Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the types of karmas that constitute demerit (papa) which is verse 8.26 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 26 of the chapter Bondage of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 8.26 - The types of karmas that constitute demerit (pāpa)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 8.26:

अतोऽन्यत्पापम् ॥ ८.२६ ॥

ato'nyatpāpam || 8.26 ||

The remaining varieties of karmas constitute demerit (pāpa). (26)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [अतःअन्यत्] इन पुण्य-प्रकृतियों से अन्य अर्थात् असाता वेदनीय, अशुभ आयु, अशुभ नाम और अशुभ गोत्र [पापम्] ये पाप-प्रकृतियाँ हैं।

Anvayartha: [atahanyat] ina punya-prakritiyom se anya arthat asata vedaniya, ashubha ayu, ashubha nama aura ashubha gotra [papam] ye papa-prakritiyam haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The karmas which do not constitute merit (puṇya), as mentioned in the previous sūtra, are classified under demerit (pāpa). These are eighty-two in number. Five kinds of knowledge-covering (jñānāva-raṇa) karmas, nine kinds of perception-covering (darśanāvaraṇa) karmas, twenty-six kinds of deluding (mohanīya) karmas, and five kinds of obstructive (antarāya) karmas. The infernal state of existence narakagati, the plant and animal state of existence–tiryañcagati, the four classes (jāti) of beings (with one, two, three and four senses), the five kinds of structure of the body–saṃsthāna, the five kinds of joints–saṃhanana, inauspicious colour–varṇa, inauspicious taste–rasa, inauspicious odour–gandha, inauspicious touch–sparśa, two kinds of movement of the soul towards the place of birth–narakagati-prāyogyānupūrvya and tiryaggatiprāyogyānupūrvya, self-annihila-tion–upaghāta, awkward movement–apraśastha vihāyogati, immobile-being–sthāvara, minute body–sūkṣma, incomplete development of organs and faculties–aparyāpti, collective body–sādhāraṇa śarīra, infirmness of limbs–asthira, unattractiveness of form–aśubha, bad-tempered–durbhaga, unmelodious voice–duḥsvara, lustreless body–anādeya, and obscurity–ayaśaḥkīrti, are thirty-four inauspicious types of name-karmas (nāmakarma). Unpleasant feeling-producing–asātāvedanīya, life as an infernal being–narakāyuḥ, and low status–nīcagotra, are the other three.

Thus, bondage has been explained in detail. The bondage is perceived directly by clairvoyance (avadhijñāna), telepathy (manaḥparyaya-jñāna) and omniscience (kevalajñāna), and can be understood from the Scripture promulgated by those possessed of direct knowledge.

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