Sthavira, Sthāvira, Sthavirā: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Sthavira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Sthavirā (स्थविरा, “old dames”) or Vṛddhā refers to one of the classes of “women” (strī) who have dealings with the king, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “women who know the manners of departed kings, and have been honoured by them, and who know the character of all the members of the harem are said to be old dames (vṛddhā)”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Sthavirā (स्थविरा) is another name for Mahāśrāvaṇī, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 5.19-21 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Sthavirā and Mahāśrāvaṇī, there are a total of eight Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Sthavira (स्थविर) refers to “old soldiers”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Sagittarius (Dhanuṣa), ministers, fine horses, the Videhas, the Mallānas, the Pāñcālas, physicians, merchants and persons skilled in the use of destructive weapons will perish. If when in the sign of Capricornus (Makara), fishes, the families of ministers, the Cāṇḍālas, skilled magicians, physicians and old soldiers [i.e., sthavira-āyudhīya] will perish”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Sthavira (स्थविर) refers to “(the Transmission of the) aged”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “[...]  You have a third form which is present (in the Transmission of) the Youth (kumāra) and ends with (that of) the Aged (sthavira). You will be in a form that can be contemplated by means of this very form. Consisting of great energy and, inflammed, it blazes with incomparable qualities. O mother of Kula, it illumines the great meditation within the body. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sthavira in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sthavira (स्थविर) refers to an “old man”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.26 (“Pārvatī-Jaṭila dialogue”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “When those sages returned to their abodes, lord Śiva, the cause of great enjoyment and protection wanted to test the penance of the goddess. [...] He took the form of a very old man [i.e., sthavira] with the body of a brahmin. His brilliance shone. He was delighted in mind. He had an umbrella and a staff (to support Him). There He saw the goddess surrounded by her maids on the platform, as pure as the digit of the moon. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Sthavira (स्थविर) literally ‘elder’, is used as a sort of epithet of several men; Sthavira Śākalya occurs in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka1 and the Śāṅkhāyana-āraṇyaka, and Sthavira Jātūkarṇya in the Kauṣītaki-brāhmaṇa. Cf. the names Hrasva and Dīrgha.

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary

Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah. Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon): 1. Mahaviharavasinah 2. Jetavaniyah 3. Abhayagiri vasinah In the course, the eighteen Hinayana sects were developed. From the time of Ashoka, four principal school are regarded as prevailing: 1. Mahasanghika 2. Sthavira 3. Mulasarvastivada 4. Sammatiyah As far as Sthavira is concerned, there are eleven sects reckoned. The Sthaviravadins were reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agonostic system to a realist philosophy.

Source: SgForums: Buddhism

Also known as Sthaviranikaya or Aryasthavirah. Sthavirah and Mahasanghikah are the two earliest sects in Buddhism. At first, they were not considered to be different. Sthavirah merely represented the intimate and older disciples of Shakyamuni, while Mahasanghika being the rest. It is said that a century later, a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions were named as a result (all in Ceylon):

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Sthavira (स्थविर) refers to an “elderly monk” (i.e., a monk 60 years old, or one who has been initiated 20 years, or a very learned monk) and represents one of the ten persons suitable for rendering services, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The sixteenth sthāna is the rendering of service by food, drink, etc., to the ten persons, Ācārya, etc. [viz., Sthavira] [...]”.

Note: The 10 persons entitled to service are; [viz., Sthavira (a monk 60 years old, or one who has been initiated 20 years, or a very learned monk);].—(cf. Aupapātikasūtra 20, p. 43. Sthānāṅgasūtra 397, p. 299. Āvaśyakasūtra 176-78, p. 161b). [...] These 10 persons are entitled to 13 kinds of service: giving of food; of drink; giving a seat; supplying anything that may be lacking in his equipment; cleansing the feet; giving of clothes; giving of medicine; escort on the road; protection from rogues, thieves, etc.; taking the staff when he enters the house; and 3 kinds of sanitary service.—(cf. Āvaśyakasūtra p. 161b).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sthavira.—(CII 3, etc.), a Buddhist priestly title; same as Pāli Thera; an Elder in the community of Buddhist monks; a senior monk. Cf. Thaira (EI 3), an Elder among Buddhist monks; aslo Saṅgha-sthavira (Lu7ders, Mathurā Ins., p. 190), ‘the senior of the order’. Note: sthavira is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—a. [sthā-kirac sthavādeśaḥ]

1) Fixed, firm, steady.

2) Old, aged, ancient; न तेन स्थविरो भवति येनास्य पलितं शिरः । बालोऽपि यः प्रजानाति तं देवाः स्थविरं विदुः (na tena sthaviro bhavati yenāsya palitaṃ śiraḥ | bālo'pi yaḥ prajānāti taṃ devāḥ sthaviraṃ viduḥ) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.133. 11.

-raḥ 1 An old man; ऊर्ध्वं प्राणा ह्युत्क्रामन्ति यूनः स्थविर आयति । प्रत्युत्थानाभिवादाभ्यां पुनस्तान् प्रतिपद्यते (ūrdhvaṃ prāṇā hyutkrāmanti yūnaḥ sthavira āyati | pratyutthānābhivādābhyāṃ punastān pratipadyate) || Manusmṛti 2.12.

2) A beggar.

3) Name of Brahman.

-rā An old woman; स्थविरे का त्वं, अयमर्भकः कस्य नयनानन्दकरः (sthavire kā tvaṃ, ayamarbhakaḥ kasya nayanānandakaraḥ) Dk.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—a. (- or - f.) Thick firm.

-ram Old age (commencing after seventy); (vṛddhaḥ sthātsaptaterūrdhvaṃ varṣīyān navateḥ param); गार्हस्थ्येऽप्यथवा बाल्ये यौवने स्थाविरेऽपि वा (gārhasthye'pyathavā bālye yauvane sthāvire'pi vā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.2.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—(compare thera, sthera), (1) = Pali thera, Buddhist elder: Mahāvyutpatti 8733; Mahāvastu i.75.1; iii.268.6; sometimes in verses which suggest pronunciation as in MIndic (but, N.B., two shorts may replace a long), e.g. (in anuṣṭubh prior pādas) tataś ca Kāśyapa-sthaviraḥ Mahāvastu i.84.11, tataḥ Kātyāyanaḥ sthaviraḥ 17; common in most texts; (2) = Sthaviraka (2) (Pali Thera): Avadāna-śataka ii.133.1; 136.7; 139.3; 140.3 (all prose), etc.; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.194.1 ff. (also Sthavira- sthavira).

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—see Ārya-s°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Old, aged. 2. Fixed, firm, steady. m.

(-raḥ) 1. Brahma. 2. An old man. 3. A beggar. f.

(-rā) An old woman. E. ṣṭhā to stay or stand, (a long time, &c.) kirac Unadi aff., and sthava substituted for the root.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—n.

(-raṃ) Old oge, any time after seventy in men, and fifty in women. f. (-rā or -rī) Thick, firm. E. ṣṭhā to stay, (a long time,) kirac Unadi aff., and yuk augment; or sthavira-aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—probably for sthāvara, cf. sthāvira, I. adj., f. . 1. Fixed, firm. 2. Old, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 200, 12. Ii. m. 1. An old man. 2. A beggar. 3. Brahman.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—i. e. sthā + van + a, with i for a, and r for n, n. Old age, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 3 (adj. Old, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 119, M. M.; but cf. Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1774).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर).—[feminine] ā & ī thick, broad, firm, massy, sturdy; full-grown, old, venerable.

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Sthāvira (स्थाविर).—[neuter] old age.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sthavira (स्थविर):—a viṣṭha See p.1265.

2) [from sthā] b See p. 1265, col. 2.

3) Sthāvira (स्थाविर):—[from sthā] a See p. 1265, col. 3.

4) b etc. See [column]3.

5) Sthavira (स्थविर):—[from sthū] c mf(ā or ī)n. (cf. sthāvara, p.1264) broad, thick, compact, solid, strong, powerful, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

6) [v.s. ...] old, ancient, venerable (re kāle or bhāve, ‘in old age’), [Brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

7) [v.s. ...] m. an old man, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) an ‘Elder’ (Name of the oldest and most venerable Bhikṣus), [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 184; 255 etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Brahmā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) Name of a school (also ārya-sth), [Buddhist literature]

11) Sthavirā (स्थविरा):—[from sthavira > sthū] f. an old woman, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

12) [v.s. ...] a kind of plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Sthavira (स्थविर):—[from sthū] n. benzoin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Sthāvira (स्थाविर):—[from sthū] c n. ([from] sthavira) old age (described as commencing at seventy in men and fifty in women, and ending at ninety, after which period a man is called varṣīyas), [Lāṭyāyana; Mahābhārata] etc.

15) [v.s. ...] mfn. ([varia lectio] for sthavira) old, senile, [Mahābhārata; Hitopadeśa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sthavira (स्थविर):—(raḥ) 1. m. Brahmā; an old man. a. Old, firm.

2) Sthāvira (स्थाविर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Old age; above 50 years for women, 70 for men.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sthavira (स्थविर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṭhera, Thavira, Thera, Theriyā, Therī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sthavira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sthavira in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sthavira (स्थविर):—(nm) a Buddhist monk.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Sthavira (ಸ್ಥವಿರ):—

1) [adjective] having or showing a fixed, firm purpose; determined; resolved; resolute.

2) [adjective] aged; old.

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Sthavira (ಸ್ಥವಿರ):—

1) [noun] an aged man.

2) [noun] Brahma, the creator of the universe.

3) [noun] a man who lives on alms; a beggar.

4) [noun] (jain.) a jaina mendicant who stays at a place instead of wandering.

5) [noun] (buddh.) an elderly buddhist.

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Sthāvira (ಸ್ಥಾವಿರ):—[noun] the advanced years in human life; old-age.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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