Mukhya, Mukhyā: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Mukhya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Mukhy.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Mukhya (मुख्य).—The gods of Sāvarṇi epoch.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 15.

2) Mukhyā (मुख्या).—The fifth entrance on the east of the city of Puramjana. Through this Puramjana went to the kingdoms of Āpaṇa and Bahūdana with his companions Rasajña and Vipaṇa; allegorically the mouth.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 25. 49; 29. 11.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Mukhya (मुख्य) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the northern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Mukhya).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Mukhya (मुख्य) refers to the “best (soldiers)”, according to the Mahābhārata 10.8.64–68.—Accordingly, “Good sir, they saw her, Kālarātri, standing, smiling, alone, blue-black in hue, with red mouth and eyes, garlands and unguents of crimson, red robes, a noose in one hand, a peacock feather [in her hair], binding men, horses and elephants with her horrifying fetters while she stood, capturing many headless ghosts trapped in her noose, leading those asleep in their dreams to other Nights. And at all times the best soldiers (yodha-mukhya) saw the son of Droṇa slaughtering. From the time when the battle between the Kuru and Pāṇḍava armies began, they saw [both] that evil spirit and the son of Droṇa. The son of Droṇa later felled those who had first been struck by this divinity [Kālarātri], terrorizing all creatures while shouting out ferocious bellows”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Mukhya (मुख्य).—Main, , principal, primary substantive as contrasted with a gualifying substantive;cf.गौणमुख्ययो-मुख्ये कार्यसंप्रत्ययः (gauṇamukhyayo-mukhye kāryasaṃpratyayaḥ) Par. Sek. Pari. 15.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Mukhya (मुख्य) refers to the “foremost” (among the [time measuring] instruments), according to Govinda Daivajña’s Pīyūṣadhārā (verse p.424), a commentary on Rāma Daivajña’s Muhūrtacintāmaṇi (AD 1600).—Accordingly, “[...] After having seen the rise of half of the Sun’s orb, or the setting of the half likewise, the instrument having the aforementioned characteristics should be deposited, with this sacred formula. [...] ‘You have been created a long time ago by Brahma as the foremost among the [time measuring] instruments [i.e., mukhya-yantra]. Therefore, for increasing the longevity of the couple and for conferring on them sons, wealth and the like, O water clock of mine, grant them the fulfilment of their desires’.”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Mukhya (मुख्य) refers to the “main argument”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī 1.178.—Accordingly, “And there is no argument proving [the existence] of the [external object], and the main (mukhya) [argument] refuting [its existence] amounts to this much: the fact that there [can] be no manifestation (prakāśana) [of it] even as a [mere] object of inference if [this object] is distinct from the manifesting consciousness (prakāśa)?”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Mukhya.—(EI 32), city elder; member of the city council. Cf. Hindī Mukhiyā, a village elder. (CII 1), chief officer. (EI 16), see mukha meaning ‘head’, ‘heading’ or ‘sum’. mukhy-āhāra, cf. mukha-āhāra. Note: mukhya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mukhya : (adj.) chief; foremost; most important.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mukhya (मुख्य).—a (S) Chief, primary, principal, leading.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mukhya (मुख्य).—a Chief, pincipal. mukhyaśa: ad Chiefly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य).—a. [mukhe ādau bhavaḥ yat]

1) Relating to the mouth or the face; अथ ह य एवायं मुख्यः प्राणः (atha ha ya evāyaṃ mukhyaḥ prāṇaḥ) Ch. Up.1.2.7; Ms.5.141.

2) Chief, principal, foremost, first, preeminent, prominent; चन्दनस्य च मुख्यस्य पादपैरुपशोभितम् (candanasya ca mukhyasya pādapairupaśobhitam) Mb.12.169.8; द्विजातिमुख्यः, वारमुख्या, योधमुख्याः (dvijātimukhyaḥ, vāramukhyā, yodhamukhyāḥ) &c.

3) Foremost, recited first; मुख्येन वा नियम्येत (mukhyena vā niyamyeta) MS.1.5.6 (where explaining mukhya, śabara writes mukhyatvaṃ nāma rathantarasya prathamādhītatvam).

-khyaḥ A leader, guide.

-khyam 1 A principal rite or ordinance.

2) Reading or teaching the Vedas.

3) The month reckoned from new moon to new moon.

4) The category called अपूर्व (apūrva) (in pūrva-mīmāṃsā); मुख्यभेदे यथाधिकारं भावः स्यात् (mukhyabhede yathādhikāraṃ bhāvaḥ syāt) MS.7.1.1 (where śabara explains mukhya by apūrva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य).—mfn.

(-khyaḥ-khyā-khyaṃ) 1. Chief, primary, principal. 2. Relating to the face or mouth. n.

(-khyaṃ) 1. A principal or essential rite or ordinance. 2. Reading or teaching the Vedas. 3. The month when reckoned from new moon to new moon. m.

(-khyaḥ) A leader. E. mukha chief, ya aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य).—i. e. mukha + ya, I. adj. 1. Being in, or belonging to, the face. 2. Fallen from the mouth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 141. 3. Chief, principal, [Pañcatantra] 158, 2; [Hitopadeśa] 83, 18; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 183, 14; 189, 14. Ii. n. A principal rite or ordinance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य).—[adjective] being in (on) the mouth or face, coming from the mouth; being at the head or at the beginning, best, principal, original, primary, first among (—°). [masculine] chief, leader.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mukhya (मुख्य):—[from mukha] mf(ā)n. being in or coming from or belonging to the mouth or face, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] being at the head or at the beginning, first, principal, chief, eminent (ifc. = the first or best or chief among, rarely = mukha or ādi q.v.), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. a leader, guide, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of a tutelary deity (presiding over one of the 81 or 63 divisions or Padas of an astrological house), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

5) [v.s. ...] [plural] a class of gods under Manu Sāvarṇi, [Purāṇa]

6) Mukhyā (मुख्या):—[from mukhya > mukha] f. Name of the residence of Varuṇa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

7) Mukhya (मुख्य):—[from mukha] n. an essential rite, [Horace H. Wilson]

8) [v.s. ...] reading or teaching the Vedas, [ib.]

9) [v.s. ...] the month reckoned from new moon to new moon, [ib.]

10) [v.s. ...] moustache, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य):—[(khyaḥ-khyā-khyaṃ) a.] Chief. n. A principal rite; reading the Vedas.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Mukhya (मुख्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Mukkha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mukhya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Mukhya (मुख्य) [Also spelled mukhy]:—(a) principal, chief; main; salient; staple; leading; capital, cardinal; pre-eminent; predominant; —[gāyaka] the precentor; ~[ta/~tayā] primarily; chiefly, mainly; ~[] leading status, preeminence; predominance; —[pātra] the protagonist, the leading character; —[maṃtrī] chief minister; —[svara] cardinal vowel; predominant voice.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Mukhya (ಮುಖ್ಯ):—

1) [adjective] of or for the face or mouth; facial or oral.

2) [adjective] meaning a great deal; having much significance, consequence or value; important.

3) [adjective] having or acting as if having, power, authority, influence, high position, etc.

4) [adjective] of a superior class, rank, quality, etc.; high-class.

5) [adjective] first in place or time; foremost.

6) [adjective] and others; and the like; et cetera.

--- OR ---

Mukhya (ಮುಖ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] that which is of much significance, consequence or value; an important thing.

2) [noun] a thing of a superior class, rank or quality; a high-class thing.

3) [noun] a man of consequence; an important man.

4) [noun] the head or leader of a group organisation, etc.; a person with the highest title or authority; the chief.

5) [noun] that which is essential, indispensable.

6) [noun] (phil.) name of one of the vital air or wind in the body.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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