freshness. Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family, keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Husain Shahi Bengal

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ) refers to “cross-way” according to Śrīnātha Ācāryacūḍāmaṇi’s Vivāha-tattvārṇava.—Rural settlements [in medieval Bengal] contained, in addition to habitations, roads and paths, tanks with bathing ghāṭs which supplied water to the people, jungles serving the purpose of the pasture-land and canals forming a sort of drainage system for the village. [...] It is known from Śrīnātha Ācāryacūḍāmaṇi’s Vivāha-tattvārṇava that rural areas had [viz., cross-way (catuṣpatha)][...]. Thus the disposition of land in rural settlements conformed, in many respects, to the needs of the people.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Catuṣpatha.—(LP), a place where four roads meet. Note: catuṣpatha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ).—n S A meeting place of four roads or ways.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ).—(catuḥpathaḥ or catuṣpathaḥ)

-tham also) a place where four roads meet, a crossway; Manusmṛti 4.39,9,264.

-thaḥ a Brāhmaṇa.

Derivable forms: catuṣpathaḥ (चतुष्पथः).

Catuṣpatha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and patha (पथ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) A Brahman. n.

(-thaṃ) A place where four roads meet. E. catur four, and pathi a road, ac aff. catvāraḥ panthānaḥ brahmacaryādayaḥ āśramā yasya ac samāsaḥ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ).—i. e. catur -patha, m. and n. A place where four roads meet, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 131.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ).—[masculine] [neuter] eross-way.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ):—[=catuṣ-patha] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] mn. a place where 4 roads meet, cross-way, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii; Kauśika-sūtra] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. ‘walking the 4 paths (id est. Āśramas cf. catur-āśramin)’, a Brāhman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] n. one of the 18 ceremonies performed with Kuṇḍas, [Tantr.]

4) Cātuṣpatha (चातुष्पथ):—[from cātura] mfn. being on a cross-way (cat), [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra viii, 18, 1.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣpatha (चतुष्पथ):—[catu-ṣpatha] (thaṃ) 1. n. A place where four roads meet, m. Brāhman.

[Sanskrit to German]

Catushpatha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Catuppatha: a fourways J. IV, 460;

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushpatha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Catuṣpatha (ಚತುಷ್ಪಥ):—[noun] a place where four roads meet or where two roads intersect each other.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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