Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This is the English translation of the Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Charita (literally “The lives of the sixty-three illustrious People”), a Sanskrit epic poem written by Hemachandra in the twelfth century. The work relates the history and legends of important figures in the Jain faith. These 63 persons include: the twenty four tirthankaras , the t...

Tattva 1: Jīva (soul)

A. Asaṃsārin. Only siddhas.

  1. Jina. Former Tīrthaṅkaras.
  2. Ajina. Former Kevalins.
  3. Tīrtha. Members of a congregation.
  4. Atīrtha. Those who attained mokṣa when there was no congregation.
  5. Gṛhaliṅga. Former householders.
  6. Svaliṅga. Those who used the usual equipment.
  7. Anyaliṅga. Those who used other than the orthodox equipment.
  8. Strīiṅga. Women.
  9. Naraliṅga. Men.
  10. Napuṃsaka. Neuters.
  11. Pratyekabuddha. Those who were influenced by one thing.
  12. Svayambuddha. Self-enlightened.
  13. Buddhabodhita. Enlightened by ācāryas, etc.
  14. Eka. The only ones to become siddhas in one samaya.
  15. Aneka. When several become siddhas in one samaya.

See: Pravacanasāroddhāra 471-74, pp. 112 ff.

Lokaprakāśa, 2. 74 ff.

B. Saṃsārin.


  1. Sthāvara.
  2. Trasa.


  1. Puṃveda.
  2. Strīveda.
  3. Napuṃsaka.


  1. Nārakagati.
  2. Tiryaggati.
  3. Manuṣya gati.
  4. Devagaṭi.


  1. Ekendriya.
  2. Dvīndriya.
  3. Trīndriya.
  4. Caturindriya.
  5. Pañcendriya.


  1. Pṛthvīkāya.
  2. Apkāya.
  3. Tejaskāya.
  4. Vāyukāya.
  5. Vanaspatikāya.
  6. Trasakāya.


  1. Ekendriya.
    1. Sūkṣma.
    2. Bādara.
  2. Dvīndriya.
  3. Trīndriya.
  4. Caturindriya.
  5. Pañcendriya.
    1.  Sañjñin.
    2. Asañjñin. 

Fourteenfold: These 7 classes divided into

  1. Paryāpta.
  2. Aparyāpta.

These constitute all the essential divisions of Jīva, and 14 is the inclusive number universally recognized. By different combinations of these groups, it is possible to carry on the classification indefinitely, as some authors do. Some also carry the process of subdividing to a fantastic extent, making the total as much as 563 divisions of Jīva. See n. 29 for subdivisions of Ekendriya. I append further subdivisions of Pañcendriyas.

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