Malava, Mālava, Mālavā: 31 definitions
Malava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Mālavā (मालवा).—A Purāṇic river to be remembered. (Śloka 25, Chapter 165, Anuśāsana Parva).
2) Mālava (मालव).—An ancient country on the west coast of India. Mahābhārata contains the following statements regarding Mālava:
2) (i) The people of Mālava participated in the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira. (Śloka 11, Chapter 34, Sabhā Parva).
2) (ii) Armed young Kṣatriyas of Mālava presented Yudhiṣṭhira with great wealth. (Śloka 15, Chapter 52, Sabhā Parva).
2) (iii) Karṇa conquered Mālavadeśa. (Śloka 20, Chapter 254, Vana Parva).
2) (iv) Mālava was one of the prominent and renowned countries of ancient India (Śloka 60, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).
2) (v) Obeying the order of Bhīṣma the people of Mālava attacked Arjuna. (Śloka 76, Chapter 59, Bhīṣma Parva).
2) (vi) Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered Mālavadeśa. (Śloka 16, Chapter 19, Droṇa Parva).
2) (vii) Paraśurāma exterminated the Kṣatriyas of Mālavadeśa. (Śloka 11, Chapter 70, Droṇa Parva).
3) Mālava (मालव).—The Kṣatriyas born to king Aśvapati of his wife Mālavī are known as Mālavas. (Śloka 49, Chapter 297, Vana Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Mālava (मालव).—(mālva)—sacred to Lalitā.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 95.
1b) (c) dvijas of; became Vrātyas after the days of Purañjaya.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 38; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 17.
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 44. 52; 163. 67; 213. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 132.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [50 (V) 2].
Mālava (मालव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.29.6, II.48.14, VI.47.16, VI.83.6, VI.83.6, VI.112.109, VIII.4.46) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mālava) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Mālava (मालव) is the name of a country pertaining to the Āvantī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the grand style (sāttvatī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Mālavā (मालवा) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Mālwā or Avantī, which capital was Ujjayini.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Mālava (मालव) is the name of an upapīṭhas, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra verse 3.135-138, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The Upapīṭhas are Śrījayantī, Kulutā, along with Mālava and Mahaujas, Kāṃcīpura, Kurukṣetra, Barbara, and Sāṃvara.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Mālava (मालव) [=Mālavā?] refers to a country belonging to “Uttaratas or Uttaradeśa (northern division)” classified under the constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada represent the northern division consisting of [i.e., Mālava] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Mālava (मालव) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (two types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Mālava] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
The name of various Damila chiefs, allies of Kulasekhara (Cv.lxxvi. 132, 137, 210, 235, 265ff., 284). Two of them were called Lambakannas. Cv.lxxvii.27.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Mālava (मालव) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Drumacchāyā, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Drumacchāyā is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the northern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Locanā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.
Mālava is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Mālava is to be contemplated as situated on the shoulders. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitionersSource: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
1) Mālava (मालव) is one of the four Upapīthas (‘sacred spot’) present within the Cittacakra (‘circle of mid’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Khecarī (‘a woman going in the sky’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Cittacakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Mālava) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body. Mālava is identified with Pañcāla in the Vajraḍākavivṛti.
Mālava has the presiding Ḍākinī named Drumacchāyā whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Vajradeha. The associated internal location are the ‘shoulders’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) is the ‘heart’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Pañcāla (Mālava), Gṛhadevatā, Godāvarī and Arbuda are associated with the family deity of Saṃtrāsinī; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Buddhaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Godāvarī, Devīkoṭa, Rāmeśvara and Mālava (Pañcāla).
2) Mālava (मालव) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Mālava] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.
Mālava is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Sekā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Puṃsasvara. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the mudrā and mudgara and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being a madhu-tree.Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Mālava (मालव) is the pīṭha associated with Drumacchā and Vajradehaka, according to the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".
Associated elements of Drumacchā and Vajradehaka:
Circle: kāyacakra (mind-wheel) (blue);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Drumacchā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Vajradehaka;
Bodily constituent: hṛdaya (heart);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): samādhīndriya (faculty of concentration).
Mālava (मालव) is the name of Upapīṭha (category of holy sites), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “Now, [the Blessed One] has taught [holy sites] such as the pīṭha and upapīṭha in sequence. (1) The pīṭha [sites] are Pūrṇagiri, Jālandhara, and Oḍyāyana. Arbuda is likewise the pīṭha. (2) With Godāvarī, the upapīṭha [sites] are Rāmeśvara and Devikoṭa (for Devīkoṭa). Mālava is also the upapīṭha . [...] Girls who are in these places are of [the nature of] the innate, born in their own birthplaces. [...]”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Mālava (मालव) (in Chinese: Mo-lo-p'o) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Mṛgaśiras or Mṛgaśirasnakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Mṛgaśiras] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Mālava] for the sake of protection and prosperity.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Mālava (मालव) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Mālavas, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Mālava (मालव) is the name of a tribe mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. These tribes (e.g., the Mālavas, latin: Malavas) migrated to places other than their original settlemenets and gave their names to the janapadas they settled. They replaced the old Vedic tribes in Punjab and Rajasthan though some of them are deemed as offshoots of the main tribe..Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)
Mālava is the name of a locality mentioned in a Jain inscription found at Shergarh. The Mālavas originally lived in the Punjab and later settled in the Jaipur region of Rājasthān. But the application of the name Mālava to the ancient janapadas of Avanti (with its capital at Ujjayinī and comprising the present west Mālwā) and Ākara or Daśārṇa (with its capital at Vidiśā, i.e. modern Besnagar near Bhīlsā, and comprising the present East Mālwā) is not much earlier than the early medieval period. It was, however, widely accepted during the age of the Paramāras. We know that the inclusion of the Shergarh region in the dominions of the Paramāra king Udayāditya of Mālava is indicated by another Shergarh inscription noticed above.
The inscription (mentioning Mālava) was found found on the pedestal below the central figure of a group of three images of Jain Tīrthaṅkaras in a small temple outside the fort at Shergarh (ancient Kośavardhana). The three Tīrthaṅkaras represented are Śānti (Śāntinātha), Kunthu or Kunthanātha and Ara (Aranātha).Source: academia.edu: A Textual and Intertextual Study of the Mudrārākṣasa (history)
Mālava probably correspond to the Greek Malloi.—The Malloi of the Greek chronicles have been identified as the people known in Indic sources as Mālava, after whom the north-western region of central India is named (today usually spelt Malwa in English). It does, however, seem that there were indeed Mālavas in the north-western frontier areas at least until the middle of the first millennium CE.
The Bṛhatsaṃhitā of Varāhamihira (mid-sixth century) described Mālavas as living in the north of the Indian subcontinent, from where some of them seem to have migrated in early historic times to present-day Malwa. the Mudrārākṣasa does refer to the Mālava people by name, and though the possibility cannot be excluded, it is unlikely that they are meant to be the same nation as the Malayas.
The nation of the Mālavas lent their name to a region in central India on the northern side of the Vindhya range, known to this day as the Malwa plateau. There is thus good reason to assume that these Mālavan aristocrats were not tribal chieftains of the north, but members of courtly circles in the heartland. This could not have been the case in Candragupta Maurya’s days, and must therefore be an indication of the political conditions in Viśākhadatta’s time.
To summarise the history of the Mālavas up to the period relevant to our problem, they occupied the north-eastern parts of present-day Rajasthan sometime before the first century CE. Here they came under the sway of the Śaka kṣatrapas, but regained independence and began to strike their own coins about 225 CE, from which time they remained autonomous till the reign of Samudragupta. Sometime around the mid 4th century they submitted to Gupta supremacy, as attested by the (posthumous) Allahabad inscription of Samudragupta. However, this praśasti (line 22) only claims that the Mālavas, along with the Yaudheyas and several other, possibly non-monarchical nations, paid Samudragupta tribute and obeisance, i.e. there is a strong probability that their territories did not come under direct control of the Guptas. In the middle of the 5th century they may have been conquered by the Hūṇas, and were then repeatedly claimed by the Vākāṭakas and by the Guptas again.Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)
Mālava (मालव) is the name of a country included in an international list of students participating in universities of ancient India, as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—Page 150.17 f. & 151.1-5: There is described an educational institution which included students from [e.g., Mālava] [...]. The courses of study comprised Vyākaraṇa, Buddhism, Sāṃkhya, Nyāya, Anekānta or Jaina and Lokāyata or Cārvāka philosophies. At another place (151.6-11) the prince came across persons who cultivated the seventy-two arts and sixty-four sciences, [...].
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
mālava (मालव).—m A Rag or musical mode; also called māravā.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Name of a country, the modern Mālvā in central India.
2) Name of a Rāga or musical mode.
-vāḥ (pl.) The people of Mālvā.
Derivable forms: mālavaḥ (मालवः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-vaḥ) 1. The province of Malwa. 2. Name of a musical mode. m. plu.
(-vāḥ) The people of that province; also with ñya pleonasm mālavya, fem. mālavī .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mālava (मालव).—m. The province of Malva, [Hitopadeśa] 113, 19.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mālava (मालव).—1. [masculine] [Name] of a country (Malwa), [plural] its inhabitants.
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Mālava (मालव).—2. [feminine] ī relating to the Mālavas, a prince or princess of the [Middle]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mālava (मालव):—m. Name of a country (Malwa in central India; [plural] its inhabitants), [Atharva-veda.Pariś.; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
2) m. (with or [scilicet] nṛpati) a prince of the Mālavas, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Varāha-mihira]
3) a horse-keeper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
4) (in music) a [particular] Rāga, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]
5) a white-flowering Lodhra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]
7) Mālavā (मालवा):—[from mālava] f. Name of a river, [Mahābhārata]
8) Mālava (मालव):—n. (with pura) Name of a city, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
9) mf(ī)n. relating or belonging to the M°, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature etc.]
10) Name of an era identical with the Vikrama era (see vikramāditya), [Inscriptions]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mālava (मालव):—(vaḥ) 1. m. A province, Malwa.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Mālava (मालव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Mālava.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Mālava (मालव) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Mālava.
2) Mālava (मालव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Mālava.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Malava (ಮಲವ):—[noun] = ಮಲೆಪ [malepa].
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Maḷava (ಮಳವ):—[noun] = ಮಳವೆ [malave].
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1) [noun] name of a country.
2) [noun] (mus.) a musical mode.
3) [noun] one of the four classes of men, as classified as per the science of erotics.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+39): Malava kuvalaya, Malava-gana-amnata, Malava-gana-sthiti, Malava-purva, Malavabhadra, Malavaccha, Malavada, Malavadakhanda, Malavadesha, Malavadhisha, Malavadvasas, Malavagauda, Malavagaula, Malavagupta, Malavaguptacarya, Malavaha, Malavahin, Malavairi, Malavaishamya, Malavaka.
Full-text (+203): Anantanemi, Malaviya, Malavi, Malavya, Malavaka, Malavadesha, Kshaudrakamalava, Putradatri, Manasara, Malavanaka, Malavagauda, Malavavishaya, Malavagupta, Malavanripati, Bastagandhakriti, Gaudamalava, Malavendra, Malavadhisha, Puramdarapuri, Naravarman.
Search found 48 books and stories containing Malava, Mālava, Mālavā, Maḷava, Māḷava; (plurals include: Malavas, Mālavas, Mālavās, Maḷavas, Māḷavas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CLX < [Ghatotkacha-badha Parva]
Section LXXXVIII < [Bhagavat-Gita Parva]
Section XXXI < [Digvijaya Parva]
Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 24 - The dark forest of Taraka < [Book 1 - Bala-kanda]
Chapter 36 - Sita questions Hanuman < [Book 5 - Sundara-kanda]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 30: Mlecchas < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
Part 12: Marīci’s future births < [Chapter VI]
Part 8: Nami’s omniscience < [Chapter XI - Śrī Namināthacaritra]
Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang) (by Samuel Beal)
Chapter 9 - Country of ’O-nan-t’o-pu-lo (Anandapura) < [Book XI - Twenty-three Countries]
Chapter 7 - Country of K’ie-ch’a (Kachha) < [Book XI - Twenty-three Countries]