Catur, aka: Cātur; 4 Definition(s)
Catur means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chatur.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Four (catur) is the number of the earth, and represents the fulfilment of manifestations in all the spheres of existence. Thus theyrepresent all the following;
- The cardinal directions; indicating that the Lord is all pervading and has perfect dominion over all the directions.
- The Yajña-kuṇḍa (fire pit); the Lord is known as Yajña Purusha, he is the sole enjoyer of the sacrifices as well as being the sacrifice itself, and assuch his arms represent the four Vedic kuṇḍas (gārhapatya, āhavaniya, avasathya, sabhya).
- The four Vedas which are the sacred Revelation namely Rik, Yajus, Sama and Atharvana.
- The four divisions of society; intellectuals, administrators, entrepreneurs, and workers.
- The four stages of life; student, householder, retirement and renunciate.
- The four levels of consciousness; waking (jāgrata), dream (svapna), sub-consciousness (suṣupti) and transcendental consciousness (turiya).
- The four types of devotees; distressed, inquirer, the opportunist and the sage.
- The four functional manifestations (vyuhas). Vasudeva, Aniruddha, Pradyumna, Sankarshana.
- The four essential components of dharma; truth (satya), austerity (tapa), compassion (dayā), and charity (Dāna).
- The four aims of human endeavor (purushārthas); pleasure (kāma), prosperity (artha), righteousness (dharma) and liberation (mokṣa)
- The four types of liberation (mukti), communion (sāyujya), association (sārūpya),contiguity (sāmīpya), collocation (sālokya).
- The four ages of man. (yugas) Satya, Treta, Dvapara, Kali.
- four types of birth—gods (deva), humans (manushya), animals (tiryak) and plants (sthāvaram).
- The four types of Spiritual Paths or Yogas:—jñāna, karma, bhakti and śaranāgati
- The four types of differentiation among all existing things—genus (jāti), form (rūpa), nature (svabhāva) and knowledge (jñāna).
- The four qualities of all manifested beings: category (jāti), attributes (guna), function (kriya), relationship (sambandha).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Languages of India and abroad
Cātur°, (and cātu°) (see catur) consisting of four. Only in cpds. viz.
—(r)anta (adj.) “of four ends, ＂ i.e. covering or belonging to the 4 points of the compass, all-encircling, Ep. of the earth: J. II, 343 (paṭhavī); IV, 309 (mahī) —(n-m.) one who rules over the 4 points; i.e. over the whole world (of a Cakkavattin) D. I, 88 (cp. DA. I, 249); II, 16; Sn. 552. See also Sp. AvS. II, 111, n. 2; —kummāsa sour gruel with four ingredients VvA. 308; —(d)dasī (f.) (to catuddasa fourteen) the 14th day of the lunar half month A. I, 144. PvA. 55; VvA. 71, 99, 129. With pancadasī, aṭṭhamī & pāṭihāriyapakkha at Sn. 402; Vv 155. °dasika belonging to the 14th day at Vin. IV, 315; —(d)disa (adj.) belonging to, or comprising the four quarters, appld to a man of humanitarian mind Sn. 42 (“showing universal love, ＂ see Nd2 239); cp. RV X. 136. Esp. appld to the bhikkhu-saṅgha “the universal congregation of bhikkhus＂ Vin I 305; II, 147; D. I, 145; J. I, 93; Pv. II, 28; III, 214 (expld PvA. 185 by catūhi disāhi āgata-bhikkhu-saṅgha). Cp. AvŚ I. 266; II, 109; —(d)dīpa of four continents: rājā Th. 2, 486; cp. M Vastu I. 108, 114; —(d)dīpaka sweeping over the whole earth (of a storm) Vin. I, 290, cp. J. IV, 314 & AvŚ I. 258; —(b)bedā (pl.) the four Vedas Miln. 3; —māsin of 4 months; f. °inī Vin. I, 155; D. I, 47; M. III, 79; DA. I, 139, cp. komudī; —(m)mahāpatha the place where 4 roads cross, a crossroad D. I, 102, 194=243; M. I, 124; III, 91; cp. catu°. —(m)mahābhūtika consisting of the 4 great elements (of kāya) D. I, 34, 55, 186, 195; S. II, 94 sq. ; Miln. 379; cp. Av. Ś II. 191 & Sk. cāṭurbhautika; —(m)mahārājikā (pl.) (sc. devā) the retinue of the Four Kings, inhabiting the lowest of the 6 devalokas Vin. I, 12; III, 18; D. I, 215; Nd2 307 (under devā); J. II, 311 (deva-loka); —yāma (saṃvara) fourfold restraint (see yāma) D. I, 57, 58 (cp. DA. I, 167); III, 48 sq. ; S. I, 66; M. I, 377; Vism. 410. Cp. Dial. I. 75 n1. (Page 264)
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Catur, catu° in composition (Vedic catvārah (m.) catvāri (nt.) fr. *qǔetuor, *qǔetur=Gr. tέttares (hom. piζurQs), Lat. quattuor, Goth. fidwōr, Ohg. fior, Ags fēower, E. four; catasras (f.) fr. *qǔ(e)tru, cp. tisras. Also as adv. catur fr. *quetrus=Lat. quater & quadru°) base of numeral four; 1. As num. adj. Nom. & Acc. m. cattāro (Dh. 109; J. III, 51) and caturo (Sn. 84, 188), f. catasso (Sn. 1122), nt. cattāri (Sn. 227); Gen. m. catunnaṃ (Sn. p. 102), (f. catassannaṃ); Instr. catubbhi (Sn. 229), catūhi (Sn. 231) & catuhi; Loc. catūsu (J. I, 262) & catusu.—2. As num. adv. , catu° catur° in cpds. catuddasa (14), also through elision & reduction cuddasa PvA. 55, 283, etc., cp. also cātuddasī. Catuvīsati (24) Sn. 457; catusaṭṭhi (64) J. I, 50; II, 193; PvA. 74; caturāsīti (84) usually with vassa-sahassāni J. I, 137; II, 311; Pv IV. 77; DhA. II, 58; PvA. 9, 31, 254, etc. See also cattārīsa (40).
—(r)aṃsa (=caturassa, having four edges, four-edged Dhs. 617; PvA. 189 (read °sobhitāya); —(r)aṅga (consisting of) four limbs or divisions, fourfold M. I, 77; J. I, 390; II, 190, 192; VI, 169 (uposatha, cp. aṭṭhaṅga); Dpvs. I, 6; Sdhp. 64; —(r)aṅgika=prec. Dhs. 147, 157, 397; KhA 85; Sdhp. 58; —(r)aṅgin (adj.) comprising four parts, f. °inī, of an army consisting of elephants, chariots, cavalry & infantry D. II, 190; J. II, 102, 104; Vism. 146; SnA 225, 353; DhA. IV, 144; cp. J. VI, 275; —(r)aṅgula (adj.) measuring 4 fingers, 4 fingers broad or wide, Vin. I, 46; S. II, 178; J. VI, 534; Th. 1, 1137; Vism. 124. —(r)aṅgulika=prec. Th. 2, 498 (-ThA, 290); —(r)anta see cāturQ; —(r)assa (catur+assa2) four-cornered, quadrangular, regular Vin. II, 310 (Bdhgh); J. IV, 46 (āvāṭa) 492 (sālā); V, 49; Pv. II, 119. Cp. caturaṃsa & next; —(r)assara (see last) with 4 sharp sides (of a hammer; °muggara) DhA. I, 126; —(r)âdhiṭṭhāna (adj.) one who has taken the four resolutions (see adhiṭṭhāna) M. III, 239; —(r)âpassena (adj.) endowed with the four apassena: lit. : reclining on four A. V, 29, 30; D. III, 269, 270; —ussada (catussada) full of four, endowed with 4 things, rich in four attributes J. IV, 309 (expld. p. 311 as having plenty of people, grain, wood & water); IV, 422=461 “with four pillows＂ (p. 422 has caturassada for caturussada, which latter is also to be preferred to catussada, unless this is a haplology). In the same connection occurs satt-ussada (full of people) D. I, 111 e.g. & Pv IV. 18 (see satta). The formation “cattussada＂ has probably been influenced by “sattussada＂; —(k)kaṇṇa (& °ka) (a) with 4 corners Vin. II, 137; J. III, 255.—(b) “between four ears, ＂ i.e. secret, of manta (counsel) J. VI, 391; —(k)kama walking with four (feet), quadruped Vv 648; Pv. I, 113; —kuṇḍika on all fours M. I, 79; A. III, 188; D. III, 6; Pv III, 27 (cp. PvA. 181); —koṇa four cornered, crossed, in °raccha cross road PvA. 24; —(k)khandha the four khandhas, viz. feeling, perception, synthesis & intellect (see khandha) DhsA. 345; —(g)guṇa fourfold, quadruple D. II, 135; S. I, 27; J. I, 213; VvA. 186; Sdhp. Q40; —cakka with four wheels S. I, 16=63 (said of the human body, see under cakka); —jāta of four sorts, viz. gandha (perfume) having four ingredients ThA. 72 (see next) —jāti of four kinds J. I, 265, V. 79; (gandha). These 4 ingredients of perfume are saffron, jasmine, Turkish (tarukkha) & Greek incense (yavana); —jātiya (& °jātika) in °gandha prec. J. III, 291; IV, 377; PvA. 127; Miln. 354; J. I, 178 (°ka); —(d)disā (pl.) the 4 quarters of the globe S. I, 167=Sn. p. 79; D. I, 251; may also be taken for Abl. sg. as adv. : in the 4 quarters Vin. I, 16, cp. Acc. catuddisaṃ D. II, 12; —(d)dīpika covering the 4 continents, of megha (a cloud) DhA. II, 95; —dvāra with 4 gates, of a house D. I, 102 (=DA. I, 270); of Avīciniraya It. 86; J. IV, 3; Pv. I, 1013; cp. Catudvāra Jātaka (No. 439; J. IV, 1 sq.); —nahuta ninety-four J. I, 25; VI, 486; —paccaya the four requisites (see paccaya) J. III, 273, °santosa contentment with °DhA. IV, 111; —paṇṇasa fiftyfour DhA. I, 4; —(p)patha a fourways J. IV, 460; —(p)pada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V, 21; Sn. 603, 964; It. 87; J. I, 152; III, 82; —parivaṭṭa (cp. aṭṭha °adhideva-ñāṇadassana A. IV, 304) fourfold circle S. III, 59 sq. (pañcupādānakkhandhe). —parisā (f.) the fourfold assembly, scil. of male & female bhikkhus & upāsakas (cp. parisā) PvA. 11; —pala fourfold Vism. 339. —(p)pādaka (adj.) consisting of 4 padas, i.e. a sloka; f. °ikā (gāthā) a complete stanza or sloka Anvs p. 35; —pārisuddhasīla (nt.) the four precepts of purity J. III, 291; DhA. IV, 111;—(b)bidha (catur+vidha) fourfold ThA, 74; —(b)bipallāsa (catur+vipallāsa) the fourfold change (cp. Nett 85) Th+1, 1143; SnA 46; —byūha (catur+vyūha) arranged in 4 arrays (of hāra) Nett 3, 105; —bhāga the 4th part, a quarter Dh. 108; —bhūmika having 4 stories or stages (of citta or dhamma) DhA. I, 21; IV, 72; DhsA. 344, 345; cp. Vism. 493 (of indriya); —madhura (nt.) sweetness (syrup) of 4 (ingredients) DA. I, 136; ThA. 68; —mahāpatha a crossing on a high-road Vism. 235. —mahābhūtika consisting of the four great elements DhsA. 403; —(m)mahārājika: see cātum°; —māsa 4 months, a season PvA. 96; Dpvs. I, 24, 37 (cā°); see under māsa; —sacca the four truths or facts (see ariyasacca) DhA. III, 380; Miln. 334; (s)sāla (nt.) (catur+sāla) a square formed by 4 houses, in phrasc catuhi gabbhehi paṭimaṇḍitaṃ catussālaṃ kāretvā VvA. 220; DhA. III, 291; —’ha (catuha & catūha) 4 days; catuhena within 4 days S. II, 191; catūhapañcāha 4 or 5 days Vin. IV, 280.—See also cpds. with cātu°. (Page 261)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
catur (चतुर्).—a S Four. 2 One of the two divisions of the śrāvaka or jaina people. These are agriculturalists: the other (pañcama) engage in trade.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Catur (चतुर्).—num. a. [cat-uran Uṇ.5.58] (always in pl.; m. catvāraḥ; f. catasraḥ; n. catvāri) Four; चत्वारो वयमृत्विजः (catvāro vayamṛtvijaḥ) Ve.1.25; चतस्रोऽवस्था बाल्यं कौमारं यौवनं वार्धकं चेति (catasro'vasthā bālyaṃ kaumāraṃ yauvanaṃ vārdhakaṃ ceti); चत्वारि शृङ्गा त्रयो अस्य पादाः (catvāri śṛṅgā trayo asya pādāḥ) &c.; शेषान् मासान् गमय चतुरो लोचने मील- यित्वा (śeṣān māsān gamaya caturo locane mīla- yitvā) Me.11. -ind. Four times. [cf. Zend chathru; Gr. tessares; L. quatuor.] [In Comp. the र् (r) of चतुर् (catur) is changed to a Visarga (which in some cases becomes ś, ṣ or s, or remains unchanged) before words beginning with hard consonants.]Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 29 books and stories containing Catur or Cātur. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.38 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 2.2.49 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Verse 2.1.163 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.3.82 < [Part 3 - Involuntary Ecstatic Expressions (sattvika-bhāva)]
Verse 1.2.136 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 2.3.63 < [Part 3 - Involuntary Ecstatic Expressions (sattvika-bhāva)]
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 21 - Dialectic of Śaṅkara and Ānandajñāna < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 27 - Appaya Dīkṣita (a.d. 1550) < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 2 - Bones in the Atharva-veda and Āyurveda < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]