Muktahara, Muktahāra, Muktāhāra, Mukta-hara: 9 definitions

Introduction:

Muktahara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Muktāhāra (मुक्ताहार) refers to a “necklace with pearls”, representing a type of “neck-ornament” (kaṇṭhābhūṣaṇa), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—Hāra is a general term used to designate either a garland (invariably used just like the term mālā) or a long necklace with single or multiple strings or laces. They may be of pearls (muktāhāra) and of gems (ratnahāra), worn around the neck and generally falling over the breast to the sternum. In the icons of Government Museum, Chennai, one can notice the hāra extended to the level of kakṣasūtra.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (p)

Muktāhāra (मुक्ताहार) refers to “one who is adorned with a pearl necklace”, and is mentioned in the meditation on Garuḍa in the Varuṇamaṇḍala, according to the second chapter of the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā (Toxicology).—The Kāśyapasaṃhitā describes the different forms of Garuḍa in the five bhūta-maṇḍalas on which the aspirant has to meditate upon to cure the snake-bite victim from the poison which could have killed him. In the Varuṇa-maṇḍala, Garuḍa is contemplated upon as seated in a pure lotus, marching towards the streams of water (nectar) released from the nectarine pot in his hand, shining with conch and discus, adorned with a pearl necklace (muktāhāra), crown, garland and with two huge teeth like the crescent moon, cooling the victim of snake bite like the Moon.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Muktahara in Jainism glossary
Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Muktahāra (मुक्तहार) is the name of a Vidyādhara-city, situated on mount Vaitāḍhya (in the northern row), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. [...] Ten yojanas above the earth, King Vinami made at once sixty cities in a northern row at the command of the Nāga-king. [viz., Muktahāra]. Vinami himself, who had resorted to Dharaṇendra, inhabited the city Gaganavallabha, the capital of these. [...] The two rows of Vidyādhara-cities looked very magnificent, as if the Vyantara rows above were reflected below. After making many villages [viz., Muktahāra] and suburbs, they established communities according to the suitability of place. The communities there were called by the same name as the community from which the men had been brought and put there. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Muktahara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muktāhāra (मुक्ताहार).—a pearl-necklace.

Derivable forms: muktāhāraḥ (मुक्ताहारः).

Muktāhāra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms muktā and hāra (हार).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muktāhāra (मुक्ताहार).—[masculine] string of pearls.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Muktāhāra (मुक्ताहार):—[from mukta > muc] 1. muktāhāra mfn. (for 2. muktā-h See under muktā below) taking no food, [Catalogue(s)]

2) [=muktā-hāra] [from muktā > muc] 2. muktā-hāra m. (for 1. See under mukta, [column]1) a string of pearls, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

[Sanskrit to German]

Muktahara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Muktahara in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Muktāhāra (ಮುಕ್ತಾಹಾರ):—[noun] a string of pearls.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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