Sphatika, Sphaṭikā, Sphaṭika, Sphāṭīka: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Sphatika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sphatik.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Sphaṭikā (स्फटिका):—Another name for Saurāṣṭrī (‘alum’), which is one of the eight uparasa group of minerals, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Sphatika refers to “a quartz of a superior quality”. There are three varieties, viz, Surya-kanta (sun stone), Chandra-kanta (Moon stone), and the ordinary one. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) is a Sanskrit word referring to “quartz” (or crystal). When constructing the plinth of the stage (raṅgaśīrṣa), of a playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa), there should be jewels and precious stones be placed underneath by expert builders, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.72-74. Accordingly, quartz (sphaṭika) is to be put in the west (paścima).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) refers to “crystal” and represents a kind of precious stone (gem) used for the making of images (Hindu icons), as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The materials listed in the Āgamas for the making of images are wood, stone, precious gems, metals, terracotta, laterite, earth, and a combination of two or three or more of the materials specified above. The precious stones mentioned in the Āgamas for the purpose of making images are [for example] sphaṭika (crystal). Sphaṭika is of two kinds, the sūryakānta and the candrakānta.

Precious stones (e.g., sphaṭika or ‘crystal’) are preferred materials for fashioning images.—The materials recommended in the śilpaśāstra for the fashioning of images are unburnt clay, burnt clay as in brick or terracotta, sudhā (a special kind of mortar/plaster), composite earth, wood, stone, metal, ivory, dhātu (mineral), pigment, and precious stones. Wood is considered superior to earth, stone as better than wood, metal better than stone, and precious stone (such as sphaṭika) is the most preferred of all.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sphatika in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) refers to “crystal”, representing a type of material for construction of a Liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.22 while explaining the importance of the partaking of the Naivedya of Śiva:—“[...] with regard to the following phallic images viz:—[...] liṅgas made of crystals (Sphaṭika-liṅga) [...], the partaking of the Naivedya of Śiva is on a par with the rite of Cāndrāyaṇa. Even the slayer of a brahmin if he partakes of the remains of the food offered to the God quells all his sins immediately [...]”.

2) Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक) refers to “crystal”, representing the material of Lakṣmī’s liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Goddess Lakṣmī took a crystal liṅga (Sphāṭika-liṅga). The Ādityas (the twelve suns) took liṅgas made of copper. The moon took a liṅga made of pearl and the god of fire took a liṅga of diamond. [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) or Sphaṭikapātra refers to a “utensil made of crystal” (used for food) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different metallic vessels are described in the text. The vessels/utensils that are made of crystal (sphaṭika) have the following dietetic effects: pavitra (pure) and śītala (cooling).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) refers to “crystal”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the Moon, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon) [i.e., sphaṭikatāmrakāt sphaṭikād rakta], red sandal-wood (Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Venus), iron (Saturn), lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu). Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक, “crystal”) refers to a type of jewel (ratna), into which the universe was transformed by the Buddha’s miraculous power (ṛddhibala) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV). Accordingly, “The other jewels, [viz.,] crystal (sphoṭika), etc., all come from caves”.

Also, “These jewels (eg, sphaṭika) are of three types, Human jewels (manuṣya-ratna), Divine jewels (divya-ratna) and Bodhisattva jewels (bodhisattva-ratna). These various jewels remove the poverty (dāridrya) and the suffering (duḥkha) of beings”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) refers to a species of Anudiśa gods, according to Jain cosmological texts in the Digambara tradition where the Anudiśa heaven is one of the five heavens of the upper world (ūrdhvaloka).

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) refers to “quartz”, and is the name of a type of precious stone (gem or jewel) typically used in ancient India. Both the king (rājan) and the people used to keep previous stones as a part of their wealth and affluence. The king’s mansion was studded with precious stones of various kinds. The rich people possessed them in large quantity and used them in ornaments and for other purposes. The courtesans (gaṇiya) possessed costly jewels and their chambers were adorned with precious jewels. The palanquins of the kings, nobles and rich persons (śreṣṭhins) were inlaid with costly gems.

There were persons expert in the field of gem and jewels (e.g., sphaṭika) called maṇikāras (jewellers). There is a reference of maṇikāra-śreṣṭhin in Rājagṛha who had abundant gems and jewels. Various ornaments of pearls and jewels are mentioned in the texts viz. Kaṇagāvali (necklace of gold and gems), rayaṇāvali (necklace of jewels), muttāvali (necklace of pearls), etc. The above description of the various agricultural, agro-based, mining or forestry occupations clearly depicts the high level of perfection achieved in the respective fields.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—m (S) Crystal.

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sphāṭika (स्फाटिक).—a S Relating to crystal. 2 also as s n Crystal.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—m Crystal.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—1 A crystal, quartz; अपगतमले हि मनसि स्फटिकमणाविव रजनिकरगभस्तयः सुखं प्रविशन्त्युपदेशगुणाः (apagatamale hi manasi sphaṭikamaṇāviva rajanikaragabhastayaḥ sukhaṃ praviśantyupadeśaguṇāḥ) K.

-kā 1 Sulphate of alumina or alum.

2) Camphor.

Derivable forms: sphaṭikaḥ (स्फटिकः).

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Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक).—a. (- f.) Crystalline; उवाच हासकिरणैः कुर्वाणः स्फाटिकं जगत् (uvāca hāsakiraṇaiḥ kurvāṇaḥ sphāṭikaṃ jagat) Bm.1.1133; Rām.3.55.8.

-kam 1 A crystal.

2) A kind of sandal.

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Sphāṭīka (स्फाटीक).—Crystal.

Derivable forms: sphāṭīkam (स्फाटीकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—m.

(-kaḥ) Crystal, quartz. f. (-kī) Alum. E. sphuṭ to expand, kvun aff., and the vowel changed.

Sphaṭika can also be spelled as Sphaṭīka (स्फटीक).

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Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक).—mfn. (-kaḥ-kī-ka) Crystalline, made, &c. of crystal. n.

(-kaṃ) Crystal. E. sphaṭika the same, and aṇ aff.

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Sphāṭīka (स्फाटीक).—n.

(-kaṃ) Crystal. E. See sphaṭika.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—probably for spaṣ- ṭika, i. e. spaṣṭa + ika, (properly, transparent), m. Crystal, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 157; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 31.

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Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक).—i. e. sphaṭika + a, adj. Crystalline, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 9, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक).—[masculine] rock-crystal.

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Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक).—[feminine] ā & ī crystalline; [neuter] crystal.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sphaṭika (स्फटिक):—[from sphaṭ] m. crystal, quartz, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) Sphaṭikā (स्फटिका):—[from sphaṭika > sphaṭ] f. alum ([according to] to some also ), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] camphor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक):—[from sphaṭ] mf(ā or ī)n. made of crystal, crystalline, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] n. crystal, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of sandal, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Pariś.]

7) Sphāṭīka (स्फाटीक):—[from sphaṭ] m. = sphaṭika, crystal, quartz, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sphaṭika (स्फटिक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. Crystal.

2) Sphāṭika (स्फाटिक):—[(kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) a.] Of crystal. n. Crystal.

3) Sphāṭīka (स्फाटीक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Phaliha, Phālia, Phāliga, Phāliha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sphatika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sphatika in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Sphaṭika (स्फटिक) [Also spelled sphatik]:—(nm) crystal, quartz.

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