Brihat Samhita

by N. Chidambaram Iyer | 1884 | 135,584 words | ISBN-13: 9788171104215

This page describes lunar days and half lunar days (tith-karmaguna) which is the ninety-ninth Chapter of the English translation of the Brihat-samhita. This work, written by Varahamihira in the 6th century, is classified as jyotisha literature, also known as Indian astronomy. It contains however, also content regarding astrology, palmistry, agriculture, gardening, perfumes, medicines and various other encyclopedic topics.

Chapter 99 - On lunar days and half lunar days (tith-karmaguṇa)

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

1. The lords of the 15 lunar days are respectively—1. Brahmā, 2. Vidhātā, 3. Hari, 4. Yama, 5. Moon, 6. Subrahmaṇya, 7. Indra, 8. Vasu, 9. Sarpa, 10. Dharma, 11. Śiva, 12. Savitā, 13. Manmatha, 14. Kali and 15. Viśvedeva.

2. The New-Moon day is sacred to the pitṛs. A person shall commence works suited to the Devas presiding over particular lunar days. The 1st, 6th and 11th lunar days are known as Nandā; the 2nd, 7th, and 12th, lunar days are known as Bhadrā; the 3rd, 8th and 13th lunar days are known as Vijayā; the 4th, 9th, and 14th lunar days are known as Riktā and the 5th, 10th and 15th lunar days are known as Pūrṇā.

3. Works directed to be done in particular Nakṣatras shall be done on lunar days sacred to the lords of the Nakṣatras. The same remarks apply to Karaṇas and Muhūrtas.

4. The lords of the seven Karaṇas are, viz. Bava, Bālava, Kaulava, Taitila, Gara, Vaṇija, and Viṣṭi, are Indra, Brahmā, Mitra, Aryaman, Bhū, Śrī and Yama.

[NoteKaraṇa is half a lunar day. The seven Karaṇas mentioned above are known as Adhruva or Movable, and when eight times repeated occupy the space from the second-half of the first day in the Moon’s increase to the first-half of the 14th day in its wane.]

5. The four Dhruva (fixed) Karaṇas are—Śakuni, Catuṣpada, Nāga and Kiṃstughna and they begin from the second half of the 14th day of the waning moon. These are sacred to Kali, Vṛṣa, Sarpa and Vāyu respectively.

6. In a Bava Karaṇa shall be done deeds of an auspicious, a moveable or a fixed character as well as deeds for the promotion of a person’s health or comfort. In a Bālava Karaṇa shall be done acts of charity and acts of help to Brāhmaṇas. In a Kaulava Karaṇa shall be done joyful deeds and those for the acquisition of friends and in a Taitila Karaṇa shall be done deeds liked by the public at large and also houses shall be built.

7. In a Gara Karaṇa lands shall be tilled, seeds sown, houses built and the like. In a Vaṇija Karaṇa, works of a fixed nature shall be done as well as dealings with merchants. In a Viṣṭi or Bhadra Karaṇa, auspicious deeds shall not be done but acts aimed at the ruin of enemies and those connected with poison may be done.

8. In a Śakuni Karaṇa a person shall do acts for the increase of his health and comfort, shall take medicine and shall learn or repeat the Mūla mantras (magical formulae). In a Catuṣpada Karaṇa a person shall do deeds connected with cows, Brāhmaṇas, the Pitṛs and the king. In a Nāga Karaṇa a person shall do works of a fixed nature, cruel deeds, acts of stealth and wicked deeds. In a Kiṃstughna Karaṇa, a person shall do any work for the increase of his health and comfort as well as auspicious deeds.

[Appendix 9: Note on muhūrtas]

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