### Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (study)

by K. Vidyuta | 2019 | 33,520 words

This page relates ‘Fourteen types of Ayatashra (Rectangular) Mandapas’ of the study on the Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (in English) with special reference to the characteristics of Prakara (temple-components), Mandapa (pavilions) and Gopura (gate-house). The Silpa-Sastras refers to the ancient Indian science of arts and crafts, such as sculpture, architecture and iconography. This study demonstrates the correlatation between ancient Indian monuments (such as temples and sculptures) and the variety of Sanskrit scriptures dealing with their construction.

# 5. Fourteen types of Āyatāśra (Rectangular) Maṇḍapas

The *āyatāśra maṇḍapa* has the same number of *paṅktis* in breadth and length. Increasing by 3 *aṅgulas*, the *paṅktis* are extended till 27 *aṅgulas*, thus resulting in 9 types of measures.

The increase or decrease in the measurements therefore depends upon the type of *maṇḍapa* that is to be designed (XLIV. 64-5):

vistāraṃ paṅktitulyeva sāyataṃ vātha paṅktayaḥ |

vistārapaṅktimānaṃ tu guṇāṅgulavivardhanāt ||

saptaviṃśāṅgulaṃ yāvattāvadāyamaṃ navadhoditam |

vardhanaṃ vā kṣayaṃ vāpi maṇḍapena karoditam ||^{[1]}

The *hasta māna* must not be used for measuring the *pūrvamaṇḍapa* and as described earlier the *paṅktis* of the *maṇḍapas* must have pillars.

A desired length which is also auspicious is taken as the length of the *maṇḍapa* and this must be divided into appropriate parts and then the *maṇḍapa* must be constructed (XLIV. 66-7)^{[2]} :

nāśrayettu karaṃ pūrvaṃ maṇḍapaṃ tu samācaret |

aśeṣapaṃktisaṃkhyāsu prāgvadāyādimācaret ||

bhaktisaṃkhyāsamopetaṃ maṇḍapasya tadāyatam |

tasyocitavibhāgaṃ tu kṛtvā vā maṇḍapaṃ kuru ||

## (i). First *maṇḍapa*

This *maṇḍapa* is 3 *paṅkti* measure in breadth and 5 *paṅkti* measure in length; on either side or in front, a doorway (*vāra* or *dvāra*) is designed in 1 (one) part. So, if there is a door on the 3 sides then it must be endowed with 30 pillars. These pillars are added around the *maṇḍapa* on the outside or inside and 28 pillars must be embellished with *lūpas* (XLIV. 68-70ab)^{[3]} :

paṃktitrayaviśālaṃ tu pañcapaṃktyā viśālakam |

ekapārśve pure vātha dvāramaṃśena kalpayet ||

pārśve vārayutaṃ cettu triṃśadaṅghrisamanvitam |

tadeva paritoṃ'śena maṇḍapābhyantarasya ca ||

lūpārohaṇakaṃ kuryāt aṣṭāviṃśāṃghrisaṃyutam |

If there is a doorway only in the front then it must be accompanied by 26 pillars; but if there is no doorway then that *maṇḍapa* must contain 24 pillars each of which is well decorated with *alpanāsikās*.

The *maṇḍapa* must also constitute the *vedikās*, *jālakas*, *toraṇas* and *kumbhalatās* (XLIV. 70cd-72ab)^{[4]} :

puro vārayutaṃ cet tat ṣaḍviṃśat caraṇānvitam ||^{[5]}

athavā vārahīnaṃ tu triraṣṭacaraṇānvitam |

pādaṃ pratyalpanāsāḍhyaṃ vedijālakatoraṇam ||

nānākuṃbhalatādyaistu kalpitaṃ prathamaṃ bhavet |

## (ii). Second *maṇḍapa*

The next type of rectangular *maṇḍapa* should measure 4 *paṅkti* in breadth, 6 *paṅkti* in length and 1 *paṅkti* all around. At the centre of the *maṇḍapa* a *kūṭa* is established measuring 2 *paṅktis* wide and it also has a *mukhabhadra* of 1 *paṅkti* measure.

This second type of *maṇḍapa* has 32 columns (XLIV. 72cd-74ab):

caturbhaktiviśālaṃ tu āyāme tu ṣaḍaṃśakam ||

maṇḍapaṃ paritoṃśena kūṭamabhyantaretaram |

dvibhaktivistṛtaṃ caikabhaktyā tu mukhabhadrakam ||

dvātriṃśat caraṇopetaṃ maṇḍapasya dvitīyakam |

## (iii). Third *maṇḍapa*

The third type of *maṇḍapa* should measure 5 *paṅktis* in width and 7 *paṅktis* in length. In the centre of this, a *sabhā* of 3 *paṅktis* width and 5 *paṅktis* length should be designed; around the *maṇḍapa* a *bhadra* of 1 *paṅkti* measure in the desired direction must be constructed.

Moreover, this *manḍapa* must constitute 40 pillars and must be well ornamented with *vedikās*, etc. (XLIV. 74cd-6):

viśālaṃ pañcabhaktyā syādāyāme saptabhaktayaḥ ||

tripañcapaṅktivistāradīrghā madhye sabhā bhavet |

maṇḍapaṃ paritoṃśena iṣṭadigbhadrasaṃyutam ||

catvāriṃśat pādāḍhyaṃ sarvālaṃkārasaṃyutam |

vedikādyaiḥ samāyuktaṃ tṛtīyaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (iv). Fourth *maṇḍapa*

Measuring 6 *paṅktis* wide and 8 *paṅktis* long, this type, has a *sabhā* which is 2 *paṅkti* in width and 4 *paṅkti* long. The *maṇḍapa* is to be surrounded by, in the desired direction *mukhabhadras* of 2 *paṅkti* measure.

Also, this has 60 pillars, well decorated with *nāsikās*, etc. and is endowed with ornamental mouldings (XLIV. 77-8):

rasabhaktiviśālaṃ tu vasubhaktyāyataṃ bhavet |

dvicaturbhaktivistāradīrghaṃ madhye sabhodayam ||

maṇḍapaṃ parito'kṣāṃśaṃ iṣṭadiṅmukhabhadrakam |

ṣaṣṭisaṃkhyāṅghrisaṃyuktaṃ nāsikādi vibhūṣitam ||^{[6]}

nānālaṅkārasaṃyuktaṃ caturthaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (v). Fifth *maṇḍapa*

This rectangular *maṇḍapa* is 7 *paṅktis* in width and 9 *paṅkti* in length. The *sabhā* in the middle, with 3 *paṅkti* wide and 5 *paṅkti* long must be constructed. Surrounding the *maṇḍapa* or in any desired direction a 2 *paṅkti* measure *bhadra* must be built and a *mukhabhadra* of 3 *paṅkti* width and 1 *paṅkti* length must also be established.

Furthermore, this 5^{th} rectangular *maṇḍapa* should have 72 pillars and must be well embellished (43. 100-02)^{[7]} :

tāre saptavibhāge tu navabhaktyāyatānvitam |

tribhaktivistṛtaṃ pañcabhaktyāyāmaṃ sabhāṃkaṇam ||

maṇḍapaṃ paritokṣāṃśaṃ iṣṭadigbhadrasaṃyutam |

tribhaktivistṛtaṃ caikabhaktyāyāmamukhabhadrakam ||

saptatiḥ syāddvayādhikyaṃ pādamityabhidhīyate |

sarvālaṃkārasaṃyuktaṃ pañcamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (vi). Sixth *maṇḍapa*

The next *maṇḍapa* should measure respectively 8 and 10 *paṅktis* in breadth and length; the *sabhā* in its midst with 2 and 4 *paṅktis* in dimension has a 3 *paṅkti* space around it with pillars in the centre. Also, in any desired direction a *mukhabhadra* of 4 *paṅkti* width and 2 *paṅkti* length can be constructed.

This *maṇḍapa* consisting of 96 pillars, is well decorated and this type of *maṇḍapa* is favourable especially for Lord Śiva (XLIV. 81cd-4ab)^{[8]} :

vasubhaktiviśālaṃ tu daśabhaktyāyatānvitam ||

dvicaturbhāgavistāraṃ dīrghamadhye sabhodayam |

parito maṇḍapo'gnyaṃśa madhyastambha vivarjitam ||

iṣṭadiṅmukhabhadrāṃśaṃ caturdvyaṃśe ca suvrata |

ṣaṇṇavatyaṅghrisaṃyuktaṃ sarvālaṃkārasaṃyutam ||

ṣaṣṭhamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ hyevaṃ procyate tu śivārhakam |

## (vii). Seventh *maṇḍapa*

Seventh type of rectangular *maṇḍapa* measures 11 *paṅktis* long and 9 *paṅktis* wide; the centre is adorned by a *sabhā* that is 1 and 3 *paṅktis* in breadth and length and all around the *maṇḍapa* there must be a measure of 4 *paṅktis*. The *mukhabhadra* of this *maṇḍapa* should measure 3 and 4 *paṅktis* in extent.

Similar to all other types this *maṇḍapa* is also to be nicely decorated (XLIV. 84cd-6)^{[9]} :

navabhaktyā viśālaṃ tu rudrabhaktyāyatānvitam ||

ekatribhaktivistāraṃ dīrghamadhye sabhā bhavet |

parito vedabhāgaṃ tu maṇḍa paṃ parikalpayet ||

tricaturbhāgavistāraṃ dīrghaṃsyānmukhabhadrakam |

sarvālaṃkārasaṃyuktaṃ saptamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (viii). Eighth *maṇḍapa* 39

This type measures 10 *paṅktis* broad and stretches up to 12 *paṅktis*. The *sabhā* in the midst of the *maṇḍapa* ought to measure 2 *paṅkti* long and 4 *paṅkti* wide; surrounding the *sabhā* an *alinda* of 1 *paṅkti* measure must be constructed and if *alinda* is outside the *maṇḍapa* then it must measure 2 *paṅktis*. To the exterior of these a portico of a *paṅkti* measure, having pillars has to be designed and this *maṇḍapa* should have *bhadras* in the desired directions (43. 108cd-10):

Only the Muktabodha edition has the entire description of all the 14 types of rectangular *manḍapas* and so the description of 8-14th type *maṇḍapa* is taken from Muktabodha edition.

daśabhaktyā viśālaṃ tu dvibhaktyedhikamāyatam ||

dvicaturbhāgāyataṃ tāraṃ tayormadhye sabhāṃkaṇam |

parito'lindamekāṃśaṃ maṇḍapāddvyaṃśabāhyataḥ ||

tadbāhye'lindamekāṃśaṃ yuktyāntastambhasaṃyutam |

iṣṭadigbhadrasaṃyuktaṃ aṣṭamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (ix). Ninth *maṇḍapa*

This *maṇḍapa* measures 11 and 13 *paṅktis* in width and length. The *sabhā* inside it; measures 3 *paṅktis* in dimension; surrounding this, an *alinda* of 1 (one) *paṅkti* measure must be constructed and if *alinda* is outside the *maṇḍapa* then it must measure 2 *paṅktis*.

Furthermore, the ninth *maṇḍapa* must have a portico of 1 (one) *paṅkti* outside of it (43. 111-12ab):

tadeva śivāṃśādhikaṃ vistṛtāyāme tripañcāṃśena sabhāṃkaṇam |

parito'lindamekāṃśaṃ maṇḍapaṃ dvyaṃśabāhyataḥ ||

tadbāhye'lindamekāṃśaṃ navamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet |

## (x). Tenth *maṇḍapa*

Measuring 12 and 14 *paṅktis* wide and long respectively, this *maṇḍapa*, also consists of a central *sabhā* measuring 4 and 6 *paṅktis*. Outside the *sabhā*, an *alinda* of 1 (one) *paṅkti* and outside the *maṇḍapa* of 2 *paṅktis* are constructed.

Thus the tenth type also has an *alinda* of a *paṅkti* measure, outside it (43. 112cd-14ab):

ādityāṃśaviśāle tu dvibhāgādhikamāyatam ||

catuṣṣaḍaṃśamadhye tu sabhāyāraṃkaṇaṃ tu vā |

bāhyake'lindamekāṃśaṃ maṇḍa pe dvyaṃśabāhyake ||

sāntatālīndamekāṃśaṃ daśamaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet |

## (xi). Eleventh *maṇḍapa*

The next type of *maṇḍapa* is said to be of 14 and 16 *paṅktis* in width and length. The *sabhā* in the centre measuring 3 *paṅktis* wide and 5 *paṅktis* long is surrounded by an *alinda* of 1 part. *Alinda* of 1 *paṅkti* measure, can be constructed in the *maṇḍapa* or outside the *vimāna*. If there is no portico also the *maṇḍapa* is said to be measuring 4 parts.

Moreover, this type is endowed with *bhadras* in the desired directions (43. 114cd-16):

vistṛte tu jagatyāṃśe taddvyaṃśādhikamāyatam ||4 0

tripaṃcāṃśe sabhāmadhye tasmālindāṃśamāvṛtam |

maṇḍape'tra vimānaṃ tu tadbāhye'lindabhāgayā ||

ālindaṃ tu vinā vāpi maṇḍapaṃ tu yugāṃśakam |

rudramaṇḍapamākhyātaṃiṣṭadigbhadrasaṃyutam ||

## (xii). Twelfth *maṇḍapa*

This *maṇḍapa* also measures 14 and 16 *paṅktis* wide and long respectively; the *sabhā* in its centre has to measure 2 parts in breadth and 4 parts long. Just outside this *sabhā* an *alinda* measuring 1 part must be constructed and a square *maṇḍapa*; outside this square *maṇḍapa* another portico of 1 (one) *paṅkti* measure must be designed.

Thus this twelfth *maṇḍapa* type also has *bhadras* in the desired directions (43. 117-19ab):

manvaṃśe tu ca vistāre dvibhāgādhikamāyatam |

dvicaturbhāgadhāyāmaṃ tāramadhye sabhāṃkaṇam ||

tadbāhye'lindamekāṃśaṃ maṇḍapaṃ caturaśrakam |

maṇḍapādbāhyato'lindaṃ bhāgamevaṃ vidhīyate ||

dvādaśaṃ^{[10]}maṇḍapaṃ khyātaṃ iṣṭadigbhadrasaṃyutam |

## (xiii). Thirteenth *maṇḍapa*

This type has to be 15 *paṅktis* wide and 17 *paṅktis* long. To the centre of this 15 *paṅktis maṇḍapa*, a *sabhā* is to be determined and surrounding this, measuring 1 *paṅkti*, an *alinda* is to be built.

Exterior to this *alinda* a square *maṇḍapa* is to be structured and enclosing this *maṇḍapa* again an *alinda* of 1 (one) *paṅkti* measure is to be constructed (43. 119cd-21):

tripañcāṃśe viśālaṃ tu dvibhāgādhikamāyatam ||

tithyaṃśamaṇḍa paṃ madhye sabhāṃkaṇamiti smṛtam |

aṃkaṇāvṛtamekāṃśaṃ alindaṃ tu vidhīyate ||

tadbāhye caturaśraṃ syāt maṇḍapaṃ pravidhīyate |

tasyāvṛtāṃśato'lindaṃ trayodaśaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

## (xiv). Fourteenth *maṇḍapa*

The last type of rectangular *maṇḍapa* should be 16 *paṅktis* in breadth and stretch to 18 *paṅktis* in length. To its outer, at a distance of 24 parts an *alinda* of 1 (one) part must be designed and outside this a *maṇḍapa* measuring 4 parts is favourable.

Moreover, the *maṇḍapa* must be enclosed by an *alinda* measuring 1 (one) part (43. 122-23):

ṣoḍaśāṃśe viśālaṃ tu dvibhāgādhikamāyatam |

caturviṃśāṃkaṇopetaṃ bāhye'lindāṃśamānataḥ ||

tadbāhye caturaṃśena maṇḍapaṃ syādviśeṣataḥ |

tasyāvṛtāṃśato'lindaṃ caturdaśaṃ maṇḍapaṃ bhavet ||

Pertaining to the different types of *maṇḍapas* like *jāti*, etc. the extent varies and their components like the *jālaka*, *kavāṭa*, *bhadras* must be designed.

Also in the desired directions pillars should be erected, surrounding which walls are to be constructed and thus the fourteen types of *maṇḍapas* are to be structured (43. 124-25):

jātyadi āyataṃ vidyāt tattadvinyāsamucyate |

jālakaṃ ca kavāṭaṃ ca grāhyaṃ yuktyā viśeṣataḥ ||

iṣṭadikcaraṇaṃ kuḍyaṃ kalpayetparito budhaḥ |

evaṃ hi manubhedaṃ ca sāyataṃ maṇḍapaṃ viduḥ ||

## Footnotes and references:

[2]:

*Aṃśumatkāśyapāgama*, Muktabodha edition, 43. 86cd-8ab

[3]:

*ibid*, 43. 88cd-90

[4]:

*Aṃśumatkāśyapāgama*, Muktabodha edition, 43. 91-2

[6]:

*Aṃśumatkāśyapāgama*, Muktabodha edition, 43. 99.

[8]:

*Aṃśumatkāśyapāgama*, Muktabodha edition, 43. 103-05.

[9]:

*ibid*., 43. 106-08ab; The Tanjore edition adds that this *maṇḍapa* would have a total of 112 pillars.

[10]:

The original reading says: *caturdaśaṃ... |*