Catushkona, Catukona, Catuṣkoṇa, Catur-kona, Catukoṇa: 17 definitions


Catushkona means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Catuṣkoṇa can be transliterated into English as Catuskona or Catushkona, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chatushkona.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण).—Quadrilateral. Note: Catur-koṇa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Shaivism glossary
Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) refers to a “square” and represents a component of the Rājarakṣā (“protection of the king”), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 10.39-45]—“[...] Outside of the lotus, [the Mantrin] should draw the very white śaśimaṇḍala, and outside of that [he is to draw] a square (catuṣkoṇa) endowed with the mark of a vajra. Thus, having written [all this] with saffron, bile, and white milk he should worship in peace with an all white [offering]. In this way, he [gives] edible offerings and liquor to the appropriate, voracious form [of the deity]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) refers to “that which is square in shape”, according to the twelfth-century Vivekamārtaṇḍa 158.—Accordingly, “Having become absorbed in the earth element, which is bright like orpiment and gold, yellow, endowed with the syllable la, presided over by Brahmā, square [in shape] [i.e., catuṣkoṇa] and located in the heart, [the Yogin] should hold his breath and mind in it for two hours. This dhāraṇā on the earth [element] makes [the Yogin] constantly steady and a master of the earth [element]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) refers to a “rectangular seat” which forms part of the meditation on Garuḍa in the Pañcabhūtamaṇḍala, according to the second chapter of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā (Toxicology).—Accordingly, text text dictates that a Garuḍa-upāsaka, the aspirant, must meditate on Garuḍa of the following form—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā describes the different forms of Garuḍa in the five bhūta-maṇḍalas on which the aspirant has to meditate upon to cure the snake-bite victim from the poison which could have killed him. In the earth or pṛthvīmaṇḍala, the aspirant has to meditate on and invoke Garuḍa who is yellow-hued seated in a rectangular seat (vajra-catuṣkoṇa) representing Indra.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Mahayana glossary
Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) refers to the “four corners”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] Four Nāga kings should be prepared in the middle of the ditch. [...] Flower garlands should be offered. Parched grain and mustard seeds should be scattered there in the middle of the [Nāga] residence. Having scattered flowers, the Four Great Kings should be placed in the four corners (catuṣkoṇacaturṣu koṇeṣu catvāro). Buddha images with relics, and caityas with relics should be placed in the four directions. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) refers to a “square (shape)”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while describing the Merit Circle (guṇacakra)]: “[...] The second [layer’s outermost] circle (the Earth Circle) [has] three lines. The third [layer’s outermost circle, viz., the Knowledge Circle, has] four lines. The fourth [layer’s outermost circle, i.e., the Body Circle] has five lines. Charnel grounds are on all [outermost circles] in order. He should make [the first, second, and third outermost circles] round in shape. [They are] understood to have grounds such as the outer [ground]. The circle with five lines (the Body Circle) is square (catuṣkoṇa) [in shape] and is resplendent. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

catuṣkōṇa (चतुष्कोण).—a (S) Quadrangular, four-cornered.

--- OR ---

catuṣkōṇa (चतुष्कोण).—m (S) A tetragon or square.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

catuṣkōṇa (चतुष्कोण).—a Quadrangular, four-corner- ed. m A tetragon or square.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण).—(catuṣkoṇa) a. square, quadrangular.

-ṇaḥ a square, tetragon, any quadrilateral figure.

Catuṣkoṇa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms catur and koṇa (कोण).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Square, quadrangular. m.

(-ṇaḥ) A square, a tetragon. E. catur. and koṇa a corner.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण):—[=catuṣ-koṇa] [from catuṣ > catasṛ] mfn. quadrangular, [Sūryaprajñapti; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 8, 498a/b]

2) [v.s. ...] mn. a tetragon, 11, 617.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण):—[catu-ṣkoṇa] (ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) a. Quadrangular.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Catuṣkoṇa (चतुष्कोण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Cāukkoṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Catushkona in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Catukoṇa four cornered, crossed, in °raccha cross road PvA. 24;

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Catushkona in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Catuṣkōṇa (ಚತುಷ್ಕೋಣ):—

1) [noun] (pl. with ಗಳು [galu]) the four corners (as of a building).

2) [noun] a plane geometrical figure with four angles (bound by four sides).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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