Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes definition of parinama (transformation) which is verse 5.42 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 42 of the chapter The Non-living Substances and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 5.42 - Definition of pariṇāma (transformation)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 5.42:

तद्भावः परिणामः ॥ ५.४२ ॥

tadbhāvaḥ pariṇāmaḥ || 5.42 ||

The condition (change) of a substance is its transformation–pariṇāma. (42)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [तद्भावः] जो द्रव्य का स्वभाव (निजभाव, निजतत्त्व) है [परिणामः] सो परिणाम है।

Anvayartha: [tadbhavah] jo dravya ka svabhava (nijabhava, nijatattva) hai [parinamah] so parinama hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The word transformation–pariṇāma–has been used several times (e.g., sūtra 5-37). What is the meaning of ‘pariṇāma’?

Some say that qualities (guṇa) are separate from the substance (dravya). Is that acceptable to you? No, says the commentator. From the point of view of designation (saṃjñā), etc., qualities (guṇa) are different from the substance (dravya). Yet, from another point of view, qualities (guṇa) are not different from the substance (dravya) as these are not found without the substance and are just its transformation–pariṇāma. If it is so, what is transformation–pariṇāma? It is explained as follows. The condition or form in which the substance, such as the medium of motion (dharma), exists is its transformation–pariṇāma. The transformation–pariṇāma–is of two kinds, beginningless (anādi) and with a beginning (sādi). The condition or form, i.e., pariṇāma, of facilitating movement of the medium of motion (dharma) is, from the general (sāmānya) point of view, beginningless (anādi). From the specific (viśeṣa) point of view, the same is with a beginning (sādi).

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