by Deepak bagadia | 2016 | 109,819 words
This page relates ‘Similarities and differences of both the Philosophies in Nutshell’ of the study dealing with the Spiritual Practices of Jainism and Patanjali Yoga in the context of ancient Indian Philosophy (in Sanskrit: Darshana), including extracts from the Yogasutra and the Tattvartha-Sutra. The system of Yoga offers techniques which are scientifically designed for the spiritual development of an individual. Jainism offers ethicical principles and meditation practices to assist with spiritual development.
5. Both the philosophies Yoga and Jainism are experimental and experiencial sciences.
6. Practice and implementation of it based on philosophy is must in both.
9. As a result of spiritual upliftment, many similar and different achievements are mentioned in both darsana as Siddhis in Yoga and Labdhis in Jainism. Both have warned that they are hurdles on spiritual path and should be taken only to enhance confidence. (According to Patanjali Yoga Sutra-3/37 and Dashavaikalika-sutra-9/2/22, Uttaradhyayana-sutra-35/18, 6/16).
10. Though meditation is the most essential and important step in both these philosophies for upward movement of consciousness from gross to subtle, many other different preparative stages are described for purification, training and perfection of body-mind complex. Meditation accelerates the process of evolution of consciousness. Out of five stages of spiritual evolution as mentioned by Jain scholars Shri Haribhadrasuri and added by Shri Hemchandracarya, the details of first four stages, namely adhyātma (spirituality), bhāvanā (attitude), dhyāna (meditation) and samādhi (spiritual absorption) are similar and comparable to Patanjali’s stages of vitarka, vicara, ananda, asmita of Samprajnata Samadhi. Also, the fifth one vṛttisaṃśaya (complete detachment) of Jainism is comparable to Asamprajnata Samadhi.
12. In both Yoga and Jainism, the journey of a common man has begun with actions and attachments (karma), afflictions (kleśa) followed by propensities (vāsanā) to bring impurities in citta. Meditational practices bring him out of this vicious cycle and take towards spirituality. As he reaches the final stage of spiritual progress in both the cases, i.e. dharmamegha samadhi in Yoga and 13th and 14th state of Gunasthanakas in Jainism (sayogi and ayogi kevali), you get completely free from Klesas-karma.
[Table showing comparison of spiritual practices in Jainism and Yoga]
|Purpose/ Topic||Reference: Yoga / Jainism||Spiritual Practice in Yoga||Spiritual Practice in Jainism|
|Aim of Practices. Descriptions||Patanjali Yoga Sutra, Vyasabhasya, Tattvartha-sutra||Control of cittavrtti More of philosophy (vicara) than actual practices||Control and conquering self, mind and senses. More of practices (acaras)|
|Ultimate Goal||As above||Samadhi followed by kaivalya. Isolation of purusa from prakrti achieved through astangayoga and other practices||Kaivalya followed by moksa. Achieved through meditative practices under triratna—samyagdarśanajñānacāritrāṇi mokṣamārgaḥ (Tattvartha-sutra 1.1)|
|Varieties of Practices for different categories of sadhakas||As above + Vyasabhashya||Different levels of sadhana suggested for different levels of aspirants.||Separate standards/levels: grhasthadharma and sadhu-dharma (pravṛttimārga-nivṛttimārga or śrāvakācāra-śramaṇācāra)|
|pramana: means of Acquiring knowledge||Yogasutra + Vyasabhasya Tattvartha-sutra||1) pratyaksa: direct perception through senses, 2) Anumana and 3) agama (Inference & Testimony)||Knowledge through senses & mind is indirect (paroksa): mati and sruti 1) Direct/ pratyaksa through soul: avadhi, manahparyaya, keval 2) and 3) are same|
|Prime Obstacle and Remedy||As above||avidya / Pancaklesas Remedy: kriya-yoga||mithyattva / mithyadrsti samyaktva / samyakdrsti|
|Social & Self discipline||As above||yama / niyama svadhyaya as important anga||anu / mahavrtta, gunavrtta for self discipline, svadhyaya as part of samyak darsana|
|Practices at Physical level||As above + Uttaradhyana||Physical stability with asana. Patanjali has defined posture||It starts with Sthana/ postures. Few practices for kayaklesa,|
|and Thanamga sutra||and procedure, but no names.||kayotsarga, godhuli mudra are mentioned in Agamas|
|Breathing practices||Patanjali Yoga Sutra Avasyaka sutra||Pranayama is breaking the flow of inhalation -exhalation||Regulation of breath is not strongly recommended, Japa in coordination with breath is referred|
|Internal practices||Patanjali Yoga Sutra Tattvartha-sutra||Starts with dharana: First step of antarangayoga, binding mind on an object||ekagramanah Sannivesana: salambana dhyana-focusing mind|
|Subtler practices||As above||Meditation, samadhi after dharana dhyana stage||dhyana here is a broader term than antarangayoga|
|ekagrata = Focus||As above||samprajnata samadhi||First two stages of sukladhyana: 1 & 2|
|niruddha state ultimate||As above||asamprajnata samadhi||Sukladhyana stages: 3 & 4|
|Sequence of Spiritual journey||Patanjali Yoga Sutra and Tattvathasutra||Tarakajnana-vivekakhyati– asamprajnata samadhi -kaivalya||Samyak darsana– svasamvedamjnana–samyak caritra–kevalajnana|
|Concept of Diet||As above||No direct mention for food||Anasana, Avamaudarya or Unodari i.e. fasting and restricted food: external tapa|
|Concept of Spiritual progress / States||Patanjali Yoga Sutra and Tattvathasutra + Samavayanga sutta||First know Manifested (vyakta) and unmanifested (avyakta) elements. Gradual Progress from vyuthita citta to nirbija samadhi, dharmameghasamadhi and to kaivalya||First get knowledge of jiva -ajiva of Jain traditions as samyak darsana. Fourteen gunavrttas / jiva sthanaka of adhyatmika vikasa taking to kaivalya.|
|Causes of Influx of karma||Yogasutra + bhasya Tattvathasutra||Klesas, cittavrttis (mental modifications) resulting into actions||yoga (activities of Body, mind and speech)|
|Causes of bandha or bondages. Remedies:||Yogasutra + bhasya Tattvathasutra||avidya, asmita, raga, dvesa, abhnivesa (klesa) kriyayoga||mithyattva, avirati, pramada, kasaya and yoga. anekantavada to handle abhinivesa/ klesanivrtti.|
|Means of stoppage||Yogasutra +||Abhyasa & vairagya.||samvara: gupti, samiti, dharma,|
|of karma-Influx||bhasya Tattvathasutra||antarangayoga||anupreksa, parisah-jaya, caritra|
|Means of anhilition of karma||Patanjali Yoga Sutra (4.7) and Tattvartha-sutra||A true Yogi gets rid of both merits and demerits Abhyasa-Vairagya, Kriyayoga, Astamga-Yoga and Pratiprasava of gunas: depends on level of aspirant||A true aspirant gets rid of Pap-punya both at the end. Tri-ratna: Samyak darsana -jnana-caritra. Nirjara|
|Vibhutis or siddhis v/s riddhis / labdhis||Patanjali Yoga Sutra (4.1) sthanamgsutra(2 /2),Prajnapana (6/144), aupapatika(24)||Obtained by birth, Medicines, mantra, japa-tapa.||devariddhi by birth, rajya-riddhi by various efforts, gani-riddhi by tapa. 24-64 riddhis in various agamas & other post-agama scriptures|
|Attainment of pure form of self involves||Patanjali Yoga Sutra and Tattvathasutra||gradual upward transformation by cittavritti nirodha||Transformation by total Anhilition of karma|
|Supreme authority||Patanjali Yoga Sutra and Tattvathasutra||Isvara-purusavisesa||arihanta, tirthankara|
|Attitude or Atmabhavana||Patanjali Yoga Sutra, Acharangasutta -II.||klista and aklista vrttis||samklista and asamklista bhavana|
|Approach to liberation (Broad)||Yogasutra + bhasya Tattvathasutra||All are eligible for Kaivalya irrespective of caste and religion||All, non-Jaina also can attain siddha-liberated state (Sthanangasutta 1/214-22)|
|heya, heyahetu, hana, hanopaya||Yogasutra + bhasya Tattvathasutra||samsara, samsarahetu, moksa, moksopaya||bandha, asrava, moksa, nirjara|