Sikhin, Shikhin, Śikhin: 24 definitions


Sikhin means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śikhin can be transliterated into English as Sikhin or Shikhin, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to “one who has a topknot” and is used to describe Śaṃkara (i.e., Bhairava), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess (i.e., Khageśī) said to the God (i.e., Bhairava), “[...] Being one who has matted hair, shaved head, (having a) topknot [i.e., śikhin], carrying a skull, smeared with ashes or wearing the five insignias—O god, (none of this) leads to accomplishment in the Kula tradition. (Even) a renouncer who does not bear the five insignias and is naked does not quickly achieve success in the western (transmission) of the House of the Yoginīs. This is forbidden and (so) all this is absent in the Kaula (teachings). O Maheśvara, as this is improper how can the Command be given to you?”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to a “peacock”, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] My mind does not strive after the divine state, just as a woman giving birth never craves enjoyment. Having gained perfect devotion to you it sings like a peacock (śikhin) who has heard the sound of the rain clouds. There is no place where you do not reside; there is no voice in which you are not expressed. There is no word in which you are not heard; there is no thing in which you do not shine. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

1) Śikhin (शिखिन्) (lit. “one who has a tuft or lock of hair on the top of the head ”) is a synonym (another name) for the Horse (Aśva), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

2) Śikhin (शिखिन्) (lit. “one who has a crest”) also refers to the Peacock (Mayūra).

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to a “peacock”, (the bile of which is) used in the treatment (cikitsā) of immobile or plant poison (sthāvaraviṣa), according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Sage Kāśyapa recommends potent drugs to treat sthāvara or plant-poison. According to the Kāśyapasaṃhitā (8.29-30), “The bile of pigeon, monkey, cat, iguana, mongoose, boar, and peacock (śikhin), mixed with honey and stored in cow’s horn can effectively cure snake and plant poisons when used as nasal application,ointment, and so on”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to a “peacock”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the solar disc should be crossed by the rainbow the princes of the land will be at war with one another. If in winter the disc be clear there will be immediate rain. If in Varṣā the colour of the sun be that of the flower Śirīṣa [i.e., śirīṣapuṣpa] there will be immediate rain; if the colour be that of the peacock’s plume [i.e., śikhin-patra-nibha] there will be no rain for twelve years to come”.

2) Śikhin (शिखिन्) is another name for Ketu, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “the Moon (candra) should be eclipsed by Ketu [i.e., śikhinśikhinā] she will destroy prosperity, health and plenty. Artisans will perish and thieves will suffer greatly. If while the moon is eclipsed, she be crossed by the fall of a meteor, that prince will die in the star of whose nativity the moon then happens to be”.

3) Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to “fire”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9).—Accordingly, “If Venus (śukra) should be of the colour of fire, there will be fear from fire [i.e., śikhin-bhaya]; if of blood colour, there will be wars in the land; if of the colour of burnished gold, there will be disease; if green, there will be asthmatic complaints; if ashy-pale or black, there will be drought in the land. If Venus should be of the colour of coagulated milk, of the white water lily, or of the moon, or if her course be direct, or if she should be the successful planet in conjunctions, mankind will enjoy the happiness of Kṛtayuga”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

1) Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to the “pyre” (i.e., as part of a funeral ceremony), according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 19.54.—Accordingly: “The ministers joined by the chaplain who knew the last rites placed him on the pyre (śikhin) in secret in the palace garden, under the pretext of a ceremony that averts disease”.

2) Śikhin (शिखिन्) refers to a “peacock”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then the portal to the sanctum sanctorum, a riot of colour and form:] She was being illuminated by the entrance, on which there were hanging cloths reddened by lamp-smoke, a row of bracelets made of peacock-throats  (śikhin-gala-valayāvali) festooned [over it], a garland of bells closely-set and pale with powdered flour-cakes, which supported two door-panels, [studded] with tin lion heads with thick, iron pins in their centres, barricaded with an ivory-rod bolt, carrying [what seemed to be] a necklace of sparkling bubbles that were mirrors oozing yellow, blue and red [light]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Śikhin (शिखिन्) represents the number 3 (three) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 3—śikhin] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śikhi (शिखि, “fire”) or Śikhin is the name of a Buddha according to the according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XV).—Accordingly, “One thing that is difficult to find is a Buddha Bhagavat. It takes innumerable koṭi of kalpas to find one. In 91 kalpas, there have been only three Buddhas. Before the good kalpa (bhadrakalpa), during the 91st kalpa, there was a Buddha called Vipaśyin, “views of all kinds”; during the 31st kalpa, there were two Buddhas; the first was called Śikhin, “fire”, and the second Viśvabhū, “victorious over all”. During the good kalpa, there were four Buddhas, Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni “golden sage”, Kaśyapa and Śākyamuni. Except for these kalpas, all the others were empty (śūnya), lacking Buddhas and miserable”.

According to the Mahāvadānasūtra, Buddha Śikhin had an “assistant” (upasthāyaka) named Kṣemakāra.—Each Buddha had his assistant (upasthāyaka), a monk specially attached to his person, entrusted with fanning him, carrying his robe and bowl for alms-round, introducing visitors. The Sanskrit Mahāvadānasūtra has drawn up a list of the assistants who served the last seven Buddhas: [...] Kṣemakāra for Śikhin [...]

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Śikhin (शिखिन्) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Śikhin).

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Śikhin (शिखिन्) (or Śikhī) refers to one of the seven mortal Buddhas (mānuṣī) whose names appear last in the list of thirty-two Buddhas in Mahāyāna Buddhism.—The last seven Tathāgatas are well-known, and are designated by the Mahāyānist as Mānuṣī or “Mortal Buddhas”. When represented, the last seven Mortal Buddhas appear all alike; they are of one colour and one form, usually sitting cross-legged,with the right hand disposed in the Bhūmisparśa-mudrā (earth-touching attitute), which is the mudrā peculiar to Akṣobhya. [...] In paintings, the Mortal Buddhas [viz., Śikhin] have usually a yellow or golden complexion. [...] Sometimes they are represented as standing, in which case the appear under a distinguishing Bodhi Tree and with a distinguishing mudrā.

Śikhin is associated with the (Mortal) Buddhaśakti named Śikhimālinī, and together they bring into existence the (Mortal) Bodhisattva named Ratnadhara.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śikhin (शिखिन्) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śikhin] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śikhin (शिखिन्) is the son of Rudrasoma from Vijaya, according to chapter 5.1 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In this very Bharata in the city Vijaya there lived a good Brāhman, named Rudrasoma. He had been childless but, because of great offerings with prayers, a son, Śikhin, was borne by his wife, Jvalanaśikhā. Once upon a time, a very cruel Rākṣasa came there, installed by a cruel fate, fond of human flesh. Daily he kills many humans, but eats only a little and leaves the rest like refuse. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śikhin.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘three’. Note: śikhin is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Sikhin in India is the name of a plant defined with Plumbago zeylanica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Plumbago rosea L. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Fontqueria (1987)
· Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden (1985)
· Fieldiana, Botany (1966)
· Taxon (1979)
· Flora of Southern Africa (1963)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Sikhin, for example health benefits, pregnancy safety, side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sikhin, (adj.) (fr. sikhā) crested, tufted Th. 1, 22 (mora); J. II, 363 (f. °inī). Also name of (a) the fire J. I, 215, 288; (b) the peacock Sn. 221, 687. (Page 708)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्).—a. [śikhā astyasya ini]

1) Pointed.

2) Crested, tufted; एकवस्त्रधरो धन्वी शिखी कनकमालया (ekavastradharo dhanvī śikhī kanakamālayā) Rām.3.38.14.

3) One who has reached the summit of knowledge.

4) Proud. -m.

1) A peacock; उष्णालुः शिशिरे निषीदति तरोर्मूलालवाले शिखी (uṣṇāluḥ śiśire niṣīdati tarormūlālavāle śikhī) V.2.23;4.8; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.151; Śiśupālavadha 4.5.

2) Fire; रिपुरिव सखीसंवासोऽयं शिखीव हिमानिलः (ripuriva sakhīsaṃvāso'yaṃ śikhīva himānilaḥ) Gītagovinda 7; न श्वेतभावमुञ्झति शङ्खः शिखिभुक्तमुक्तोऽपि (na śvetabhāvamuñjhati śaṅkhaḥ śikhibhuktamukto'pi) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.11; R.19.54; Śiśupālavadha 15.7.

3) A cock.

4) An arrow.

5) A tree.

6) A lamp.

7) A bull.

8) A horse.

9) A mountain.

1) A Brāhmaṇa.

11) A religious mendicant.

12) Name of Ketu.

13) The number 'three'.

14) The Chitraka tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्).—(1) (= Pali Sikhi), name of a former Buddha, in the standard list between Vipaśyin and Viśvabhū (Viśvabhuj): Mahāvyutpatti 88; Lalitavistara 5.15; Mahāvastu iii.94.1 ff.; 240.7; 241.17; 243.15; 244.5; 246.6; 247.10; 249.3; Dharmasaṃgraha 6 (second of the ‘7 Tathāgatas’); Divyāvadāna 333.5; Kāraṇḍavvūha 15.13; Gaṇḍavyūha 206.12; (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 68.27; 397.11; 426.9; (2) name of 62 former Buddhas of the same name who predicted each one the next (in same list as iii.240.7 etc. above): Mahāvastu iii.235.2 ff.; (3) name of a Brahman: Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 4.9; called a Mahābrahman Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 175.1; Lalitavistara 393.20 etc.; 397.12 etc.; (4) name of a Bodhisattva: Aṣṭasāhasrikā-prajñāpāramitā 449.20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्).—mfn. (-khī-khinī-khi) 1. Crested. 2. Having a lock of hair on the top of the head. 3. Proud. m. (-khī) 1. Fire. 2. A peacock. 3. A bull. 4. An arrow. 5. A tree. 6. A cock. 7. Ketu, the personified descending node. 8. A horse. 9. A mountain. 10. A Brahman. 11. A lamp. 12. A religious mendicant. E. śikhā a crest, &c., ini aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्).—i. e. śikhā + in, I. adj. 1. Crested, Mahābhārata 6, 71. 2. Having a lock of hair on the top of the head, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 9. Ii. m. 1. A cock. 2. A peacock, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 41. 3. A rellgious mendicant. 4. A mountain. [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 15. 5. An arrow. 6. A bull. 7. A horse. 8. Fire, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 11; [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 76 (but cf. also Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 125). 9. A lamp. 10. Ketu, the personified descending node, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 240 (see my transl.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्).—[adjective] wearing a tuft of hair or a crest; [masculine] peacock, fire or the god of fire, [feminine] śikhinī pea-hen.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śikhin (शिखिन्):—[from śikhā] mfn. having a tuft or lock of hair on the top of the head, [Atharva-veda; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] one who has reached the summit of knowledge, [Brahma-upaniṣad]

3) [v.s. ...] proud, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

4) [v.s. ...] m. a peacock, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a cock, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Ardea Nivea (a kind of heron or crane), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a bull, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] ‘having flame’, fire or the fire-god, [Gṛhyāsaṃgraha; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) [v.s. ...] the number ‘three’ (from the three sacred fires), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

11) [v.s. ...] a lamp, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a comet, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of Ketu (the personified descending node), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] a mountain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] a tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] Carpopogon Pruriens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Trigonella Foenum Graecum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) [v.s. ...] a kind of potherb (= sitāvara), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] an arrow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] a Brāhman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] a religious mendicant, [Horace H. Wilson]

22) [v.s. ...] Name of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

23) [v.s. ...] of Indra under Manu Tāmasa, [Purāṇa]

24) [v.s. ...] of the second Buddhi, [Lalita-vistara; Kāraṇḍa-vyūha] (cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 136 n. 1; 516])

25) [v.s. ...] of a Brahmā (with Buddhists), [Lalita-vistara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śikhin (शिखिन्):—[(khī-khinī-khi) m.] Fire; peacock; bull; arrow; tree; cock; descending node; horse; mountain; brāhman; ascetic; lamp. a. Crested.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śikhin (शिखिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sihi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sikhin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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