Papa, Papā, Pāpa, Pāpā: 21 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Papa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Paap.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Pāpa (पाप).—A son of Brahmadhana.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 132.

2) Pāpā (पापा).—Kinds of sins; Niryāsam (drinking of the milk of trees) Kalamjam (taking opium), Kalingam, Gṛmyjanam (eating garlic), Chatrākam (eating of mushroom?), Mahākośātakī, Mallika (dealing in jasmine), use of the nut of the tree kataka, and Umbaram (felling of fig trees), Kayakam? Vārtākam (eating brinjal), taking of pot-herbs, of bimbi fruits, of lambika, misappropriation of public funds (puragrāmanga), misuse of the special Vaiśya funds, residence in a kugrāma, profession of a physician, trafficing in women, living by arms, sale of oily foods, eating food from cowherds,1 and eating without guest;2 brahmicide and teaching of Vedas for money;3 threefold, arising from speech, mind and body.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 8. 41-49.
  • 2) Ib. IV. 2. 161; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 6-29.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 14. 43; 15. 48.
  • 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 18. 2.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Pāpa (पाप) refers to “sin”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pāpā (पापा) is the name of an ancient city where the Buddha once met with Putkasa according to the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra (Pali, Mahāparinibbāna-sutta), as mentioned in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 36.—Notes: Meeting the Buddha between Kuśinagarī and Pāpā, a minister of the Mallas called Putkasa spoke to him about his teacher Ārāḍa Kālāma and his extraordinary power of concentration: one day when he was deep in meditation, Ārāḍa did not hear the noise of a caravan of five hundred wagons that passed by close to him. The Buddha affirmed that he too possessed a similar power of absorption and gave him as proof an incident that had occurred in the village of Ādumā (in Pāli, Ātumā).

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Pāpā (पापा). What is meant by ‘demerit’ (pāpā)? That which keeps the soul away from good activities is called demerit. It also produces unhappy feelings. Wicked activity is the cause of demerit (pāpā).
 

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Pāpa (पाप, “demerit”) as opposed to puṇya (merit).—According to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8, “the remaining varieties of karma constitute demerit (pāpa)”.—Which karma species constitute demerit (pāpa)? These are unpleasant feeling producing karma, inauspicious life span determining, inauspicious name and inauspicious status are the five species which constitute demerit. 

Which are the sub species of karma that constitute demerit (pāpa)? The 47 species of obscuring karmas (5 for knowledge obscuring, 9 for perception obscuring, 28 for deluding, 5 of obstructing karmas), low status, unpleasant feeling producing karma, infernal life, 50 inauspicious species of name karma (the infernal and the sub-human realms, 4 classes of beings i.e. 1 to 4 sensed living beings, 5 kinds of structure of the body, 5 kinds of joint, 20 of inauspicious colour-taste-touch-smell, movement of the soul towards infernal birth or sub human birth, infirmness of limbs, ugliness, bad looks (extending disgust or loathing), unpleasant voice, lusterless body and disgrace). In the 16 subtypes of inauspicious colour etc, therefore one can say from detailed view 98 species and from general view 82 species of karmas are bonded as demerit. But these two tendencies i.e. wrong and right beliefs can have existence as well as rise during the demerit bondage. Thus the total species from discrimination view can be 100 and from general view are 84 for demerit bondage.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Indian Ethics: Individual and Social (jainism)

Pāpa (पाप, “demerit”) refers to a moral principles governing a Jain life according Jain ethical conduct (nītiśāstra).—Puṇya (merit) and pāpa (demerit) are very important from the ethical point of view. Pāpa is the result of evil deeds generated by vice and puṇya is the result of good deeds generated by virtuous conduct. One should take up the path of a virtuous life to lead the way to spiritual growth. Ultimately, one transcends both virtue and vice. Right conduct is necessary for the spiritual progress of man.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (history)

Pāpā (पापा) (in Pali, Pāvā) is the actual Kasia, situated 56 kilometers east of Gorakhpur. At the time of the Buddha, this city was the Malla capital. The early sources (Dīgha, II, p. 165; Sanskrit Mahāparinirvāṇa, p. 252, 432, etc.) distinguish the Mallas of Pāpā (in Sanskrit, Pāpīyaka or Pāpeya, in Pāli, Pāpeyyeka) from the Mallas of Kuśinagari (in Sanskrit, Kauśināgara, in Pāli, Kosināraka). The Pāṭheyyakas played an important part at the time of the Buddhas funeral rituals and in the council of Vaiśalī (cf. Vinaya, I, p. 253).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

papa : (nt.) water. || papā (f.) a shed by the roadside to provide travellers with water. pāpa (nt.) crime; evil action.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Papā, (f.) (Ved. prapā, pa+) a place for supplying water, a shed by the roadside to provide travellers with water, a well, cistern D. III, 185; S. I, 33=Kvu 345 (=pānīyadāna-sālā SA); S. I, 100 (read papañ ca vivane); J. I, 109; DhA. III, 349=J. I, 302 (=pānīya-cāṭī C.); Vv 5222 (+udapāna); Pv. II, 78 (n. pl. papāyo=pānīya-sālā PvA. 102); II, 925 (+udapāna). (Page 413)

— or —

Papa, (nt.) (see pibati, pānīya etc. of ) water J. I, 109 (āpaṃ papaṃ mahodakan ti attho). The word is evidently an etym. construction. See also papā. (Page 412)

— or —

Pāpa, (adj. nt.) (Vedic pāpa, cp. Lat. patior≈E. passion etc.; Gr. phμa suffering, evil; talai/pwros suffering evil) 1. (adj.) evil, bad, wicked, sinful A. II, 222 sq. (and compar. pāpatara); Sn. 57; Dh. 119 (opp. bhadra). Other compar-superl. forms are pāpiṭṭha S. V, 96; pāpiṭṭhatara Vin. II, 5; pāpiyyasika D. III, 254. See pāpiya.—2. unfertile (of soil) S. IV, 315.—3. (nt.) evil, wrong doing, sin Sn. 23, 662; Dh. 117 (opp. puñña) 183; Pv. I, 66; 112; IV, 150; DhA. II, 11.—pp. pāpāni Sn. 399, 452, 674; Dh. 119, 265.—iccha having bad wishes or intentions Vin. I, 97; D. III, 246; S. I, 50; II, 156; A. III, 119, 191, 219 sq.; IV, 1, 22, 155; V, 123 sq.; Sn. 133, 280; It. 85; Nd2 342; Vism. 24 (def.); VbhA. 476;—icchatā evil intention A. IV, 160, 165; DhA. II, 77.—kamma evil doing, wickedness, sin, crime D. III, 182; It. 86; Sn. 407; Dh. 127; Vism. 502; VbhA. 440 sq.; PvA. 11, 25, 32, 51, 84.—kammanta evil-doer, villain S. I, 97.—kammin id. M. I, 39 Dh. 126.—kara id. Sn. 674.—karin id. Dh. 15, 17.—dassana sinful view Pv IV. 355.—dhamma wickedness, evil habit Dh. 248, 307; Pug. 37; DhA. III, 4; PvA. 98; as adj. at PvA. 58.—dhammin one of evil character or habits Pv. I, 117.—parikkhaya decay or destruction of demerit (opp. puñña°) Pv. II, 615.—mitta an evil associate, a bad companion (opp. kalyāṇa°) M. I, 43, 470; D. III, 182.—mittatā bad company, association with wicked people A. I, 13 sq. , 83; IV, 160, 165; D. III, 212; Dhs. 13, 27; Vbh. 359, 369, 371.—saṅkappa evil thought Sn. 280.—sīla bad morals Sn. 246.—supina an evil dream (opp. bhaddaka) Vism. 312; DhA. III, 4. (Page 453)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

papa (पप).—ind A word used by cartmen or ploughmen in directing the right-hand bullock. Opp. to mapa.

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pāpa (पाप).—n (S) Sin, crime, wickedness, vice: also a sin or a crime. Ex. pāpāpāsūna īśvarakṣōbha īśvara- kṣōbhāpāsūna narakaprāpti narakaprāptīpāsūna svahitanāśa. Note. The best rendering of this word is Demerit or an act of demerit, as of puṇya the best rendering is Merit or an act of merit; for of SIN (moral depravity or corruption) or of a sin (an outgoing of depravity in act or volition), or of Holiness (moral rectitude), or of an act or a volition proceeding from it, the Hindus have very feeble and indistinct conception. The word pāpa however does sometimes bear the sense of Sin or a sin, but the wood puṇya that of Holiness, godliness, or moral goodness, never. 2 Applied also to an evil intent or evil suspicion. Ex. manānta kāṃhīṃ pāpa ālēṃsēṃ vāṭatēṃ; tyānēṃ cōralēṃ nasēla kīṃ asēṃ mājhyā manānta pāpa ālēṃ. 3 Applied also to a wicked or a troubling person, a pest, a plague; also to a difficulty, a strait, a scrape. tō pāpa dēṇāra nāhīṃ puṇya kōṭhūna dēṇāra? An inquiry forcibly descriptive of miserliness. pāpa (tujhēṃ, tyācēṃ &c. tulā, tyālā &c.) ubhēṃ rāhīlaca Be sure (thy, his &c.) sin will find (thee, him &c.) out. Numb. xxxii. 23, 1 Kings xvii. 18. pāpa khāṇēṃ in. con. To suffer the gnawings of remorse or compunction. pāpa bōmba dēūna (or mārūna) uṭhatēṃ Sin starts up or breaks forth crying aloud (against thee, him &c.) Also, in this sense, jyācēṃ pāpa tyācē puḍhēṃ (yēūna nācatēṃ &c.) pāpācā vāṇṭā ucalaṇēṃ To sustain the (wretched) allotment of sin. Applied to a person of endless troubles and afflictions;--these being ascribed to his wickedness in a former birth. pāpānēṃ pāya dhutalēlā (Whose foot is washed in sin.) One exceedingly sinful or wicked. Also pāpānēṃ pāya dhuṇēṃ To wash one's foot or steps in sin. Job. xxix. 6.

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pāpā (पापा).—ind A term of fondness for a little child; also a child's form of bāpa for Father, Papa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pāpa (पाप).—n Sin, crime. An evil intent. Ex. manānta kāṃhī pāpa ālēṃsēṃ vāṭatēṃ. A wicked person, a pest. tō pāpa dēṇāra nāhīṃ puṇya kōṭhūna dēṇāra? An inquiry forcibly descriptive of miserliness. pāpa (tujhēṃ, tyācēṃ &c. tulā, tyālā &c.) ubhēṃ rāhīlaca Be sure (your, his &c.) sin will find (your, him &c.) out. pāmpa khāṇēṃ To suffer the gnawings of remorse, or compuzotion.pāpānēṃ pāya dhuṇēṃ To wash one's foot in sin.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pāpa (पाप).—a. [pāti rakṣatyasmādātmānam, pā-apādāne pa; Uṇ.3.23]

1) Evil, sinful, wicked, vicious; पापं कर्म च यत् परैरपि कृतं तत् तस्य संभाव्यते (pāpaṃ karma ca yat parairapi kṛtaṃ tat tasya saṃbhāvyate) Mk.1.36; साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धि- र्विशिष्यते (sādhuṣvapi ca pāpeṣu samabuddhi- rviśiṣyate) Bg.6.9.

2) Mischievous, destructive, accursed; पापेन मृत्युना गृहीतोऽस्मि (pāpena mṛtyunā gṛhīto'smi) M.4.

3) Low, vile, abandoned; Ms.3.52; अधार्मिकाणां पापानामाशु पश्यन् विपर्ययम् (adhārmikāṇāṃ pāpānāmāśu paśyan viparyayam) 4.171.

4) Inauspicious, malignant, foreboding evil; as in पापग्रहः (pāpagrahaḥ).

-pam 1 Evil, bad fortune or state; पापं पापाः कथयथ कथं शौर्यराशेः पितुर्मे (pāpaṃ pāpāḥ kathayatha kathaṃ śauryarāśeḥ piturme) Ve.3.6; शान्तं पापम् (śāntaṃ pāpam) 'may the evil be averted', 'god forbid' (often used in dramas).

2) Sin, crime, vice, guilt; अपापानां कुले जाते मयि पापं न विद्यते (apāpānāṃ kule jāte mayi pāpaṃ na vidyate) Mk.9.37; Ms.11.231;4 181; R.12.19.

-pam ind. badly, sinfully, wrongly.

-paḥ A wretch, sinful person, wicked or profligate person; पापस्तु दिग्देवतया हतौजास्तं नाभ्यभूदवितं विष्णुपत्न्या (pāpastu digdevatayā hataujāstaṃ nābhyabhūdavitaṃ viṣṇupatnyā) Bhāg.6.13.17.

-pā 1 A beast of prey.

2) A witch.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pāpā (पापा).—(= Pali Pāvā; recorded in Jain texts, Cole-brooke, Misc. Essays 2.215, or 2d ed. 193, as Pāpāpurī, Pāvāpurī), name of a city of the Mallas: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.282.1 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāpa (पाप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pā-paṃ) 1. Mischievous, destructive, malignant. 2. Vile, low, abandoned, vicious. 3. Inauspicious. m.

(-paḥ) A wicked man, a wretch, a profligate. n.

(-paṃ) 1. Sin, crime, wickedness, vice. 2. Bad state, bad fortune. E. to preserve (from it,) and pa Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāpa (पाप).—I. adj., f. and , comparat. pāpatara, pāpīyaṃs, and pāpīyastara, Mahābhārata 13, 2213; superl. pāpatama, pāpiṣṭha, pāpiṣṭhatara, Mahābhārata 7, 8734, and pāpiṣṭhatama, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 189, 9. 1. Wicked, sinful, Chr. 61, 46; 9, 43. 2. Inauspicious. 3. pāpiṣṭhatama, with abl., Worse, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 189, 9. Ii. n. 1. Wickedness, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 36. 2. Evil, 3, 54, 27. 3. Crime, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 321. 4. Sin, Chr. 30, 37.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pāpa (पाप).—[feminine] ī (later ā) bad, wicked, evil, inauspicious; [neuter] pāpam & [feminine] [instrumental] pāpayā (±amuyā q.v.) badly, wrongly. [masculine] bad fellow, wretch, profligate; [neuter] evil, sin, harm, trouble. śāntaṃ pāpam may the sin be destroyed = heaven forbid.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pāpa (पाप):—mf(ī older than ā; cf. [Pāṇini 4-1, 30]) ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv,] also pāpa) n. bad, vicious, wicked, evil, wretched, vile, low, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) (in [astrology]) boding evil, inauspicious, [Varāha-mihira]

3) m. a wicked man, wretch, villain, [Ṛg-veda] etc., etc.

4) Name of the profligate in a drama, [Catalogue(s)]

5) of a hell, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

6) Pāpā (पापा):—[from pāpa] f. a beast of prey or a witch, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

7) Pāpa (पाप):—n. (ifc. f(ā). ) evil, misfortune, ill-luck, trouble, mischief, harm, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (often śāntam pāpam, ‘heaven forefend that evil’ [Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā; Kāl idem]etc.)

8) n. sin, vice, crime, guilt, [Brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Pāpa (पाप):—(auch pāpa [Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14]). —

1) Adj. (f. ī in der älteren Sprache und ā in der späteren) schlimm , übel , bös. In der Astrol. unheilvoll , Unglück verheissend , ungünstig. Adv. pāpam übel , schlecht , elend ; pāpayā auf üble Weise , schlecht , unrecht ; pāpayāmuyā so übel , so hässlich. Compar. — a) pāpīyaṃs übler daran , elender , kränker ; geringer , ärmer , schlimmer , der recht übel daran ist , sehr schlimm , — schlecht. Subst. ein böser Mann , Bösewicht. māraḥ pāpīyān bei den Buddhisten der böse Dämon , der Teufel. — b) pāpatara schlimmer , schlechter , sehr schlecht. — c) pāpīyastara dass. — Superl. pāpiṣṭha der geringste , schlechteste , überaus schlecht , — schlimm. pāpiṣṭhatara am Uebelsten daran , pāpiṣṭhatama Schlimmer als (Abl.). —

2) m. — a) ein böser Mensch , Bösewicht. — b) eine best. Hölle. — c) Nomen proprium eines Bösewichts in einem Schauspiel. —

3) f. pāpā Raubthier oder Hexe [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 1,53.1.] [Agnipurāṇa 40,20.] —

4) n. (adj. Comp. f. ā) — a) Uebel , schlimmer Zustand , schlechtes Ergehen , Missgeschick , Unheil , Leid. śāntaṃ pāpam so v.a. der Himmel bewahre uns davor ! — b) Böses , Unrechtes , Fehler , Fehltritt , Vergehen , Verbrechen , Schuld , Sünde. brahmahatyākṛtaṃ pāpam das im Brahmanenmorde bestehende Verbrechen.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Pāpa (पाप) [Also spelled paap]:—(nm) a sin, vice; evil; evil deed; —[karma] sin, sinful deed; ~[karmā] a sinner; ~[ghna/nāśaka/nāśī] countering a sin, destroying (the effect of) a sin; ~[dṛṣṭi] sinful eye; greedy eye; ~[buddhi] sinful, villainous, depraved; sinning mentality; ~[maya] abounding in sins, sinful; sinning; ~[mukta] free from sins, liberated from sins; unsinning; ~[mocana] liberation/riddance from sins; —[udaya honā] committed sins, to bring forth their evil results; to get the return for accumulated sins; —[kaṭanā] to get rid of sins/evil or unwarranted man or job etc; a botheration to come to an end; —[kamānā/baṭoranā] to commit sinful acts, to accumulate sins (which are bound to have their repercussions in due course); —[kā ghaḍā bharanā] (one’s) sinful deeds to reach the extremity, the vessel of sins to be full to the brim, he that swims in sins sinks in sorrow; —[kī gaṭharī] the burden of one’s sins; —[mola lenā] to knowingly own a botheration or commit sinful acts; —[laganā] to earn sins, to load oneself with the commission of sinful acts.

2) Pāpā (पापा):—(nm) papa, father.

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