Sthavira, Sthāvira, Sthavirā: 11 definitions

Introduction

Sthavira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Sthavirā (स्थविरा, “old dames”) or Vṛddhā refers to one of the classes of “women” (strī) who have dealings with the king, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “women who know the manners of departed kings, and have been honoured by them, and who know the character of all the members of the harem are said to be old dames (vṛddhā)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Sthavira (स्थविर) literally ‘elder’, is used as a sort of epithet of several men; Sthavira Śākalya occurs in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka1 and the Śāṅkhāyana-āraṇyaka, and Sthavira Jātūkarṇya in the Kauṣītaki-brāhmaṇa. Cf. the names Hrasva and Dīrgha.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah. Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon): 1. Mahaviharavasinah 2. Jetavaniyah 3. Abhayagiri vasinah In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were developed. From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are regarded as prevailing: 1. Mahasanghika 2. Sthavira 3. Mulasarvastivada 4. Sammatiyah As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned. The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.

Source: SgForums: Buddhism

Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah. Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon):

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sthavira.—(CII 3, etc.), a Buddhist priestly title; same as Pāli Thera; an Elder in the community of Buddhist monks; a senior monk. Cf. Thaira (EI 3), an Elder among Buddhist monks; aslo Saṅgha-sthavira (Lu7ders, Mathurā Ins., p. 190), ‘the senior of the order’. Note: sthavira is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—a. [sthā-kirac sthavādeśaḥ]

1) Fixed, firm, steady.

2) Old, aged, ancient; न तेन स्थविरो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः । बालोऽपि यः प्रजानाति तं देवाः स्थविरं विदुः (na tena sthaviro bhavati yenāsya palitaṃ śiraḥ | bālo'pi yaḥ prajānāti taṃ devāḥ sthaviraṃ viduḥ) || Mb.3.133. 11.

-raḥ 1 An old man; ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रामन्ति यूनः स्थविर आयति । प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादाभ्यां पुनस्तान् प्रतिपद्यते (ūrdhvaṃ prāṇā hyutkrāmanti yūnaḥ sthavira āyati | pratyutthānābhivādābhyāṃ punastān pratipadyate) || Ms.2.12.

2) A beggar.

3) Name of Brahman.

-rā An old woman; स्थविरे का त्वं, अयमर्भकः कस्य नयनानन्दकरः (sthavire kā tvaṃ, ayamarbhakaḥ kasya nayanānandakaraḥ) Dk.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—a. (- or - f.) Thick firm.

-ram Old age (commencing after seventy); (vṛddhaḥ sthātsaptaterūrdhvaṃ varṣīyān navateḥ param); गार्हस्थ्येऽप्यथवा बाल्ये यौवने स्थाविरेऽपि वा (gārhasthye'pyathavā bālye yauvane sthāvire'pi vā) Mb. 3.2.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—(compare thera, sthera), (1) = Pali thera, Buddhist elder: Mahāvyutpatti 8733; Mahāvastu i.75.1; iii.268.6; sometimes in verses which suggest pronunciation as in MIndic (but, N.B., two shorts may replace a long), e.g. (in anuṣṭubh prior pādas) tataś ca Kāśyapa-sthaviraḥ Mahāvastu i.84.11, tataḥ Kātyāyanaḥ sthaviraḥ 17; common in most texts; (2) = Sthaviraka (2) (Pali Thera): Avadāna-śataka ii.133.1; 136.7; 139.3; 140.3 (all prose), etc.; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.194.1 ff. (also Sthavira- sthavira).

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—see Ārya-s°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Old, aged. 2. Fixed, firm, steady. m.

(-raḥ) 1. Brahma. 2. An old man. 3. A beggar. f.

(-rā) An old woman. E. ṣṭhā to stay or stand, (a long time, &c.) kirac Unadi aff., and sthava substituted for the root.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—n.

(-raṃ) Old oge, any time after seventy in men, and fifty in women. f. (-rā or -rī) Thick, firm. E. ṣṭhā to stay, (a long time,) kirac Unadi aff., and yuk augment; or sthavira-aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—probably for sthāvara, cf. sthāvira, I. adj., f. . 1. Fixed, firm. 2. Old, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 200, 12. Ii. m. 1. An old man. 2. A beggar. 3. Brahman.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—i. e. sthā + van + a, with i for a, and r for n, n. Old age, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 3 (adj. Old, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 119, M. M.; but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1774).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—[feminine] ā & ī thick, broad, firm, massy, sturdy; full-grown, old, venerable.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—[neuter] old age.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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