Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study)

by Debabrata Barai | 2014 | 105,667 words

This page relates ‘Pada-vritti and their types’ of the English study on the Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara: a poetical encyclopedia from the 9th century dealing with the ancient Indian science of poetics and rhetoric (also know as alankara-shastra). The Kavya-mimamsa is written in eighteen chapters representing an educational framework for the poet (kavi) and instructs him in the science of applied poetics for the sake of making literature and poetry (kavya).

Rājaśekhara think that, the vṛtti means vyāvahāra or proyoga (use) and it is divided into five ways as:

tasya pañca vṛttayaḥ — sub vṛttiḥ, samāsavṛttiḥ, taddhitavṛttiḥ kṛdvṛttiḥ, taṅvṛttiśca [tiṅvṛttiśca?] |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 21

Means:

“The padas have five vṛttis–subvṛtti, samāsavṛtti, taddhitavṛtti, kṛdvṛtti and tiṅgvṛtti.”

Then Rājaśekhara also gives the five sub-types of subvṛtti or suvantavṛtti i.e.

  1. jāti-vācaka words (class-denoting),
  2. dravya-vācaka (denoting substance),
  3. guṇa-vācaka (denoting qualities),
  4. avyaya-vācaka (indeclinable) and the
  5. karmapravacanīya.

C.f.

gauraścaḥ puruṣo hastīti jātivācinaḥ śabdāḥ |
haro harirhiraṇyagarbhaḥ kāla ākāśaṃ digiti dravyavācinaḥ|
śvetaḥ kṛṣṇo raktaḥ pīta iti ca guṇavācinaḥ | prādayaścādayaścāsattvavacanāḥ |
nagaramupa prasthitaḥ panthāḥ, vṛkṣamanu dyotate vidyuditi karmapravacanīyāḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 21

Means:

(i) Jāti-vācaka (class denoting)–cow, horses, elephants and man etc. words.

(ii) Dravya-vācaka (denoting substance)–Har, Hari, Kāla (time) and Sky etc words.

(iii) Guṇa-vācaka (denoting qualities)–White, yellow, red, black and blue etc words.

(iv) Avyaya-vācaka (indeclinable)–pra, parā, ap, sam, ni, ch, and h etc. words.

(v) Karmapravacanīya –Same of upasargas, which are not changing the meaning of verb and not related to the verb. They are dividing the relation know as karmapravacanīya.

C.f.

kriyāyā dyotako nāyaṃ samvandhasya na vācakaḥ |
nāpi kriyāpadākṣepī samvandhasya tu bhedakaḥ || ”

- Pānini- 1.4.83

Like, ‘nagaramupaprasthitaḥ panthāḥ’—‘the traveler went near the town’ and ‘vṛkṣamanudyotatevidyuditi’—‘the lighting struck behind the tree’. In those two sentences ‘near’ (upa ) and ‘behind’ (anu) words are karmapravacanīya.

Among the wise learned scholar vyayākaraṇa (grammarians) deserve most preference. They think that, the five kinds of subvṛtti as the mother of the (universe of verbal discourse) Vāṇmaya.

So Rājaśekhara says:

seyaṃ subavṛttiḥ pañcatayyapi vāṅmayasya mātā” iti vidvāṃsaḥ | subvṛttire va samāsavṛttiḥ |

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 21

The sub-vṛtti is known as samāsa-vṛtti. In (science of grammar) the vyākaraṇa, pada is a word with a meaning (artha) while Vaiyākaraṇa (grammarian) consider it as ‘suptiṅantam’. And the definition of vṛtti we can see the word ‘parārtha’ word, so there ‘tiṅantapada’ is not recognizes as the vṛtti. i.e. parārthābhidhānaṃ vṛttiḥ|” There difference is only is sub-vṛtti is ‘vibhakti rupaḥ’ and samasa-vṛtti is combined ‘saṃhata rupaḥi.e.vyāsasamāsāvevānayorbhedahetu |”.

The samāsa (compounds) are divided into six kinds and Rājaśekhara lay down a sūtra on it as:

dandvo'smi dvigurasmi ca gṛhe na me satatamavyayībhāvaḥ |
tatpuruṣa karma dhāraya yonāhaṃ syāṃ bahuvrīhiḥ || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 22

There Rājaśekhara’s object in this verse is two-types; firstly, in this verse gives the name of six samāsas (compounds) and another causes is to compose a humorous sentence with the help of the name of six-samāsas (compounds). The meaning of this humorous śloka (stanza) is: In a house-holder says that thought his family consists only of ‘dvandva’ two members and a couple of ‘dvigu’ cows, there is no reduction in household (abhāva) expenditure; he asks his servant, therefore, (karmadhāraya) to work more in order that his labor may enrich him with a good quantity of paddy (bahuvrīhi).

Further, Kṣmendra in his Kavikaṇthāvaraṇa for introduce of Vyākaraṇa Śāstra (science of grammar) also attributed this śloka (verse) from Bhaṭṭamuktikalaśa (great grandfather of Bilhaṇa) in quit changes. There other vaiyākaraṇa (grammarian), or may be Bhaṭṭamuktikalaśa says absolute seven types of samāsas (compounds) in one śloka (verse) by the ślokas as:

dvandva dvigurapi cāhaṃ madgehe nityamavyayībhāvaḥ |
tatpuruṣa karmadhāraya yenāhaṃ syāṃ vahuvrīhiḥ || ”

- Bhaṭṭamuktikalaśa

Means:

“The seven types of samāsa (compounds) are dvandva, dvigu, nitya, avyayi, tatpuruṣa, karmadhāraya and bahuvrīhi.”

But, Kṣmendra follows to the Yāyāvarīya Rājaśekhara’s classification of samāsa (compounds) and says:

dvigurapi sadvandvo'hṛṃgahe ca me satatamavyayībhāvaḥ |
tatpuruṣa karmadhāraya yenāhaṃ syām vahuvrīhiḥ || ”

- Kavikaṇthāvaraṇa of Kṣmendra: Sandhi-V/35

Taddhita vṛtti is endless in number. Taddhita words are derived from a (substantive) pratipādika by the application of suffixes and thus become subanta (conventional nouns or pronouns). It is also often quoted that, the follower vaiyākaraṇa (grammarians) of Paninian are ignorant of taddhita from the vyākaraṇa (science of grammar).

C.f.

taddhi śāstraprāyovādo yaduta taddhitamūḍhāḥ pāṇinīyāḥ [ iti ] |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 22

Some of scholars think that, the all the Taddhita Sūtra of Aṣṭādhyāyī not composed by Pānini, some may be included later times by his followers. There the words mañjiṣṭha, raucanika, saru, saindhava, vaiyāsīya etc. are formed from taddhita pratyaya (suffixes).

There kṛt Pratyaya (termination) are derived from dhātu (roots) i.e. kartā from the root kṛ, hartā from the root hyā, kumbhakāra from the kumbha word with kṛ dhātu (root) and nāgarika from the word nagara with kṛ dhātu (root). These all words are kṛdanta (derived nominals).

Tiṅganta vṛtti are divided into ten kinds based on the ten types of ‘la’ (Lakāra) (ending affixed to roots). They are also divided into perts depending on the suddha-dhātu (pure roots) and sup-dhātu (derived roots) or nāma-dhātu. The words ‘pacati’, ‘apakṣīyat’ and ‘pakṣyatietc. are formed from roots and the words ‘pallavayati’, ‘apallavayat’ and ‘pallavayiṣyatietc. are formed from the sup-dhātu or nama-dhatu.

Ācārya Pānini in his Vyākaraṇa-ŚāstraAṣṭādhyayī’ included nāma-dhātu with Sananta and Yaṃyanta dhātu under the Pratyayānta-dhātu and says:

sanādyanta dhātavaḥ |”

- Aṣṭadhāyayī of Panini

In this way padas are divided into five vṛttis i.e. Sup-vṛtti, Samāsa-vṛtti, Taddhita-vṛtti, Kṛt-vṛtti and Tin-vṛtti combined together in innumerable ways it resulting in endless forms. There determining the number of it like a Vague of journey. Thus Rājaśekhara refers there the ancient scholars view.

C.f.

tajjanmā caiṣa viduṣāṃ vādo yatkila divyaṃ samāsahastraṃ bṛhaspatirvaktā
śatakraturadhyetā tathāpi nāntaḥ śabdarāśerāsīt [ iti ]
|”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 22

Means:

“Ancient scholar’s believed that the Guru Bṛhaṣpati could not teach, even after a period of one thousand celestial years, the entire ocean of Vyākaraṇa (grammar) to his pupil Indra.”

In this concepts of Rājaśekhara may be appropriated from Patiñjali’s Mahābhaṣya. Because, in the Mahābhāsya we can see that Patañjali says same things as;

evaṃ hi śruyate - bṛhaspatirindrāya divyaṃ varṣasahastraṃ pratipadoktānāṃ śavdānāṃ śabdapārāyaṇaṃ provāca | nāntaṃ jagāma | bṛhaspatiśca pravaktā | indraścādhyetā | divyaṃ varṣasahasramadhyayanakālaḥ | na cāntaṃ jagāma | priyataddhitā dākṣiṇātyāḥ |”

- Mahābhāsya (paspasāhanika)

Therefore Rājaśekhara refer partiality on vṛttis of kavi (poets) based on their won region. C.f.

tatra dayitasubvṛttayo vidarbhāḥ | vallabhasamāsagatayo gauḍāḥ | priyataddhitā dākṣiṇātyāḥ | kṛtprayogarucaya udīcyāḥ | abhīṣṭatiṅvṛttayaḥ sarve'pi santaḥ |”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 22

Means:

“Among the all five vṛttis, the kavi (poet) of Vidarbhā prefer and uses Subanta words (noun and pronouns). The kavi (poet) of Gauḍa mostly uses Samāsānta pada (compounds). The kavi (poet) of Dakṣinātya (south) prefer taddhita pada (secondary derived nominal) and northern-kavi (poet) like to use kṛdanta pada (primary derived nominal). This Tiṅganta-pada is favorite for all the kavi (poets).”

In this time Rājaśekhara not forget to say that, new types of applications are observed by kavi (poets) who are aware of special constructions which can be applied to pada (words). This can helps to increase the quantity of tiṅganta-pada and ākhyāta (sentences).

C.f.

viśeṣalakṣaṇavidāṃ prayogāḥ pratibhānti ye |
ākhyātarāśistaire ṣa pratyahaṃ hyupacīyate || ”

- Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: Ch-VI, Pp- 22

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