Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expiation (Pācittiya) 70

Bu-Pc.70.1.1 BD.3.31 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time a pernicious view had arisen to the novice[1] Kaṇḍaka,[2] like this: “In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the lord, it is that in following those things called stumbling-blocks by the lord, there is no stumbling-block at all.”[3]

Several monks heard: “A pernicious view has arisen to the novice Kaṇḍaka …” See Bu-Pc.68.1. Instead of the monk Ariṭṭha, who was formerly a vulture-trainer, read the novice Kaṇḍaka; instead of Ariṭṭha, Kaṇḍaka; in his reply to the monks read honoured sir instead of your reverence.

“… It is not, foolish man, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … and it causes wavering in some.”

Having rebuked him, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

“Because of this, monks, let the Order expel[4] the novice Kaṇḍaka. And thus, monks, should he be expelled: ‘From today forth, reverend Kaṇḍaka, Vin.4.139 the lord can neither be referred to as your teacher, nor can that be yours of which other novices have the chance,[5] namely the lying down to sleep for two or BD.3.32 three nights with monks.[6] Get away[7] with you,[8] depart.’”[9]

Then the Order expelled the novice Kaṇḍaka. Now at that time the group of six monks knowingly encouraged[10] and supported[11] and ate with and lay down in a sleeping-place with the novice Kaṇḍaka, thus expelled. Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can the group of six monks knowingly encourage and support and eat with and lie down in a sleeping-place with the novice Kaṇḍaka, thus expelled?” …

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, knowingly encourage and support and eat with and lie down in a sleeping-place with the novice Kaṇḍaka, thus expelled?”

“It is true, lord.”

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How can you, foolish men, knowingly encourage … thus expelled? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

If even a novice should speak thus[12]: ‘In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the lord, it is that in following those things called stumbling-blocks by the BD.3.33 lord, there is no stumbling-block at all,” that novice should be spoken to thus by the monks: ‘Do not speak thus, reverend novice; do not misrepresent the lord, misrepresentation of the lord is not at all seemly, and the lord certainly would not speak thus. Reverend novice, in many a figure are things that are stumbling-blocks called stumbling-blocks by the lord, and in following these, there is a veritable stumbling-block.’ And if that novice, when he has been spoken to thus by the monks, should persist as before, that novice should be spoken to thus by the monks: ‘From today forth, reverend novice, the lord can neither be referred to as your teacher, nor can that be yours of which other novices get the chance, namely, the lying down to sleep for two or three nights with monks. Get away with you, depart.’ Whatever monk should knowingly encourage or should support or should eat with or should lie down in a sleeping-place with a novice thus expelled, there is an offence of expiation.”


Bu-Pc.70.2.1 Novice[13] means: he is called a novice.[14]

Should speak thus means: he says: ‘In so far as I understand dhamma taught by the lord … no stumbling-block at all.’[15] Vin.4.140

That novice means: the novice who speaks thus.

By the monks means: by other monks, who see, who hear. He should be told by these: ‘Do not, reverend novice, speak thus … no stumbling-block at all.’ And a second time he should be told … And a third time he should be told … If he gives it up, that is good. If he does not give it up,[16] that monk should be spoken to thus by the monies: ‘From today forth reverend novice … depart.’

Whatever means: … monk is to be understood in this case.

He knows means: either he knows by himself, or others tell him, or (someone) tells him.[17]

BD.3.34 Thus expelled means: so expelled.

Novice[18] means: he is called a novice.[19]

Should encourage means: if he encourages[20] him, saying: ‘I will give him a bowl or a robe or a recitation or an interrogation,’ there is an offence of expiation.

Or should support means: if he agrees[21] to chunam or clay or a tooth-cleaner or water for the face[22] for him, there is an offence of expiation.

Or should eat with means: there are two kinds of eating: eating food and eating dhamma … for every syllable there is an offence of expiation.[23]

Or should lie down in a sleeping-place with means: if a novice who is expelled is lying down and a monk lies down under one roof, there is an offence of expiation. If a monk is lying down and the novice who is expelled lies down, there is an offence of expiation. Or if both lie down, there is an offence of expiation. If, getting up, they lie down again and again, there is an offence of expiation,’[24]


Bu-Pc.70.2.2 If he thinks that he is expelled when he is expelled, and encourages or supports (him) or eats with or lies down in a sleeping-place with him, there is an offence of expiation. If he is in doubt as to whether he is expelled … an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is not expelled when he is expelled … no offence. If he thinks that he is expelled when he is not expelled, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether he is not expelled, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that he is not expelled when he is not expelled, there is no offence.


Bu-Pc.70.2.3 BD.3.35 There is no offence if he knows, “He is not expelled”; if he knows, “He has given up that view”; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.


Bu-Pc.70.3.1 The Tenth

This is its key:

Intentional slaughter, with living things (in it),
opening up, concealment of what is very bad,
Under twenty, and a caravan, an arrangement, about Ariṭṭha,
Suspended, and Kaṇḍaka: just these ten rules of training.

The seventh Division: on what contains life.[25] Vin.4.141

Footnotes and references:

1.

samaṇuddesa, explained in Old Commentary as sāmaṇera. Samaṇuddesa = one marked as a recluse; cf. DN.i.151 (Sīha); MN.ii.244 (Cunda); MN.iii.128 (Aciravata); AN.ii.78 (ārāmikasam°); AN.iii.109, AN.iii.343; Divyāvadāna 160.

2.

Another (?) Kaṇḍaka was one of Upananda’s two novices, Vin.1.79; seduced a nun, Vin.1.85. Vin-a.874 calls him and Ariṭṭha and the Vajjiputtakas of Vesālī, enemies of the Buddha’s teaching.

3.

See Bu-Pc.68.

4.

nāsetu. Cf. above, BD.3.28, n.4.

5.

labhanti.

6.

See Bu-Pc.5.

7.

carā ti gaccha, Vin-a.871.

8.

pire. Vinaya Texts i.49, n.3, says: “In text read cara pi re, that is cara api re, instead of cara pare.” Pali-English Dictionary says that pi and re both act “as parts of exclamation. The Commentary explains by ‘pire (vocative?) = para amāmaka’ is an artificial construction.” Critical Pali Dictionary, quoting this passage, calls pi re an “expression of contempt; cf. je.”

9.

vinassā ti nassa, Vin-a.871, which adds “go away where we do not see you.”

10.

upalāpeti, to cajole, flatter.

11.

upaṭṭhāpeti. Vinaya Texts i. 49, n.5 says that “no doubt upaṭṭhāpeti is used in the sense of showing such personal attentions to another, as the upaṭṭhākā did to the Buddha; and such services would very, rightly come under this rule.” Cf. upaṭṭhāpetabbā and upaṭṭhāpeyya at Vin.1.79; not necessary to take it here in sense of ordaining as at Vinaya Texts i.205. It has rather sense of supporting, waiting on, ministering to. See Old Commentary, below.

13.

samaṇuddesa.

14.

sāmaṇera.

15.

Cf. above, BD.3.24.

16.

Cf. above, BD.3.25.

17.

Cf. above, BD.3.5.

18.

samaṇuddesa.

19.

sāmaṇera.

20.

Vinaya Texts i.49, n.4: “flatters him (talks him-over, tassa upalāpeti) …” I do not think, however, that tassa goes with upalāpeti, but with dassāmi: tassa pattaṃ vā cīvaraṃ vā … dassāmī ti upalāpeti; in 2,2 upalāpeti is not preceded by tassa.

21.

sādiyati. Vinaya Texts i. 49, p.5: “by providing him with chunam …”

22.

On these articles see Vin.1.46 (= Vin.2.223), Vin.2.51, Vin.2.52, Vin.2.61; and on tooth-cleaners, dantakaṭṭha, Vin.2.137.

23.

= above, BD.3.29.

24.

Cf. above, BD.3.29, and BD.2.196, BD.2.202.

25.

Vinaya Texts i.49, n.6 points out that “this title is taken from the second, not, as in all other cases, from the first rule in the section.” But in the ninth Division, the Ratanavagga, again the second rule gives its title to the Division.

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