Mukhara, Mukharā: 25 definitions

Introduction:

Mukhara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mukhar.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Mukhara (मुखर) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Bhīṣaṇa, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (e.g., Bhīṣaṇa) has a further eight sub-manifestations (e.g., Mukhara), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.

When depicting Mukhara according to traditional iconographic rules (śilpaśāstra), one should depcit him (and other forms of Bhīṣaṇa) having a yellow color and should carry in his hands the kuṇḍa, the kheṭaka, the parigha (a kind of club) and bhiṇḍipāla. The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Mukhara (मुखर) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Kalahaṃsā in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Mukhara (मुखर) refers to “resonant sounds (of the humming of bees)”, according to the Skandapurāṇa 2.2.13 (“The Greatness of Kapoteśa and Bilveśvara”).—Accordingly: as Jaimini said to the Sages: “[...] [Dhūrjaṭi (Śiva)] went to the holy spot Kuśasthalī. He performed a very severe penance near Nīla mountain. [...] By the power of his penance that holy spot became one comparable to Vṛndāvana, the forest near Gokula. Its interior was rendered splendid by lakes, ponds, reservoirs and rivers. It was full of different kinds of trees and creepers (laden) with fruits and flowers of all seasons. It was resonant with the humming sounds [i.e., mukharajhaṃkārairmukharāśayā] of bees inebriated with honey. It was full of different kinds of flocks of birds. It was a comfortable place of resort for all creatures. Since by means of his penance Śiva became (small) like a dove, he came to be called Kapoteśvara at the behest of Murāri (Viṣṇu). It is at his bidding that the Three-eyed Lord always stays here along with Mṛḍānī (Pārvatī). [...]”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Mukhara (मुखर).—A serpent of the family of Kaśyapa. (Śloka 16, Chapter 103, Udyoga Parva).

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mukhara (मुखर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.14, I.35, V.101.16/V.103) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mukhara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7 (shaivism)

Mukharā (मुखरा) refers to one of the twenty-four names of the Lāmās, according to the 8th-centry Jayadratha-yāmala.—While describing the special practices of the Lāmās mentions the special language to be used with them. This language is described as monosyllabic (ekākṣara-samullāpa) and may thus be considered to have belonged to the Sino-Tibetan family as the Lamas themselves belonged to the Tibetan group of mystics. The Lāmās [viz., Mukharā], according to this language, had 24 different names.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Mukhara (मुखर) (lit. “one who is talkative”) is a synonym (another name) for the Crow (Kāka), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Mukhara in Arts glossary
Source: archive.org: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Mukhara (मुखर) refers to “continuous sound (of the ringing of the small bells)” (attached to the legs of hawks), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “Finding the birds healthy and well-developed, [...] when they look like snakes which have just cast off their old sloughs, when with their feet fastened with silken jesses they assume variegated colours from the rays of the jewels in their golden necklaces, their leg rings resound with small bells (kiṅkiṇī-rāva-mukhara), [...] their owner should then call them on auspicious day. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mukhara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mukhara : (adj.) garrulous; talkative.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Mukhara, (adj.) (cp. Sk. mukhara; fr. mukha) garrulous, noisy, scurrilous S. I, 203; V, 269; A. I, 70; III, 199, 355; Th. 1, 955; Sn. 275; J. III, 103; DhA. II, 70 (ati°); PvA. 11.—opp. amukhara M. I, 470; Th. 1, 926; Pug. 35; Miln. 414. (Page 534)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukhara (मुखर).—a S Talkative. 2 Sonorous, sounding, that emits sound.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukhara (मुखर).—a Talkative. Sonorous.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर).—a. [mukhaṃ mukhavyāpāraṃ kathanaṃ rāti rā-ka Tv. cf. P. V.2. 17 Vārt. also]

1) Talkative, garrulous, loquacious; मुखरा खल्वेषा गर्भदासी (mukharā khalveṣā garbhadāsī) Ratnāvalī 2; मुखरतावसरे हि विराजते (mukharatāvasare hi virājate) Ki. 5.16; तद्रूपवर्णनामुखर (tadrūpavarṇanāmukhara) K.189; Bhaṭṭikāvya 2.54.

2) Noisy, making a continuous sound, tinkling, jingling (as an anklet &c.); स्तम्बेरमा मुखरशृङ्खलकर्षिणस्ते (stamberamā mukharaśṛṅkhalakarṣiṇaste) R.5.72; अन्तः- कूजन्मुखरशकुनो यत्र रम्यो वनान्तः (antaḥ- kūjanmukharaśakuno yatra ramyo vanāntaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 2.25,2; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.5; मुखरमधीरं त्यज मञ्जीरं रिपुमिव केलिषु लोलम् (mukharamadhīraṃ tyaja mañjīraṃ ripumiva keliṣu lolam) Gītagovinda 5; Mk. 1.35; तोयोत्सर्गस्तनितमुखरो मा स्म भूः (toyotsargastanitamukharo mā sma bhūḥ) Me. 39.

3) Sounding, resonant or resounding with (usually at the end of comp.); स्थाने स्थाने मुखरककुभो झाङ्कृतैर्निर्झराणाम् (sthāne sthāne mukharakakubho jhāṅkṛtairnirjharāṇām) Uttararāmacarita 2. 14; मण्डलीमुखरशिखरे (maṇḍalīmukharaśikhare) (latākuñje) Gītagovinda 2; गोदावरीमुखरकन्दर- गिरिः (godāvarīmukharakandara- giriḥ) Uttararāmacarita 1; R.13.4.

4) Expressive or indicative of.

5) Foul-mouthed, abusive, scurrilous.

6) Mocking, ridiculing.

-raḥ 1 A crow.

2) A leader, the chief or principal person; यदि कार्यविपत्तिः स्यान्मुखरस्तत्र हन्यते (yadi kāryavipattiḥ syānmukharastatra hanyate) H.1. 27.

3) A conch-shell.

-rī The bit of a bridle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर).—adj. (in Sanskrit noisy, especially garrulous, but also of animals and inanimate objects; Lex. as subst. a crow, and according to MW as adj. scurrilous, a meaning which the word is said to have in Pali), perhaps impudent (in action, by transfer from scurrilous, impudent in speech?): in Mahāvastu [Page434-a+ 71] iii.127.15 said of a crow which kept snatching food from a king's servants, eṣo kākaḥ dhṛṣṭo mukharo pragal- bho…; the regular Sanskrit meaning seems impossible here, since the complaint was not against the crow's noise but his impudent behavior. Cf. amukhara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Foul-mouthed, speaking harshly or scurrilously. 2. Sounding, noisy. 3. Speaking in ridicule of, rallying, mocking, &c. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A ring-leader. 2. A conch-shell. 3. Leading, preceding. 4. A crow. E. mukha the mouth, ra aff., implying depreciation, or to go, ḍa aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर).—[mukha + ra], I. adj. 1. Foulmouthed, speaking harshly or scurrilously, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 61. 2. Rallying. 3. Resounding, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 69, 5; noisy, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 16, 9; [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 38. Ii. m. 1. A leader, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 28, M. M. 2. A conch-shell.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर).—[adjective] talkative, loquacious, garrulous, noisy; eloquent on, resonant with (—°); [abstract] [feminine] —[masculine] chief, ringleader; [feminine] ī bit of a bridle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukhara (मुखर):—[from mukha] mf(ā)n. ([from] mukha; cf. [Pān v 2 107], [vArttika] i, [Patañjali]) talkative, garrulous, loquacious (said also of birds and bees), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

2) [v.s. ...] noisy, tinkling (as an anklet etc.), [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Kālidāsa]

3) [v.s. ...] sound resonant or eloquent with, expressive of ([compound]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) [v.s. ...] scurrilous, [Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

5) [v.s. ...] foul-mouthed, scurrilous speaking harshly or abusively, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] a conch shell, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a leader, principal, chief, [Hitopadeśa]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] of a rogue, [Catalogue(s)]

11) Mukharā (मुखरा):—[from mukhara > mukha] f. Name of a serpent-maid, [Kāraṇḍa-vyūha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Foul-mouthed; noisy. m. A conch, a crow; leading.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mukhara (मुखर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Muhala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mukhara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Mukhara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर) [Also spelled mukhar]:—(a) explicit; outspoken; loud; talkative, garrulous.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mukhara (ಮುಖರ):—[noun] a kind of ring worn by women on their nose.

--- OR ---

Mukhara (ಮುಖರ):—

1) [adjective] talking or fond of talking a great deal; loquacious; talkative.

2) [adjective] making sound; sounding.

3) [adjective] making continuous jingling sound or tinkling sounds of metal coins.

4) [adjective] resounding or reechoing; producing resonance; resonant.

5) [adjective] expressing one’s inner feelings, ideas, emotions, etc.

6) [adjective] treating disdainfully; insulting; deriding.

7) [adjective] using or fond of using, sarcasm.

--- OR ---

Mukhara (ಮುಖರ):—

1) [noun] a sound; noise.

2) [noun] a man who talks or fond of talking a great deal.

3) [noun] a man who is skilled in speaking.

4) [noun] a man who has promised (something to anotehr).

5) [noun] a man who uses abusive, contemptible language.

6) [noun] the act of mocking; mockery.

7) [noun] spokenwords; utterance; speech.

8) [noun] a crow.

9) [noun] (masc.) a leader.

10) [noun] the large, spiral, univalve shell of any of various marine mollusks.

--- OR ---

Mukhāra (ಮುಖಾರ):—[noun] the area or yard in front of a house.

--- OR ---

Mukhāra (ಮುಖಾರ):—[adverb] on the face; (insulting) openly.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Mukhara (मुखर):—adj. 1. talkative; garrulous; loquacious; 2. noisy; making a continuous sound; tinkling; jingling; 3. sounding; resonant or resounding with; 4. expressive or indicative of; 5. foul-mouthed; abusive; scurrilous; 6. mocking; ridiculing;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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