Pariksha, Parīkṣā, Parikṣā: 24 definitions


Pariksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Parīkṣā and Parikṣā can be transliterated into English as Pariksa or Pariksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) means the “examination” of a topic, and refers to one of the three methods of expositions laid down in the Nyāyabhāṣya (verse 1.1.2) by Vātsyāyana.

Source: Google Books: Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1

Investigation, (parīkṣā) consists in disquisition upon the pertinence and sufficiency of the definition.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pariksha in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parikṣā (परिक्षा) refers to a “test” (viz., ‘testing’ the divinity of Rāma), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.24. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] on realising that her mind was not convinced, Śiva, the eternal lord, who is shrewd in the divine sports which He indulges in, spoke these words:—Śiva said: ‘O Goddess [Satī], if your mind is not convinced, listen to my words. You can test (parikṣā) the divinity of Rāma yourself, using your own intelligence. O beloved Satī, he is standing there beneath the Vaṭa tree. You can test him and proceed until your delusion is quelled”.

Going there at Śiva’s bidding, Satī the Goddess thought—“How shall I test (parikṣā) Rāma the forest-roamer. I shall assume the form of Sītā and shall go to him. If Rāma is Viṣṇu, he will know it and otherwise not. Deciding like this she who was deluded by Śiva became Sītā and went there to test him.’ On seeing Satī, in the guise of Sītā, Rāma the scion of Raghu’s race repeated the name Śiva, realised the truth and laughed [...]”.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) refers to the “knowledge of testing” (of precious metals and stones).—Cf. Rūpyaratnaparīkṣā which refers to one of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The references of sixty four kinds of kalā are found in the Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Śaiva-Tantras, Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa etc.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा):—Investigation or examinations which leads to correct knowledge

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Bharatiya vastu-sastra

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) refers to “examination” (i.e., of the soil-conditions), according to the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra.—Out of its eighty- three chapters, in its first forty-eight chapters, it treats three principal subjects. Firstly in the first seven chapters together with the forty-fourth and forty-fifth, the introductory subjects like need, origin, schools, scope and subject-matter of architecture and qualifications of an architect are dealt with. Next follow the regional planning, the surveying of the land, the examination of the soil-conditions (bhū-parikṣā 8) and the system of measurements (Hastalakṣaṇa 9) and the detailed canons of town-planning (Puraniveśa 10) together with the site-plans (II to 14 as well as 38), of the different categories of the Vāstupadas fit to be employed in towns and temples as well as the houses residential and the palaces of kings. Thirdly, it deals with the house-architecture (civil arcitecture or popular architecture or more appropriately the secular architecture as opposed to religious or devotional architecture, the temple-architecture) in the subsequent thirty chapters.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pariksha in Yoga glossary
Source: Tessitori Collection I (yoga)

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) refers to the “(eight) tests (of yoga)”, according to the Aṣṭaparīkṣā by Gorakhnāth, which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—There are eight tests, each defined with four terms, hence the alternate titles. the ms. and the edition also differ slightly in the sequence of the eight ‘tests’: gyāna, vicāra, bameka, saṃtoṣa, nirabala, sahaja, sīla, suṃni (ed.). The terms defining sahaja in the manuscript are those defining nirabala (corresponding heading here nivira) in edition. In edition the poem finishes with a verse stating that this ‘eight-fold Yoga test is a defining mark of bhakti’.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) refers to “examination” (of the doctrine), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who have adopted a heterodox doctrine, lacking in [knowledge of the highest] reality, proclaim various doctrines. They are not aware of the reality of things because they are not competent to examine that [doctrine] (tat-parīkṣā-akṣama) . The doctrine is said to be forbearance, humility, purity, straightforwardness, truth and restraint, celibacy, asceticism, renunciation and non-possession”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Parīkṣa (same as Parīkṣaka) possibly meant an inspector attached to some administrative department.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parīkṣā.—(IE 8-3; EI 28, 31), same as Sanskrit Parīkṣaka; Sans- kritised from Od8iyā Parichā; superintendent of a department or a governor; cf. Dvāra-parīkṣā. Note: parīkṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Parīkṣā.—(IA 10), same as divya, an ordeal. (CII 1), self-examination. Note: parīkṣā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—f (S) Examination, investigation, experiment, trial; putting to the test or proof. 2 Knowledge, skill, ability, as acquired from practice or conversancy. Ex. vaidyālā rōgācī pa0 asāvī. 3 Experimental knowledge, experience. pa0 karaṇēṃ, pa0 ghēṇēṃ To try or prove. These two phrases, thus agreeing in the general, are yet to be distinguished. The first signifies To try, prove, or determine by examination or experiment; the second To prove by trial upon one's own person, to determine by experience.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—f Examination, experiment, trial. Putting to the test or proof. Know- ledge, skill. Experimental know- ledge, experience.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parikṣā (परिक्षा).—Clay, mud.

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Parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—

1) Examination, test, trial; पत्तने विद्यमानेऽपि ग्रामे रत्नपरीक्षा (pattane vidyamāne'pi grāme ratnaparīkṣā) M.1; Manusmṛti 9.19.

2) Trial by various kinds of ordeals (in law).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—Sanskrit, investigation, testing, of valuable things: Divyāvadāna mentions eight parīkṣā in the cliché cited s.v. udgha- ṭaka, q.v., 3.19 etc., and ghaṭaka; single complete lists are rare but by combining the Divyāvadāna lists preceding oc- currences of the cliché it seems that we get vastu-, dāru-, ratna-, hasti-, aśva-, kumāra- (or puruṣa-), kumārī (°rikā-, or strī-), and vastra- (442.1, in a list also containing vastu-) parīkṣā; these all occur, in different order, Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.20.3 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parikṣā (परिक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) Mud, dirt.

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Parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—f.

(-kṣā) 1. Discrimination, investigation, examination, test, trial, experiment. 2. Trial by ordeal of various kinds: see divya. E. pari intensitive prefix, before, īkṣ to see, affs. aṅ and ṭāp; looking into any thing or person closely and minutely.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—i. e. pari-īkṣ + a, f. Examination, test, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा).—[feminine] the same.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Vaiyākaraṇasiddhāntabhūṣaṇasāraṭīkā by Bhairava Miśra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parikṣā (परिक्षा):—[=pari-kṣā] f. (√kṣai) clay, mud, dirt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) Parīkṣā (परीक्षा):—[from parīkṣ] f. inspection, investigation, examination, test, trial by ordeal of various kinds (See 2. divya), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] Name of [work]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parikṣā (परिक्षा):—(kṣā) 1. f. Mud, dirt.

2) Parīkṣā (परीक्षा):—[parī+kṣā] (kṣā) 1. f. Discrimination; test, trial; temptation.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parīkṣa (परीक्ष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Parikkha, Parikkhā, Paricchā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pariksha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pariksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parīkṣā (परीक्षा):—(nf) an examination, test; trial; -[kāla] the hour of examination; examination days; -[paddhati/praṇālī] examination system; -[bhavana] examination hall; -[śulka] examination fee; —[kā mādhyama] medium of examination; -[sudhāra] examination reform.

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