Parisamkhya, Parisaṃkhyā: 5 definitions


Parisamkhya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Parisaṃkhyā (परिसंख्या) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure parisaṃkhyā has not been mentioned by Bhāmaha, Udbhaṭa etc. Mammaṭa (X/Sū 185) and Viśvanātha (X/106) have defined it in similar manner.

Cirañjīva defines parisaṃkhyā-alaṃkāra—“parisaṅkhyā niṣiddhārthaniṣedhaḥ śleṣato’nyataḥ”.—“When the restriction of one thing is imposed on another thing with the help of paronomasia it is the figure parisaṃkhyā”.

Example of the parisaṃkhyā-alaṃkāra:—

vṛkṣe tādṛkphalaṃ nāsti pāpake’smin kalau yuge |
kleśārādhyeṣu sarveṣu mantrayantrādikeṣvapi ||

“In this last age of creation, full of sins, as there is no such fruit in the tree similarly there is no result in all labourious deeds with the help of incantations and machines etc”.

Notes: Here in the word follow there is śleṣa.In this verse the first meaning of the word follow is fruit and the second meaning of this is result related to a work. It has been said that in this last age of creation there is no fruit in the tree as this age is full of sins. By the prohibition of the existence of fruit in the tree it has been said that in a work which is to be accomplished by perceverence there is no result or success with the help of incantation and machine etc. On account of the prohibition of result by mentioning the prohibition of the existence of fruit, it is an example of parisaṃkhyā-alaṃkāra.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Parisamkhya in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parisaṃkhyā (परिसंख्या).—2 P.

1) To count or reckon up, add together.

2) To enumerate.

3) To make good, restore.

--- OR ---

Parisaṃkhyā (परिसंख्या).—

1) Enumeration, computation.

2) Sum, total, number: वित्तस्य विद्यापरिसंख्यया मे (vittasya vidyāparisaṃkhyayā me) R.5.21.

3) (In Mīm. phil.) Exclusion, specification, limitation to that which is enumerated or expressly mentioned, so that everything else is excluded; सांख्यदर्शनमेतावत् परिसंख्यानुदर्शनम् (sāṃkhyadarśanametāvat parisaṃkhyānudarśanam) Mb.12.36.42. [परिसंख्या (parisaṃkhyā) is opposed to विधि (vidhi) which lays down a rule for the first time, and to नियम (niyama) which restricts the choice to an alternative which is expressly stated when several such alternatives are possible]; विधिरत्यन्तमप्राप्तौ नियमः पाक्षिकं सति । तत्र चान्यत्र च प्राप्तौ परिसंख्येति गीयते (vidhiratyantamaprāptau niyamaḥ pākṣikaṃ sati | tatra cānyatra ca prāptau parisaṃkhyeti gīyate) || e. g. पञ्च पच्चनखा भक्ष्याः (pañca paccanakhā bhakṣyāḥ) usually quoted by the Mīmāṃsakas; अयं नियमविधिर्न तु परिसंख्या (ayaṃ niyamavidhirna tu parisaṃkhyā) Kull. on Ms.3.45. प्राप्तस्य पुनर्वचनं परिसंख्यार्थं भवति (prāptasya punarvacanaṃ parisaṃkhyārthaṃ bhavati) ŚB. on MS.11.1.66. परिसंख्या (parisaṃkhyā) also means a text laying down exclusion; cf. (vidhiparisaṃkhyāsaṃśaye vidhirjyāyān ŚB. on MS.6.4.7); also परिसंख्यायां स्वार्थहानिः, परार्थकल्पना, प्राप्तबाधश्च (parisaṃkhyāyāṃ svārthahāniḥ, parārthakalpanā, prāptabādhaśca) |

4) (In Rhet.) Special mention or exclusive specification, i. e. where with or without a query something is affirmed for the denial, expressed or understood, of something else similar to it. (this figure is particularly striking when it is based on a śleṣa or pun); यस्मिन् महीं शासति चित्रकर्मसु वर्णसंकराश्चापेषु गुणच्छेदः (yasmin mahīṃ śāsati citrakarmasu varṇasaṃkarāścāpeṣu guṇacchedaḥ) &c. or यस्य नूपुरेषु मुखरता विवाहेषु करग्रहणं तुरङ्गेषु कशाभिघातः (yasya nūpureṣu mukharatā vivāheṣu karagrahaṇaṃ turaṅgeṣu kaśābhighātaḥ) &c. K; for other examples see S. D.735.

5) Recapitulation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parisaṃkhyā (परिसंख्या).—[feminine] na [neuter] enumeration, sum, total.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parisaṃkhyā (परिसंख्या):—[=pari-saṃ-khyā] 1. pari-saṃ-√khyā [Parasmaipada] -khyāti ([infinitive mood] khyātum), to count, enumerate, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata];

—to limit to a certain number, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]];

—to reckon up, calculate, add together, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta];

—to make good, restore, [Caraka; Jaimini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

2) [=pari-saṃkhyā] [from parisaṃ-khyā] 2. pari-saṃkhyā f. enumeration, computation, sum, total, number, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) exhaustive enumeration (implying exclusion of any other), limitation to that which is enumerated, [Jaimini; Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti iii, 45]

4) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) special mention or exclusive specification, [Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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