Nivritti, Nivṛtti: 15 definitions

Introduction

Nivritti means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Nivṛtti can be transliterated into English as Nivrtti or Nivritti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति):—First of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Mahimā, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ) are associated with the (element) earth. The first five from (including Nivṛtti) represent the five kalās. Nivṛtti is releated to the gross element earth and is the most important of the five. All these eight mātṛs are characterized as carrying a diamond in their hand. They are presided over by the Bhairava Jhaṇṭa and his consort named Aindryā. Mahimā is the seventh of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the earth.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (N) next»] — Nivritti in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति, “abstinence”) or Nivṛttirūpa refers to “one who is in the form of nivṛtti”, representing an epithet of Goddess Durgā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.11. Accordingly as Brahmā said to Nārada:—“[...] O sage, seeing her [Durgā] who was Śiva’s Energy herself, directly in front of me, my lofty shoulders bent down with devotion and I eulogised her after due obeisance. [...] Obeisance, obeisence, to Thee, who art in the form of Pravṛtti (action) [viz., pravṛtti-rūpa] and Nivṛtti (abstinence) [viz., nivṛtti-rūpa]; who art in the form of creation and sustenance of the universe. Thou art the eternal Energy of the movable and the immovable beings capable of enchanting everyone”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—A river in Śālmalidvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 47; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 42; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 28.

1b) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 98.
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति) refers to one of the five Kalās mentioned in Śāradātilaka I.26. Kalā represents one of the six adhvans being purified during the Kriyāvatī-dīkṣā: an important Śākta ritual. Dīkṣā is one of the most important rituals of the Śāktas and so called because it imparts divine knowledge and destroys evil.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—(l) cessation of recurrence of a word or words from a rule to a subsequent rule or rules; non-application of a rule consequent upon the cessation of recurrence or 27 anuvrtti cf; न ज्ञायते केनाभिप्रायेण प्रसजति केन निवृत्तिं करोति (na jñāyate kenābhiprāyeṇa prasajati kena nivṛttiṃ karoti) M. Bh. on P. 1.1.44 Vart.8. cf. also एकयोगनिर्दिष्टानां सह वा प्रवृत्तिः सह वा निवृत्तिः (ekayoganirdiṣṭānāṃ saha vā pravṛttiḥ saha vā nivṛttiḥ) Kat. Par. Vr. Pari. 9; (2) cessation or removal; cf. न च संज्ञाया निवृत्तिरुच्यते । स्वभावतः संज्ञा संज्ञिन (na ca saṃjñāyā nivṛttirucyate | svabhāvataḥ saṃjñā saṃjñina); प्रत्याय्य निवर्तन्ते । तेन अनु-बन्धानामपि निवृत्तिर्भविष्यति (pratyāyya nivartante | tena anu-bandhānāmapi nivṛttirbhaviṣyati) M. Bh. on I. 1.1. Vart. 7; cf. also M. Bh. on I. 1. 3 etc.; cf. also the usual word उदात्तनिवृत्तिस्वरः (udāttanivṛttisvaraḥ).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (N) next»] — Nivritti in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति, “disinclination”) and pravṛtti (inclination) refers to two types of Prayatna (effort) according to Viśvanātha in his Bhāṣāpariccheda.—The cause of inclination is the desire to do (cikīrṣā) notion of feasibility through one’s effort (kṛtisādhya), knowledge of being productive of the desirable (iṣṭasādhanatvamati) and the perception of the material (upādānasya adhyakṣyam). Disinclination (nivṛtti) arises from aversion and the knowledge of producing something repugnant.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Hindupedia: The Hindu Encyclopedia

There are two directions of movement or phases in life, pravṛtti and nivṛtti. Pravṛtti is accumulating and indulging. Nivṛtti is clearing debts and transcending.

In pravṛtti, yajña brings material possessions, righteousness and heavenly bliss. This helps man fulfill his aspirations as well as contribute to social living. Man gradually grows beyond desires and becomes more impersonal. This is how he enters the nivṛtti phase.

During nivṛtti, yajña is done without any desire, merely as a duty. This helps in clearing past karma, but this greatly helps the well-being of surroundings (loka kalyāṇa). This is the way the realized soul performs yajña. This is the niṣkāma karma explained in the Karma Yoga of Bhagavad Gīta. In nivṛtti, yajña brings eternal bliss. Brahmandavalli of the Taittirīya Upanishad expounds the gradation of happiness experienced by men, manes, Devatas, lord of Devatas, teacher of the Devatas, creator of Devatas and the creator of the universe in the ascending order, increasing hundred fold for each level.

At each level, the bliss is equated to that of a veda-wise person (Śrotriya) who overcame his desire (kāma hatasya). In pravṛtti one experiences the bliss of Devatas. In nivṛtti one grows beyond desires and experiences the bliss of Brahman. In nivṛtti, yajña brings liberation.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति, “formation”) refers to one of the two types of dravyendriya (physical sense organ), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.15. Dravyendriya represents one of the to types of indriya (sense-organs) of which there are five (pañcendriya)

What is the meaning of formation (nivṛtti)? Formation of a specific shape and at a specific place of a matter entity due to the rise of name karma is called formation. How many types of formation are there? It is of two kinds namely external and internal. The spreading of a small part of the soul’s space points in the shape of a sense organ is called internal formation. The formation of matter particles in the shape of a specific sense organ at a specific place is called external formation.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—f (S) pop. nivṛtta f Turning back or from; stopping, resting, ceasing; bringing to or coming to a stand. Ex. of comp. ācāra-āśauca-uṣṇa- ṛṇa-karma-kāla-krōdha-khēda-jvara-tāpa-du:kha-pāpa-bhrama-mōha- rōga-vighna-vyādhi-śaṅkā-śīta-śōka-saṅkaṭa-sandēha-santāpa-saṃ- śaya-saṃsāra-kṣōma-nivṛtti. 2 Turning from (all effects, products, and created things, to the original cause or God). 3 Cessation from worldly concerns and engagements, death: or emancipation from separate existence, absorption: also (or nivṛttimārga m) Retired and contemplative life; disregard alike of the business and pleasures of the World, and of the ordinances and works prescribed by Religion: opp. to pravṛttimārga. Ex. pravṛ- ttiprasaṅgānta dāvī nivṛtti || tyā mādhavātēṃ samarpūni vṛtti ||.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—f nivṛtta f Turning back or from; stopping, ceasing. Cessation from worldly concerns and engagements. Death.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—f.

1) Returning or coming back, return; दुर्गमेकमपुनर्निवृत्तये यं विशन्ति वशिनं मुमुक्षवः (durgamekamapunarnivṛttaye yaṃ viśanti vaśinaṃ mumukṣavaḥ) Śi.14.64; R.4. 87.

2) Disappearance, cessation, termination, suspension; शापनिवृत्तौ (śāpanivṛttau) Ś.7; R.8.82.

3) Abstaining from work, inactivity (opp. pravṛtti); प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुरासुराः (pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca janā na vidurāsurāḥ) Bg.16.7.

4) Abstaining from, aversion; प्राणाघाता- न्निवृत्तिः (prāṇāghātā- nnivṛttiḥ) Bh.3.63.

5) Leaving off, desisting from.

6) Resignation, discontinuance of worldly acts or emotions, quietism, separation from the world.

7) Repose, rest.

8) Felicity, beatitude.

9) Denial, refusal.

1) Abolition, prevention.

11) Ceasing to be valid or binding (as a rule.).

12) Completion.

13) (In drama.) Citation of an example.

Derivable forms: nivṛttiḥ (निवृत्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—f.

(-ttiḥ) 1. Cessation, completion, leaving off, rest, repose. 2. Discontinuance of worldly acts, cessation of emotions, separation from the world. 3. Denial, refusal. 4. Abolition, prevention. 5. Returning. E. ni negative prefix, vṛt to be, aff. bhāve ktinḥ see nirvṛtti.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति).—[ni-vṛt + ti], f. 1. Return, Mahābhārata 5, 7469. 2. Disappearance, 6, 5775. 3. Cessation, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 112, 16. 4. Abstinence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 56. 5. Abstaining from acting, inactivity, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 16, 7; Bhāṣāp. 148.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nivṛtti (निवृत्ति):—[=ni-vṛtti] [from ni-vṛt] f. (often [wrong reading] for nir-v) returning, return, [Mahābhārata; Raghuvaṃśa]

2) [v.s. ...] ceasing, cessation, disappearance, [???; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] leaving off, abstaining or desisting from ([ablative]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Bhartṛhari] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] escaping from ([ablative]), [Pañcatantra ii, 87] ([wrong reading] ttaḥ)

5) [v.s. ...] ceasing from worldly acts, inactivity, rest, repose (opp. to pra-vṛtti), [Bhagavad-gītā; Prabodha-candrodaya]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [dramatic language]) citation of an example, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] suspension, ceasing to be valid (as of a rule), [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

8) [v.s. ...] destruction, perdition, [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]

9) [v.s. ...] denial, refusal, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) [v.s. ...] abolition, prevention, [ib.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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