Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the types of karmas that constitute merit (punya) which is verse 8.25 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 25 of the chapter Bondage of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 8.25 - The types of karmas that constitute merit (puṇya)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 8.25:

सद्वेद्यशुभायुर्नामगोत्राणि पुण्यम् ॥ ८.२५ ॥

sadvedyaśubhāyurnāmagotrāṇi puṇyam || 8.25 ||

The auspicious varieties of the feeling-producing–sātāvedanīya, life-determining–śubha āyuḥ, physique-making–śubha nāma, and status-determining–śubha gotra, karmas constitute merit (puṇya). (25)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [सद्वेद्यशुभायुर्नामगोत्राणि] साता वेदनीय, शुभ आयु, शुभ नाम और शुभ गोत्र [पुण्यम्] ये पुण्य-प्रकृतियाँ हैं।

Anvayartha: [sadvedyashubhayurnamagotrani] sata vedaniya, shubha ayu, shubha nama aura shubha gotra [punyam] ye punya-prakritiyam haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

It was contended earlier (see sūtra 1-4) that merit (puṇya) and demerit (pāpa) are implied in influx (āsrava) and bondage (bandha). Hence these–merit (puṇya) and demerit (pāpa)–must be explained now. This sūtra determines the karmas that constitute merit (puṇya).

The word ‘śubha’ means auspicious or laudable. It is added to the rest severally–auspicious life, auspicious name and auspicious status. The three auspicious life-karmas are: life as plant and animal–tiryañcāyuḥ, life as a human being–manuṣyāyuḥ and life as a celestial being–devāyuḥ. The thirty-seven auspicious name-karmas are: the human state of existence–manuṣyagati, the celestial existence–devagati, the class of beings with five senses–pañcendriyajāti, the five bodies–śarīa, the three chief and secondary parts–aṅgopāṅga, the perfectly symmetrical body–samacaturasra saṃsthāna, extra- ordinary sturdiness and strength–vajraṛṣabhanārāca saṃhanana, pleasant colour–varṇa, pleasant taste–rasa, pleasant odour–gandha, pleasant touch–sparśa, movement towards the human state of existence–manuṣyagatiprāyogyānupūrvya, movement towards the celestial state of existence–devagatiprāyogyānupūrvya, neither heavy nor light–agurulaghu, liability of annihilation by others–paraghāta, respiration–ucchvāsa, emitting warm light–ātapa, emitting cool light–udyota, graceful gait–vihāyogati, mobile-being–trasa, gross body–bādara, complete development of the organs and the faculties of the body–paryāpti, possession of an individual body–pratyeka śarīra, firmness of the bodily frame–sthira, beauty of the body–śubha, good-tempered–subhaga, melodious voice–susvara, lustrous body–ādeya, glory and renown–yaśaḥkīrti, the formation of the body–nirmāṇa, and the name-karma of the Tīrthaṅkara. Further, high status (uccagotra) and pleasant-feeling (sātāvedanīya) are auspicious. In all, there are forty-two auspicious varieties of karmas.

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