Nivritta, Nivṛtta, Nivṛttā: 19 definitions


Nivritta means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Nivṛtta and Nivṛttā can be transliterated into English as Nivrtta or Nivritta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Nivratt.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Manblunder: Vishnu Sahasranama 765 - 777

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) means indifference. The one who has renounced worldly pleasures is called nivṛttātma.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—One of the 108 karaṇas (minor dance movement) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 4. The instructions for this nivṛtta-karaṇa is as follows, “hands and feet first thrown out, and the Trika to be turned round and the two hands to be Recita.”. A karaṇa represents a minor dance movements and combines sthāna (standing position), cārī (foot and leg movement) and nṛttahasta (hands in dancing position).

2a) Nivṛttā (निवृत्ता, “retreated”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the neck (grīvā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These ‘gestures of the neck (grīvā)’ should follow the gestures made with the head (śiras). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

2b) Nivṛttā (निवृत्ता, “turned round”) also refers to a specific ‘movement of the waist’ (kaṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 10. The waist is one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used to perform certain gestures (āṅgika). These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

Source: Natya Shastra

1) Nivṛttā (निवृत्ता).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the neck (grīvā);—Instructions: neck with the face towards the front. Uses: in (indicating) going towards one’s own place.

2) Nivṛttā (निवृत्ता, “turned round”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with the waist (kaṭi);—Instructions: in turning to the front from the reverse position. Uses: in turning round.

Source: Northern Indian Music Volume I

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त, “freed”) refers to one of the gamakas (graces):—Freed (nivṛtta) is the opposite of Obeisance (nāmita).—“Touching another note for one semi-quaver, as in bindu (=āhata), but stopping it without any tendency to come back is called nivṛtta (freed)” (Bṛhaddeśī, commentary on 1.120)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Nivṛttā (निवृत्ता) refers to one of the “five movements of the waist” (in Sanskrit Dramas), as conveyed through Āṅgikābhinaya: one of the four divisions of Abhinaya or “ways to convey or represent one’s emotion to others”, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The āṅgikābhinaya includes the histrionic representation of the limbs which is simply known as physical gestures. The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa seems to take the word kaṭi in feminine gender and makes the divisions of waist movements in feminine gender. When someone turns back and the actor focus the back of that person, at that time the actor should take the nivṛttā movement.

2) Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) refers to one of the 108 kinds of Karaṇa (“coordination of precise movements of legs and hands”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—Accordingly, karaṇas are the coordination of precise movements of legs and hands performed in a particular posture. The Nāṭyaśāstra also gives its view point in the same spirit. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, one hundred and eight kinds of karaṇas are accepted, e.g., Nivṛtta.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nivritta in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) refers to “renunciatory action”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.29. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Then inciting the fury of Dakṣa further, she said to Viṣṇu and all other Devas and sages unhesitatingly.. Satī said:—‘[...] In the Vedas two sorts of actions are ordained—direct (pravṛtta) and renunciatory (nivṛtta). Scholars differentiate between these two and hold that they cannot be simultaneous and they cannot occur in a single entity. But in Śiva the great Brahman, these actions do not have any effect’”.

2) Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) refers to “having cured (a curse)” (as opposed to Anivṛtta—‘not having been cured’), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.2 (“The birth of Śiva’s son”).—Accordingly, as Śiva said to Agni: “An improper action has been committed by you in swallowing my semen. Hence your sin has become formidable at my bidding and the burning sensation has not been cured (anivṛtta). Now that you have sought refuge in me you are sure to be happy. I am pleased with you. All your misery will be dissolved. Deposit carefully that semen in the womb of some good woman. You will become happy and particularly relieved of the burning sensation”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—p (S) Turned back or returned. (Whether in the neuter or passive sense.) 2 That has been stopped: also that has desisted or stood. 3 That confers emancipation from existence as a creature.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—p Turned back or returned.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—p. p.

1) Returned, turned back.

2) Gone, departed, vanished, disappeared.

3) Ceased, refrained or abstained from, stopped, desisted; तस्थौ निवृत्तान्यवरा भिलाषः (tasthau nivṛttānyavarā bhilāṣaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.51.

4) Abstaining from worldly acts, abstracted from this world, quiet; प्रवृत्तं च निवृत्तं च द्विविधं कर्म वैदिकम् (pravṛttaṃ ca nivṛttaṃ ca dvividhaṃ karma vaidikam) Manusmṛti 12.88.

5) Repenting of improper conduct.

6) Finished, completed, whole;

7) Set (as the sun); see वृत् (vṛt) with नि (ni).

-ttam 1 Return.

2) A mind free from the influence of passions.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—mfn.

(-ttaḥ-ttā-ttaṃ) 1. Ceased, stopped. 2. Abstaining from worldy acts, &c. 3. Abstracted from or independent of worldly motives. 4. Desisting from or repenting of any improper conduct. 5. Re- turned, turned back. 6. Gone, departed. 7. Finished, completed. E. ni prohibitory prefix, vṛt to be, aff. kta; see nirvṛtta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त).—[adjective] returned, gone, departed, fled; having escaped, desisted or abstained from ([ablative] or —°); deprived of ([ablative]); ceased, vanished, disappeared, no more, to be supplied ([grammar]); independent of wordly motives (an action).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nivṛtta (निवृत्त):—[=ni-vṛtta] [from ni-vṛt] mfn. (often [wrong reading] for nir-vṛtta, vi-vṛtta, ni-vṛta) turned back, returned to ([accusative]), [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] rebounded from ([ablative]), [Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] retreated, fled (in battle), [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] set (as the sun), [Rāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] averted from, indifferent to, having renounced or given up ([ablative] or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] abstracted from this world, quiet, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

7) [v.s. ...] rid or deprived of ([ablative]), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] passed away, gone, ceased, disappeared, vanished, [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] (with karman n. an action) causing a cessation (of mundane existence), [Manu-smṛti xii, 88] (opp. to pravṛtta)

10) [v.s. ...] ceased to be valid or binding (as a rule), [Patañjali; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

11) [v.s. ...] omitted, left out (cf. [compound] below)

12) [v.s. ...] finished, completed, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) [v.s. ...] desisting from or repenting of any improper conduct, [ib.]

14) [v.s. ...] n. return (See durniv)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त):—[ni-vṛtta] (ttaḥ-ttā-ttaṃ) a. Ceased, stopped; reformed; finished; gone.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇiaṭṭa, Ṇiutta, Ṇivaṭṭa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nivritta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nivritta in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त) [Also spelled nivratt]:—(a) disencumbered; retired; freed; liberated; unoccupied; finished, completed, terminated.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nivṛtta (ನಿವೃತ್ತ):—

1) [adjective] gone back; returned.

2) [adjective] gone away or out of sight; departed or disappeared.

3) [adjective] finished; completed; brought to an end.

4) [adjective] turned aside.

5) [adjective] being indifferent to or withdrawn from the worldly life, pleasures, etc.

6) [adjective] having given up one’s work, business, career, etc., esp. because of advanced age.

--- OR ---

Nivṛtta (ನಿವೃತ್ತ):—

1) [noun] he who is liberated, freed from.

2) [noun] a man who has given up his work, business, career, etc. because of advanced age.

3) [noun] (dance.) a turning of one’s neck sideways.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nivritta in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Nivṛtta (निवृत्त):—adj. 1. retired; discontinued; refrained or abstained; 2. returned; turned back; 3. departed; disappeared; vanished; 4. finished; completed;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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