Dasarupaka (critical study)

by Anuru Ranjan Mishra | 2015 | 106,293 words

This page relates ‘Sentiments (rasa) used in a Vyayoga’ of the English study of the Dasarupaka of Dhananjaya: an important work on Hindu dramaturgy (Natya-shastra) from the tenth century dealing with the ten divisions of Sanskrit drama (nata), describing their technical aspects and essential dramaturgical principals. These ten types of drama are categorised based on the plot (vastu), hero (neta) and sentiment (rasa)

Part 9 - Sentiments (rasa) used in a Vyāyoga

Since the Dūtavākya is a vyāyoga, it contains sentiments of excitement (dīptarasa), like:

  1. heroic (vīra),
  2. furious (raudra),
  3. humorous (hāsya) and
  4. marvelous (adbhuta).

Heroic sentiment (vīrarasa):

The heroic (vīra) sentiment is the principal and other sentiments are subordinate sentiments. In a drama, the main sentiment generally belongs to the hero. Here in the Dūtavākya, the hero is Duryodhana and the heroic (vīra) sentiment belongs to him. He argues and fights with Kṛṣṇa fearlessly, though he knows that Kṛṣṇa has supernatural power and is almighty. It creates heroic (vīra) sentiment.

Humorous sentiment (hāsyarasa):

The humorous (hāsya) arises when Duryodhana orders all Kṣatriyas that no one should rise up from his seat to honour Kṛṣṇa, even himself, but when Kṛṣṇa enters, all Kṣatriyas become confused and rise up.

At this moment, Duryodhana says;

katham katham keśavam dṛṣṭvā saṃbhrāntāḥ sarvakṣatriyāḥ, alamalam saṃbhrameṇa, smaraṇīyaḥ pūrvamāśrāvito daṇḍaḥ, nanvahamājñaptā
  –(Dūtavākya, T. Gaṇapati Śāstrī, p.35).

Then he himself falls from the seat and again says;

keśavasya prabhāvena calito’smyāsanādaham

The humorous sentiment arises also when Duryodhana and Kṣatriyas are trying to bind Kṛṣṇa and they fail to do so.

Furious sentiment (raudrarasa):

The furious (raudra) sentiment arises when Kṛṣṇa is addressing Duryodhana as a cheater, unkind, squint-eyed crow and yellow monkey.

However, soon he gets angry and orders to bind Kṛṣṇa:

(katham yāsyati kila keśavaḥ; duḥśāsana! durmarṣaṇa! durmukha! durbuddhe! duṣṭeśvara! dūtasamudācāramatikrāntaḥ keśavo vadhyatām
  –(Dūtavākya, T. Gaṇapati Śāstrī, p.41).

Again furious (raudra) sentiment arises when Duryodhana says that Kṛṣṇa will be sent to the camp of the Pāṇḍavas with whole body smeared with blood and wounded by the multitudes of arrows, discharged from his bow.

Hearing this, Kṛṣṇa gets angry, calls Sudarśana and says:

bhavatu pāṇḍavānām kāryamahameva sādhayāmi
  –(Dūtavākya, T. Gaṇapati Śāstrī, p.43).

Marvelous sentiment (adbhutarasa):

The marvelous (adbhuta) sentiment arises at the end when weapons like: śārṅga, kaumodaki, pāñcajanya, nandaka, garuḍa appear and Dhṛtarāṣṭra enters unexpectedly.

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